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Sao a 1 60^^ fO 






;■ ,* 












All Rights Reserved. 





Ov^jxAi/ L /o ::3i>A V ^^ ^ *' '  

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all/ 


Tln.„i' . rr —/I'bookforPalesHneflndSyTia, 

whioh „„ ^^* "^jec* of the B»^„ ^ time and coirespondB with 
the thiri'r/''P^^« f(»- tJ^^ ^?^ assiBt the traveller fn planninR 
blfl tou" ''«fma edition, is t^-^o to the best advantage, and 
"•us to Pn.M imposing- of his ""r-ugtly to enjoy and appreciate 
the obf„?^'«'ii'athemoretboro«e.^^J At the name time the 

B«ndb„nt °^ interest he no®®* l-s f»r sb ie poaaible within the 
"""'ts of„ J:"^««™iir8 to Ki-*'*''«heOBive and accurate account 
Of ttepre'fSi'Je-book. a compre" tio„ of Palestine. 

Tbe^!"* state of the o'^HI^h X>r. Albert Soein, PTofrntot 
"f Oriet  - ' "*■ *'■" "andboofc »^ j,o has repeatedly travelled 
""■" - jt Jj®*P Ti'lifl second edition has been 

^1^/"-;Of -r^.V" »<ivice »n^ ecentlyeiplored the greater 
K'^Oftlie^l-*^* ,"ivfr the purpose of procuring the 

d'^^'Pomi^?"*" n(Tibecl *^^ »,«,8 partially remodelled the 

^'Wbooity® i ttion, »"** te its practical uBefulnesB. 

0.3" tK'*» avie"i^toprO»»^4e heen taken to ensure ac- 
CQrs^ 'h» - ,J.'«^*"/iie b»:^ of the constant fluctuation 
t'^^ r t well »^**he Haidt'ook '^re liable. He 

""ft  A ^ata, i**- «-c- correotionaorBTiegeBtiouB 

;'»« /yPPfJ f»-ron' £>rn;atim .Iridy rocehed 

Thej.^ 'Ha.-^^P" „ oro v«**.in an object of the Edttor-e 

*''fbetk!;>a K "'^^'f-i^ t>y ^V III sought from the 

;?«'«>,»?''<»»• '■'■''"i, or 5Sl hlyeoSTeresetwith 

"•HSJ'-Ho^MiiantS.ller " ! n.h«YO been drawn 

!>»3(SV lS'li»":??ei>»^Sri<"-- »' Berlin, the well- 
'P«oil,lS^lj{j>»mBOf ioUXaSjodbook. At the end of tie 
b'l*!*','^ «5?'."''"^£St I35?„,tlne the ground oo™,«d 


The Panorama of Jerusalem, based on the most recent 
)hotographic views, is probably the most complete and ac- 
mrate yet published. 

Heights (above the sea-level) are given in English feet, from 
the most recent and trustworthy English and other sources. 

The Prices and various items of expenditure mentioned 
in the Handbook are stated in accordance with the Author's 
own experience, or from the bills furnished to him by travellers. 
It must, however, be observed that they are liable to very 
^reat fluctuations, being influenced by the state of trade, the 
increased or diminished influx of foreigners, the traveller's own 
demeanour, and a number of otiier circumstances. It may 
therefore happen in some cases that the traveller's expenditure 
will be below the rate indicated in the Handbook; but for so 
long a journey, on which so many unexpected contingencies 
may arise,an ample pecuniary margin should always be allowed. 

To hotei-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor begs 
to intimate that a character for fair dealing and courtesy to- 
wards travellers forms the sole passport to his commendation, 
and that advertisements of every kind are strictly excluded 
from his Handbooks. 





B, northern. 

Mt. = mountain. 

PI. = plan. 

R. s route. 

pens. = pension (board and lodging). 

fr. = franc. 

mej. = mejtdL 

pi. c= piastre. 

pa. = para. 

re used as i 

marks of commendation. 



I. Pieliminaiy Information ix 

A. Season. Companioiui. Boates ix 

B. Steamboats xvi 

G. Mode of Trayelling xix 

D. Bqtitpittent. HeaUh xxv 

E. Travelling Expenses. Letters of Credit. Money. 

Weights and Measures xxvii 

F. Passports and Custom House xxx 

G. Consulates xxxi 

H. Post Office and Telegraph xxxi 

I. Beggars. Bakhshish xxxii 

K. Puhlic Safety. Weapons. Escorts xxxiii 

L. Hotels. Monasteries. Hospitality. Khans . . . xxxiv 

M. Oaf^s xxxT 

N. Baths xxxvi 

O. Bazaars xxxvii 

P. Tohacco xxxlx 

Q. Mosques xxxlx 

R Dwellings xll 

S. Intercourse with Orientals xh 

II. Geographical Notice xUH 

Geography xlili 

Climate xlvi 

Geology xMii 

Flora xHx 

Fauna Hi 

HI. Population, Diyisions, and Names of Syria at different 

periods Iv 

IV. History of Palestine and Syria Mii 

Chronological Table Ixxi 

y. Present Population and Statistics of Syria. Religions Ixxix 

VI. Doctrines of El-IsUm Ixxxv 

Customs of the Mohammedans xcvii 

VII. The Arabic Language xcix 

Arabic Vocabulary ciii 

Vm. History of Art in Syria cxii 

IX. Works descriptive of Jerusalem and Palestine ... ^^^ 



Route I. Jebusalbh and its Enyibons. Page 

1. Steamer Boutes between Europe and Palestine .... 1 

2. Yafa 6 

3. From Yafa to Jerusalem 10 

4. Jerusalem 19 

5. Environs of Jerusalem 87 


6. From Jerusalem to the Monastery of the Cross, 'Ain K&rim, 

and St. Philip's Well 112 

7. From Jerusalem to Neby Samwil andEl-Kub6beh(Emmaus) 116 

8. From Jerusalem to 'Anata, 'Ain Fara, Jeba', and Mikhmash 117 

9. From Jerusalem to Bethlehem •. 119 

10. From Jerusalem to the Pools of Solomon, Khatei^ilin, and 

the Frank Mountain 130 

1 1 . From Jerusalem to Hebron (and the S. end of the Dead Sea) 135 

12. Petra ... 145 

13. From Hebron to Bet Jibrin and Gaza 151 

14. From Gaza to Jerusalem by Ascalon 157 

15. From Jerusalem to Jericho, the Ford of Jordan, the Dead 
Sea, and back to Jerusalem by Mar S^ba 161 

16. From Jericho to Es-Salt and Jer^sh 176 

17. From Jerash to 'Amman, 'Arak el-Emir, Hesban, Medeba, 
andEl-Kerak ',....*. 185 

18. TheHauran 193 

III. Samabia, Galilee, Phcenicia. 

19. From Jerusalem to Nabulus 212 

20. From Nabulus to Jentn and Haifa 223 

21. Haifa (Mount Carmel and Acre) 228 

22. From Haifa to 'Athlit and Caesarea (Yafa) 235 

23. From Haifa (Acre) to Nazareth 239 

24. From Jenin to Nazareth 242 

25. Nazareth 244 

26. From Nazareth to Tiberias 248 

27. From Tiberias to Tell Hiim and Safed 256 

28. From Safed to Damascus 262 

29. From Acre (Haifa) to Beirut by Tyre and Sidon .... 269 

IV. The Lebanon. Cbntbal Sybia. 

30. Beiriit 283 

31. From Sidon to Hasbeya and Rasheya (Beirilt, Damascus). 
Mount Hermon 296 

32. From Beiriit to Damascus (by road) 303 

33. Damascus 308 

'^4. From Damascus to Ba'albek S35 

35. ftom Ba'ii,,^,,^ to Tripoli and Beirftt by the Cediis of ^ 

J, UbTODH , '. 

■"■•"■•Bto^^^ „»,» ' 


£■•»• Tripoli to Liai*!/*' ""■•«»*«    

" ft>iiiB,irt,ttol.>[.i>a"i>»'»"'™'"''""'    : 
5™»iama«anioAi.ppo . . . ^ 

"■ Aleppf, 

«■ »«« iiip^o io i,k.nd«rtii ly iotlool .  



<" 8*iuSma Tetw*"'° J'ooST CAio"^, betwe™ pp. 330, 231. 


^_»Oi"Bira*t, p. Kb. 




Uazabkth CEn-^M^^^^^ P- '^*** 




. 32. 














Uazabkth CEH-:Ni?iBA3, p. -t**- tSaZA******' 

Church of thk ANUtiNCiATiOM AT »** 

Saida CSidon), p. 278. 

&BIS1>T, p. 2^. 

Damascus, p. 306. 

AcBOPoi.18 of Ba'ai.bee, p. 341. 

GbDARS of LbBANON, p. 349. „rUk 



KAr,'AT Siji'iir, p. 409. 
Ax^ta™ CA.r£ocH>, p. 443 




^ OJi^^'' 








of ^''' 



"""^ --^:;^ 




I. Preliminary Information. 

A. 8«mi08i. Oompaaloat. Boutei. 

A journey to Palestine and Syria oannot be looked upon as an 
ordinary pleaame-trip. Tlie natnxal beauties of the conntry are com- 
paratiTely few. The Eastern type with its play of brilliant colours 
is mncb more strongly marked in Bgypt. Nor can mush artistic 
pleasure be expected; for to the W. of the Jordan only a few well- 
preserved aneient buildings are to be seen , and excursions to the 
magnifloent but more distant rains of Petra (R. 12), Jerash (R. 16), 
and Palmyra (R. 36) demand not only a good deal of time and 
money bat also some familiarity with the East. Th ^ only nhjAAt. Af j 
trayeUer to Palestine can be to call np the historical associationa of 
the conntry, and in proportion as the traToUer keeps this aim clear- 
ly in view and prepares himself for it, he will be able to OTercome 
the InoonTenienees of the trip, the fatigne, the bad accommodation, 
and the monotony of tent life, and be preserved from disenchantment. 

The traveller in the East mnst be content with framing a very 
general plan for his tonr. In Syria, the horse affords the only mode 
of conveyance, except for certain Jonmeys through the desert, when 
the camel is chiefly nsed (comp. R. 36). The snocess of a tonr 
is, therefore, mainly dependent on the health and energy of the 
traveller, on the weather, and on a host of incidental cironmstances 
which do not occur in Europe. For this very reason the traveller 
should make careful preliminary enquiries regarding the places he 
ought to see, and how they are to be reached ; and to assist him in 
this respect is one of the primary objects of the present Handbook. 

Season. — Spring, from the beginning of March to the middle of 
June, and autumn, from the end of September to the end of October, 
are the best seasons for visiting Syria. The greatest influx of trav- 
ellers, most of whom come from Egypt, takes place in spring at 
Easter. At that season Jerusalem is crowded with tourists and pil- 
grims. Then, too, the scenery is in perfection, the vegetation fresh 
and vigorous, while in autumn the landscape is bare and devoid of 
life, and the days are shorter. Autumn, on the other hand, is less 
expensive , as the country jg fax less overrun with travellers than 
in spring. If this time be chosen, the tour should be begun from 
the North, where the moimtainfl afford a refuge from occasional hot 
days, while the traveller j^ spring should reserve Lebanon for the 
end of his joumeyings. ^ ^g^t to Southern Palestine should not 
be begun before the mi<i^jQ ^^ ^nd of March, as rainy days in that 
mouth are still frequent .qc[ gravelling hardly becomes enjoyable 

s. .Q^s districts, excursions are p^ 

till Aptil. ^«^^^^, ot June. ^ .|one in the East, at least i^ ^^.^ 
Comija^ouB. *Ttre items of expenditure ^^^^^ for a^ 

utred are precisely ^^^i^iy considet^^ ^^'^ *^ 

for Tuera^ex 
"be iu© 


^-r^fijDhft^it.ftT\ti^ any ^QSM^^-^^^yy country ^^',^.^g to l^i^ ® >,« 
^gftTa^eUex ^io is ^%X oppoxtuuity for **^^^speeaUyJ>^^ 

o^*>rv iuu, in tovn or Tillage, ^^^*. "J^Zip^Aiy oliat, ^\y,^i^r%.S^^^' 

ff S^fonAation or for engaging ^^.^ff^^^ 

laxiedin tHe East, However «»r^^?>f/^u^ ' ^"^^""^-^^ 




*;'rrr^^l,onL lift fiOTnea iii (\(v5tagk. "^" .apg. lie ^ . +^roo\xrse 
^^g^ng and often ^^^^^^^^^^^e^ ^^ "S^s ---^\^^ 
in need of the refreshment and variety «;^° ut ^^^^\\er& ^^JT^ 
friends. Those who start for their tour J^^ ^^^ei *T.%>tit oatitx^^ 
spring have no difficulty in meeting ^^^ ^^ fo*^® country ^^®^® 


same position, and parties may thus e^^^'/^gsaty ^^ \^d. ^^®^% tl^e 
ill the selection of companions is very neo^ ^^^ted, * ^ties o% y.^, 
arrangements once conclxided are not ef^^J ^e *^^, settled ^^^%j,^ 
tual confidence, congeniality and forhe*^*^^ ^o ^® 7^^ed. ^^ ^^^^ 
utmost irtance-V VO^^ ^. g'^oSled, a^^^ 

ver«il^' '^^^'^ ^''^ ^^^""^ ^^y^ Of rest are ^^, ^e ^ sen 



OircuT ^^^'y 8P""8 ana autumn M ^'' „d, ^"Jl^e***? nat 
* nro classes. Derso»^«.n_ V_j,,Ated a*^ ^,.a ti**,_ T»lue> _ 



Coo^« ^i*««««' perso,iaUy conducted a ^^^ ^V ^^e f*^*^' ^^a 

'"Pe««.« cannection ^x^y^ ^^^ ^^^,3 to ^^J tl^a^^di^g ^teBsils, 
«^Qde fl. i"^^*^ ^y * ^o^^^ctor ant)0inted ^^^out, VeU* ^raccoiamo- 


Ws,V* ^^^*' J^^''^^'^^^^* Jericho, ^*^et«^ »^ii*?^^^^^^ 
** hZ^^ *^^ Mosqn^ Of Omar at Je^'^^^l T^^ ^* ^^ 


S^crutr^'^"' T^ "^'^^^ ^--« to ^t;ndants^f; , *- ,,ciu 
^pll*^^. wines or otl^or liquors, ^*S ^\^V^ 

^_5^^ otlior liquors, 
tlie oixd of the trip 


o^'JwiigjKijr loss of Zar«e luggage. _, ^o^s- 
of ciuB personally condijo*** 






^^^^".^^la^o days' *o«r f^om c«„ei ^. e^J^co 

«mito%~'Wit^- of course , de*«™Jile for iimsetf »» 

^*6^ ^vieflei must, ^ parties. ^« «»eat .dTMitai^ *^®tiier 
^a-^oi he Trill loin one of *^®rf J^oge -who wjgk tn ItI ^®* Wft 

trip as comforUWy as POS«***'®/Sme , entail «,«„!??*« PUpT 
iz. the E«t in a short space of ttme , ™^' «« "o* Inconaj^ Waces 

di^d^autage that a -ember ^f s^^ ^P^^ ^^ « UedJ^ s^ -^U 
he cannot choose for ^'^"aetermlne his own ronte. A?* to be 
m«.ter of lis own t^« «' %tr f »nd ««« ''<'"« » part?? '^Uwds 
the expense a single tt'Tf^^'^int a« with Cook. ^ ^J «an get 
along very wdl foi the same »»««" j^e undertaken at miv 

<^»«»J™»HKnBKTTOin^ m y^^^^^j independe,ft,^e by 
mdiTiduals 01 parties desirous ox^^^^^^ These »«;*'>• The 
fare yarles aeeotdlng to the niu»»er ^^^^^jy conducted tT>*** tonrs 
are m general more expenslre «"* JJ^, niay choose Us co^^W, but 
the great adyantsge is that t**® '"^ Fq, farther detail .^PMlons 
himself and determine Mb <';!'° fg of 'the Arm In questlo,! ^« must 
refer traveUets to the prospectuses oi »" on, 

various stewners (p. xvi) ''^Z* '* "fVai/-"!- — TrL*^d Beir«M 
as weU as for the int«'»«^'^„^?tuJi8e of the mos^f ll«« who 
«^ -pressed for time =»» V^*?^f P^Sine in f<mr toV?^resting 
points in the South and North of Palestxn "^^^kt, which 

may be apportioned as follows : — 

I. TIpA-JBBWSAMM— BBTHtBHBM^ D*^ »* ^^*^ back to 
"^^fa), 14 days : "„ orally arrive, « 

. Itt Day. Ufa (p. 6). The f ^^^^^f ^^^^t^^U^^^^ room- 

ing, 80 that there will l>e time to look ro^*^ train, \??*^ a guide) 
and to proceed further in the afternoon DY *' ^mch takes 3 

^^ ^\S8. to arrive at Jerusalem (p. 10> railway, ^>^ 

TraveUew who prefer to dispense witt» *'**' **^ch is not yet 

PI^AN OF Toun^ 

^ood working order, may m»Ice ^^^J^'^^I^^^S, to 8»roii» (p. 8) and 
^ early the next morning by c^T^'^^i^ CP- 12). The route is mncH 
interesting tlian by train \ tfae jomroey lasts 6 or 9 hrs. (pronsionfl 

«->-«3ux-«ju Jt>e taken). j  ^i 

tixxa. Day. Jtxu^aUm, (Is* Afity » walK ,* those who are new to 

i^xx-tal towns had better take a g:xi.i<i©3- i-eave ca^d at the ConsuVs 

^ Teq.riefit his aid for visiting t,lx& JSarSm, (p. 36) and the mon- 

' *xry of Jtfar 5a6a (p. 174). "Wallc tlixough the town and in the 

Wing to the Mt. of Olives fp. 903- 

rl?ravellerfl cannot be too strongly urged to stroll about the streets of 
AAlem^ and Damascus as mueii as podsfble, not so much in order to 

''^l^^ Xo find their way aboa.t as to e^aizK tbe full ejQect of Baatem life. 

3rd I>»y- Jeru$alem (2nd day , Tv-allc , unless it is a Friday, in 
443.I1 case exchange with the 4tli dayj- Temple place and mosques 
-^m esh-Sherif, PI. G, 3, 4 ; p. 30J . ^V^allc round the walls (p. 66). 
i» 'W'ailing Place (p. 67 ; pay a second ^Isit on a Friday). MUrUtdn 
I>, 4; p. 74); in the evening the Ootton Grotto (p. 106). 
"^tli Day- J«r«««'«'" C3rd day, walk). Early in the morning to 
:m^t. of Olives CN. summit) ; Via I>olorofira fp. 78). Afternoon; 
^^li of tJ»e Sepulchre QKentatH ^l-XTit/ameh,' PI. 15, p. 60), Pa- 
2.1, 's Fond iBirket^ammamel-JBcttTak; JPL D, 4, p. 81), Castle 
^^li^th and the Citadel (p. 81). ^ ^' 

^^H Jy^y- Jeri*»alem C4th day). Walk, if not too hot, or else ride 
^%re to BethUhem {]^. 119) and to Salomon' a :PooU {JElr-Bwak, 

:^^^^^2' ^"""^'Si^'^ltr^ i3Q^''''tT^t *"^*'^ *. ^'"^^ -l^ya' trip (ride or drive) 

^^^ ^^''5?5K^'?Vti''o?^i?tS*raVf* '*' ^"""' to Ue Bethlehem' 
^^^ d3.»y -^ 4l»e starting-point for touirs ±n *\>^ a ^ - 

^^y"^^^" ^P- *«> *»" «- 0.- B-a^,.*^ ?i:«TpV ?eS„^t«tl 

^* >^J^«^" ^j H, 3, p. 89). vTuev o«> T ^' ^^1 ®^ » Qethsomane 
■^^^r*^-^-* V^JT^vatA/PLH 4 p 9«^ of JehosUaphat and Tombs 

^£i^^o\f*o *!>« Sultan's Pool CP- lOSl^^^'^o**^ <;^^''''oS;- 
, «. ^*-'^^^r**'<d^*^ (6th day, -iiitl ''^ "^* Suburb (p. 83). 
^':r>^>^- ^.^xT^lon Suburb r^ SlJv: _?«"»»« Colony\f the 

\t^a0^^^^ r.^'Ttssalem (7th day, walJcl ^*?_^*S^m (jp. 113). 

&^^^^'^:^±T^SS C^«&^»-«-^a^W, p iS^?*- Stephen (p. 107), 
o/^ ^:t»^ ^ rJ^^^^ ^^Kudau p. iba-l «: :i' ***«nioon: Tombs 
rvM.^^'^^ob' excursion to iVe5y 

(i^' ^^:^ X>^y- ^^^'^''^'^ — Jordan, X>^r^ ^ 

:^^*^— :in **i® ^reverse direction Tij -l^^i^ *** — -^Ofwwt'eri/ 

,x» arriving in Jerusalem . VKl "t" -'■-'- 

>x» a-rx-iVA^e '"Jerusalem, th« ♦" -'" 

io liave Iiorses and escort rea^^^"^^^^®' fihoald arrange 

%£il>'^ ^^^ *'*P '"^y »erve Ts^i * Jji*?*'* P^^^e-* should 

*®** ^^'^ a later Journey 

I .^^ Hah of toxjr- «iu 

""V o/Ii ' % !! Sultan'. ^""^ ji„„. .f u,.' L..t 1„ ,£ 

*»• SraT?,!"* 11,7 ^'-'o ■"•^'"^^A "• """' "» " ''■""J 
. "■•>. .M '•»■ fi. •• (3 i"0 *""* 

??"■" fc.„t' °'" In, "•■ybe ia^ofSj^cluM Ct- 20). Oth.i 
Ji™ 0.1,.*' »"»,'' '•M^'bSpi**' ^^oo»(M«), th.M,. 

ss;''».i,'''",?*,«.t^''"""°'' ,»u. iib,c«««., th, 

r* , B>- -*- 

S^ "^SoOS ' ^ i-B.a*- ,,. »iid requeal ft psBB- 

' 8|*Jt **»*JS ■^'•^RT ^W*^^ '""•^ ""' 

,*• 'J« c'p-'Sf-'-"' . Art,.. «,.».-, 

ltd  n-rt*"**^^ ***** ,<\ s,l tlie CohboV* 

W. lor the "l-lB:?- -.t'* ^o"*® -bbM 1= -"oat W 


Uth Day. BdrUt and neighboarhood (p. 283). 

In these 3 to 4 weeks , with which most trayelleis are content, 
a number of the most interesting spots in Palestine and Syria may 
be seen without any particular exertion. 


14 days. 

As to modes of travelling, contracts with dragomans, selection of 
horses, etc., see p. xix. If ladies are of the party, tents will be found 

a. JEBtrSALBM — Nabulus — Nazabeth — TiBEBiAs — Haifa 

— Cabmbl (the shorter tour), 7 days at least. 

1st Day. fcJtart about midday. Sleep, if without tents, in RdmaUah 
(3^4 hrs., in a Quaker house); if with tents, inBitin (4hrs. ; p. 213). 

2nd Day. From Bdmallah (or BHtn) to (7 hrs.) Ndbfdua (p. 216). 
Sleep in the Latin Monastery, for which a letter of introduction from 
Jerusalem is required. If arriying early, ascend Mt, Oeriiim. 

3rd Day. From Ndbulua by Sebasttyeh to (7 hrs.) Jmtn (p. 227) ; 
tolerable accommodation in private houses). 

4th Day. FromJentn across the Plain of Jezreel to (6*/2^8.) Na- 
tareth (p. 244). 

&th Day. From Nazareth across Mt. Tabor (p. 248) to (7 hrs.) 
Tiberias. Accommodation in the H6tel Tiberias or in the Latin or 
Greek Monastery (p. 251). 

6th Day. From Tiberias hyKefr JTenna back to (6 hrs.) Nazareth. 

7th Day. From Nazareth to (6 hrs.) Haifa (carriage road). 

Travellers who miss the steamer can ride to BeiHlt (see below, B. IIIc) 
in 8 days, or ride or drive to T6/a (p. 6)l in lVt-2 days. 

Days of rest have not been taken into account in arranging these 
tonis. It is desirable to rest at least one day either in Nazareth (in 
which case the second night may be spent on Mt. Tabor), or in Ti- 
berias, in order to see the neighbourhood. Other unoccupied days 
may be very profitably spent in Haifa (visit Mt. Garmel p. 230, 
Acre p. 233, 'Athm and Tantdra p. 236). 

b. Jbrusalbm — Haifa — Nazabeth — Tibbbias — Safbd 

— Banias-Dauascus (the longer tour), 12 days at least. 
1st to 3rd Days. Jerwalem-'Jentn see above, route III a. 

4th Day (fatiguing). From Jen^n by Tell d-Ka^ to (11 hrs.) 
Haifa. If without tents, start early, so as to reach Haifa the same 
day; with tents, it is more agreeable to spend the night somewhere 
on the road. 

5th Day. Haifa. Visit the Garmel Monastery (p. 230) and, if 
circumstances permit, ilcre (2^2 lu^O* Steamer, see p. 228; road 
to Yifa, see p. 236. 

Haifa (good hotel in the German colony) is the most suitable place 
for a* day of rest. Travellers who are pressed for time may from Jenin 
go direct to Nazareth (see B. Ilia, 4th day) and thence further (see 7th 
and following days). 

6th Day. From Haifa to (6 hrs.) Nazareth (road), see above. 


7tli Day. From Nazareth to Tiberias, see route Ilia, 5th day. 
Tiberias is also a good place for a day of rest. 

8th Day. From Tiberias by Khdn Minyeh and Tell Hum (Caper- 
naum, p. 266) to (6V2 hrs.) Safed (p. 258). 

Trayellers who ride on the flame evening from Safed to (1 hr.) 
Tmteba (p. 262) can, in case of need, reach Bdnidt on the following day. 

'9th Day. From Safed to (6 hrs.) Mes (n. 263). 

10th Day. From MU by Hunin (p. 263) to the Jordan bridge 
and (6V2 hrs.) BdniOs (C»sarea Philippi, p. 264). 

11th Day. From Bdnids on foot by KaVat esSub^beh (p. 265), 
then ride to (61/2 ^tb.) Kefr Hawar (p. 268). 

12th Day. From Kefr Hawar to (6V2 hrs.) DawMWcw (p. 268). 

Damascus, comp. above tour II a and b. 

e. Jebusalbm — Haifa — Acbb — Ttbb — Sivon — Bjbibut, 
10 days (by Nazareth and Tiberias 14 days). 

From Jerusalem to Haifa, compare tour III b, Ist to 5th day (ot 
tour UI a, 1st to 7th day). Stay in Haifa, see above. 

6th Day. From Haifa at midday to (2^/2 hrs.) Acre (p. 233), 
accommodation in the monastery (little to see). 

7th Day. From Acre across the promontories of Bds en-Ndkikra 
(p. 271) and Rds el^Abyad (p. 272) to (8 hrs.) Tyre (p. 272) ;' ac- 
commodation in the monastery 01 at the Greek priest's (kkdri rUmi). 

8th Day. From Tyre to (7 hrs.) Saida (iSfidon, p. 278). 

9th Day. From Saida to (8 hrs.) BeiriU (p. 282)^ a fatiguing 
day's march ; start early. 

10th Day. Beirdt Compare route II a and b. 

Other tours may be arranged with the aid of this guide-book, but 
they require a certain familiarity with the country. — Trips to Petra, 
the country E. of the Jordan and Palmyra, can only be made when 
the country is free from political disturbances (comp. p. xxxili.). 

B. Steamboats. 

The present services of the different steamboat companies are 
enumerated below ; but, as alterations often take place, enquiry on 
the subject should always be made at the local offices, or on board 
of the vessels themselves. Before leaving home, the traveller should 
write to the * Administration des Services des Messageries MaritimeSj 
16 Rue Cannebikre, MarseHlee' for a *Livret des Lignts de la Midi- 
terranee et de la Mer Noire\ and also to the * Verwaltungsrai der 
Dampfschifffahrtsgesellsekafl des Oerterreich - Vngarischen Lloyd, 
Trieste* for ^Information for Passengers by the Austrian Lloyd^s Steam- 
boats' (published in English). With the aid of these time-tables 
the general outline of the tour may be sketched before starting. There 
is no direct service to the Syrian ports : travellers must go either by 
Alexandria or by Smyrna ; the former route is the shorter, and is 
recommended for the voyage out, the latter for the voyage home. 


As veg»rd« speed, food, eleaaliness and attendanee, the Bnglisb, Freneh, 
German, and Anstrian ships are much the same; sotte of fhe steamers 
are laige and fine, others only middling. At Easter, when crowds of 
Christian pilgrims converge towards Jernsalem from all parts of the world, 
and in the month of Ramadan (a festival which occurs at a different time 
every year), when the Muslims go on their pilgrimage to Mecca, the hoats 
are so overcrowded with passengers, mostly third class, that the usual 
order and cleanliness cannot always he maintained. 

The FissT Class cabins and berths are always well fumii^hed; those 
of the Seoond Class , though less showy, are tolerably comfortable, and 
are frequently patronised by gentlemen travelling alone. Ladies can only 
be recommendeid to travel first class. 

The Food, which is included in the first and second class Ikres, is 
always abundant and of good quality. Liquors are charged extra; the 
Messageries give their passengers a good table-wine without extra charge. 
Pasaengers who are prevented by sickness from partaking of the regular 
meals are supplied with lemonade and other refreshments gratis. 

The Stswabd''8 Feb, which the passenger pays at the end of the voyage, 
is from Vsf'* to 1 f r. a day; but more is expected if unusual trouble has 
been given. 

Good Baths are provided on the newer vessels for the use of passengers, 
and may be used without extra charge. The attendant expects a fee at 
the end of the voyage. 

Tickets should be taken by the traveller in person at the office of 
the company, and never through &e medium of commissionaires or other 
persons who offer their services. The tickets bear the name of the pas- 
senger and the name and hour of departure of the vessel. The prices for 
return and circular tiekets will be foand below. 

ExBABKATioN, soo pp. 3 et seo. On board the ship, the passenger^s 
ticket is taken from him by the steward or some other attendant who will 
also diow him his berth. Handbags with requisites for the night may be 
taken into the cabins ; trunks and other large luggage (which should be care- 
fully labelled with name and destination) are stowed away inthe hold. 

Complaints should be addressed to the captain. 

We now giye a tist of the most important services. With this 
list the traTeller should compile the books of information issued by 
the companies (p. xyI). 

1. Peniniular and Oxientol Go. — A. Venice — Brindin — 
AleoMmdria every fortnight in each direction. Time 6 days. Fares : 
from Venice ;^ 10 and Jif 7 ; from Brindisl ;i^ 9 and ;i^ 6. 

B. Brkhdisi — Port 8a'H or hmafUiya weekly in each direction. 
Time 4V3 days. 

G. Naples — Port Sa'ld or IsmafWya every fortnight in each 
direction. Time 4^2 days. 

2. MesfagevieB Xaritimes. — A. Mediterranean Line : Afar- 
9oUe8 " Piraeut " Smyrna -Alexandretta - Tripoli - BetrUt 'Alexandria^ 
ManeUUa (touching at otiier intermediate ports). Every fortnight 
in each direction £rom Marseilles. 

B. Asiatic Line. Every fortnight from Marseilles to Alexandria 
and Port Sa'id and back (comp. p. 4). 

C. Australian Line. Once a month from Marseilles to Port Sa'H 
and back. The East African line has a similar arrangement. 

Tickets for the entire round trip (available for four months) must be 
taken at the office, 18 Bue Gannebiere, Marseilles, at least four hours 
before the steamer leaves. — Return tickett at a discount of 10 per cent 
are available for four months, but only on the Mediterranean line. — 

Palestine and Syria. 2nd ed. b 


three persons or more enjoy a discount of 10 per cent, 
liscount of 15 per cent. The discount, however, does not 
rtion of the fare which is charged for food. 

ancs of Line A (6 and C are considerably dearer) from 

(by Alexan- 
dria . . 
by Smyrna 

direct . . . 
by Smyrna. 

Alexandria . 
Smyrna. . . 


{by Alexandria 
by Smyrna . . 

j by Alexandria. 
( by Smyrna . . 

. by Alexandria . 
I by Smyrna . . . 












Pireeus . . 
Port Sa'id 


fares include food and 









table wine. 

by Alexandria 
by Smyrna. . 


Piraeus . 

!by Pirseus-Saloniki 
by Syra 
by Alexandria . . 

Syra .... 
Tripoli { ll 

Smyrna . . 

















Austrian Lloyd. — A. Express steamers between Trieste and 
idria once a week in each direction. Time 5 days with a short 
1 Brindisu These steamers connect every fortnight with — 

The Syrian Line: from Alexandria by Port 8(ftd, Ydfa, 
I, BetrUt, Lamaka, Smyrna and other intermediate ports to 
lanHinople and back by the same route. 

J. From Fiume to Beirut every four weeks by Corfu, Alexandria, 
; Sa'Mj Ydfa and Haifa and back hy the same route. 






(in florins) 
































.f4 ' 

























Trieste .... 











x\  ^ * .* 













Brmdisi. . . 












Alexandria . . 




































Theie farea are in Anitrian floriiu (gold), and inelnde food but not 
wine. They are calculated for the shortett route and are fubject to an 
increase if an indirect route be selected. 

Betum tickets, lirst and second class, are issued at reduced fares and 
are available for periods of one to four months, aecording to the distance, 
for Toyages of 3fi0 to over 1000 nautical miles. 

Circular tickets may be had for round tours, the voyage being broken 
at various points. Tbey are available for two to four months and are 
issued at a discount of 25 per cent on the fare for the whole tour. Bat 
ihi» discount does not extend to that portion of the fare which is charged 
for food. Familif tickets for three or more persons are also issued at 
correspondingly reduced rates (exclusive of the chaise for food). 

• 4. Italian Bteamen (Florio - BubaUino). — A. Qenoa-Hfaples- 
Attxandria weekly. Time out 9^2 days, return 8 days. Fares from 
Genoa 303 fr. and 235 fir. ; from Naples 222 fr. and 164 fr. 

B. Asiatic Line : NapUs- Alexandria-Port Sa'td every fortnight. 

5. Hortli Oexmaii Lloyd, Asiatic or Australian line, every 
fortnight from Genoa to Port Sa'td: time, 6 days; fares 250 Jf. 
\jt 12. 10 s.), 180 Jt[st^)\ return every third and fourth week, see 
p. 4, 

6. Egyptian Xail Steamers, weekly from Alexandria^ by Td/b, 
BeWat, Iripoli to Mersina^ and back, toxLohuif; AUxandretta and 
Port Sa'id on the return trip. 

7. Easiian Steameri, weekly from Odessa by ConatantinopUf 
Smyrna y BeirUt and other intermediate ports to Alexandria and 

The steamers of this company are rather small and cannot be very 
highly recommended \ complaints are made of want of cleanliness. At Easter, 
in particular, they are full of Aussian pilgrims. 

8. Lastly, we may mention the Ehglish Fkeight Steambbs which run 
at irregular intervals between Alexandriay BeiriU and Mersina, The food 
is good. 

C. Mode of Travelling. 

There is only one railway in Syria : from Y4fa to Jerusalem. Two 
others are being built from Beirilt to Damascus and from Acre (and 
Haifa) to Damascus. The necessity of such a connection between 
the coast and Damascus and the country further inland becomes 
more evident every year, and the conditions are far more favourable 
to suchi an undertaking than in S. Palestine. There are a number 
of carriage roads, but most of them lead from the coast to the 
interior and none at all are available for the great tour through the 
centre of the country (p. xy), in the absence of railways, roads, and 
carriages, the traveller has therefore no alternative but to ride, in 
accordance with the custom of the country. 

HoBSBS (khH, caravan-horse gedtsh). Oriental horses are generally 
very docile, and may therefore be safely mounted by the most 
inexperienced rider. In climbing rough and precipitous paths they 
are so nimble and s^ire-footed that the traveller will soon accustom 
himself to remain in the saddle »t places where, in other countries, 
one would hardly venture even to 1©*^ * horse. The horse-owner or 



muleteer is called mukdri , a word sometimes corrupted by Euro- 
peans to -muker'. 

Oamsls (for riding delilly in Egypt ?i0gin; for hm Aens Jemel; the Ara- 
bian camel with one hump is the only one known in Syria). The patient 
'ship of the desert\ which the traveller will scarcely use except for a long 
journey through the desert, is a sullen looking animal; and although he 
copimands our respect, and even admiration, he rarely gains our affection. 
The difference between camels bred and trained for riding and camels of 
burden is quite as great as that between saddle and cart horses. Biding 
on the former is far from unpleasant. 

In luring a horse or camel, it is of great importance to secure a 
well-trained animal of easy gait ; and, having done so, the traveller 
should carefully note its colour, size, and other peculiarities, as it is 
a very common trick of the owner, after the completion of the con- 
tract , to substitute an inferior animal for the one selected. In the 
case of horses, mules, and donkeys the traveller should also satisfy 
himself that they are free from the sores from which they too often 
suffer. As to saddles etc., see p. xxi. Before starting, it is usual to 
give the owner a ghahiin , or earnest-money , which falls to be de- 
ducted from the final reckoning. If this be done and the route sti- 
oulated for at the time of hiring, the traveller is not responsible for 
ny injury that may occur to the animals. 

The style of travelling varies according to the trayeller's means 

id his love of comfort. He may travel : 

I. With Dragoman and Tents. Travellers who are unacquainted 

th the language and customs of the country will find a dragoman 

rabic terjumdn^ generally very reliable people as far as their con- 

^t binds them) indispensable. 

Dragomans in Syria are contractors for the management of tours 

of caravans, and they relieve the traveller of all the difficulties 

reparation and of intercourse with the natives. The Syrian dra- 

ns usually speak English and French, a few of them German 

'talian too. In knowledge of the country, and especially of its 

oities, they are often sadly deficient. So accustomed are they, 

ver, to certain beaten tracks, that it is often a matter of great 

Ity to induce them to make the slightest deviation from the 

routes, which in all probability have been followed by the 

\8 for many centuries. For tours of any length it is advisable 

traveller to enter into a written contract with the dragoman, 

?et it signed by him and attested at the consulate. The an- 

)rm of contract is one which includes almost every possible 

Explanations are added where necessary. 

•act. The following contract , dated , has been 

ato between the travellers A. and B. and the dragoman G. 
The dragoman C. binds himself to conduct the travellers 
. . in number, from Jerusalem to BeirAt by way of Nl- 
in, Haifa, etc. The dragoman may not take other persons 
mey without the express permission of the travellers. 
te should be laid down beforehand with the utmost possible 
the dragomaixs always endeavour to take the shortest way. 

5^- Til. 

1M:0I>B of travelling. xxl 

^^**djon ^*««oro.aTi l>inds himself to defray the whole cost of 
^^%8, Wv^^^' luolnding transport, food, expense inclined through 
'^ttds ij^ ^ ^^^sli, fees, etc., so that no claims whatever shall after- 
.Jt the tlL^^ against tlie traYellers. 

v*jj8Msh af*i5^^®' 1« s»ti»fied with the muleteers, he may give them a 
"^KhahJai^ ah ®^d of the Journey. During the journey no demands for 

"Oul^ \^Q entertained for a moment. 

Of the ' • ^tagoman "binds himself to provide for the daily nse 
saddles ^^^'^ tiavellers . . - horses with good bridles and European 
ioises i ^^^^^ding . . . ladies' saddles, and . . . strong mules or 
sufflele ♦^ *^^ transport of the travellers' luggage ; also to provide 
pxovia ^^^der for the said horses and mules. In case he do not 
chase ^ ^^^^^r sufficient, the travellers shall have power to pur- 
^m xtf^^S^ to make up the deficiency, and to deduct the amount 

(a^ » .^^aX payment to he made to the dragoman. 
dependa + *'**H7 Oear On » long journey the comfort fof the traveller 
*^®« are ^ Sreat extent on the kind of saddle used. The Arabian sad- 

^or Euw^*^*"^^"^? very hieh befor® and behind, and therefore not adapted 
e^lia aSS^t^ 'Wers on a long journey. A European saddle with stout 
Piate a io«^ therefore invariably be stipulated for. Those who contem- 
°f the^ J^^TTiey of unnsual length will find it desirable to have a saddle 
f^itt ho^Y*^' ^l^ich may either be purchased at BeirAt or Yafa, or brought 
*^ld a? ♦i?®- Saddles fni- which the traveller has no farther use may be 
^«0^ coi^^ ^^^ of the ioumey. A saddle-bag (Arab, tkur/) will be found 
mat*, .'^^^'^ieiit; it ^oi SI; bought cheaply, either of European or Arab 
are nJ,/^^eir<it; Care ?hnnld be taken that the reins are of leather. Spurs 

^» mticli used K / Ui^a whip (3-5 fr.) is necessary. 
^U^T »K ^^i^S^age 'Ji^^ *.f,,S«ey into the interior of the country the trav- 
Heav^  ^^ <3J8p;Dil ^J^VL articles of luggage not absolutely necessary. 
aa to%*- . ^^sare r. ^!wi owing to the difficulty of packing them so 
teans r^^^ equallJ"*'^^**^ il «iae of the baggage-horses. Small portman- 

S A ^^' ^mS leather, ^*^ good locks, are far preferable. 

^ay b#^ ^® ^faVfiTi^ J*sli»ll not be liable for any damage which 

^<W m ''''*'*«^OnI? ^ J^e rsLll of the horses, by theft, or in any 

"«« tb^h^^^^> ^ni K their own fault. They shall be entitled to 

Session, J?!®«dafK Liiolx s,s they please, and also to make di- 

^^^-5 %h ii^^'^e «^ *^ *s o^ l>nrden follow the ordinary track. 

^^ssts ofh ^^ei^. ® be»s ^^0x to prevent the overloading of the 

'^*^ tie sn^^h ^*® ^*^*f%/ til© mukari or by the dragoman, in order 

.n.> Jo^f^?^ Of >***®' ZAe^TT i»»y "^ ^® ^^^^ly retarded. 
f^a fltead^ •^Oti».J^ the JO^*^ \.*es should be made to walk or amble at a 
^e«.«rjly aJ,P*Ce^^>g tbe ^"a^a do not trot^ galloping fatigues unne- 
T. "^ inldf ^t ^ Svria*>- ^^^^rgotten that if only a slight accident oc- 
J^^«tha!r^*l ?^b«* not "b^ iSlc. It is desirable for the traveller himself 
c/J^® ^orji/of v.^a L proc^'f'^ake the first day's journey a short one. 
mn ^°* to K *^».^^^ Se»^* *P -to loarch in single file, the rider should take 
C\ ^'*Qfi-\*0 ^^/.nfltoX3H«<* ^igUbour, as kicking horses are not uncom- 
foi '*^e«er .,^^v^ ^^ t Iii^ '^^if e-lio'ses, as the mukari would fain make 
fravLjr' ^"dii'^, "^t>^H®?ie l>*f 5 slow and tedious. In many cases, there- 
Clr^e^'^tL^*^? f?ler»t>l^ /aigr ess ions, which will often enable the 

:ti?^^ ^^,u slX^ ^^ 3,-ixd for each traveller one complete bed , 



clean mattresses, blankets, sheets, and pillows. If ladies are 
e party a special 'cabinet' tent shall be provided. The whole of 
naterials necessary for encamping, including a table and chaiTS 
5ient for the party, shall be in good condition ; otherwise, the 
Hers shall be entitled to cause them to be repaired at the ex- 
e of the dragoman. 

6. The dragoman guarantees the safety of the travellers and 
baggage. When he is unacquainted with the route, he shall 

ys engage well-informed guides. He shall also, when iiecess- 
provide watchmen and an escort, all at his own expense. 

7. The dragoman shall provide a good cook, and a sufficient 

ber of servants for the horses, in order that there may be no 

J in packing and unpacking. The servants shall be in every re- 

; obedient and obliging. 

*he attendants have a very common and annoying habit of tethering 
horses close to the tents , and of chatting half the night so loudly 
'ectnally to prevent the traveller from sleepinc:. 

8. Breakfast shall consist daily of . . . dishes with coffee (tea, 

)late, etc.); luncheon, at midday, of cold meat, fowls, eggs, 

fruit ; dinner, at the end of the day's journey, of . . . dishes, 

97ed by coffee (tea, etc.). The travellers shall be supplied with 

^es at any hour of the day they please. The dragoman is bound 

ovide for the carriage, without extra charge, of the liquors which 

ravellers may purchase for the journey. 

!'he items of the bill of fare may be stipulated for according to taste. 

er should always be postponed till the day^s journey is over, and the 

may be said of indulgence in alcoholic bevera{res in hot weather 
pting now and then a sip of good hrandy). Gold tea is very good for 
:hinp thirst. Frtth meat is rarely procurable except in the la^er 
s and villages, and then generally in the morning only. Fowls and 
are always to he hnd, but are apt to pall on the taste. The Arabian 
', a thin round kind of biscuit, is only palatable when fresh. Frank 
I, of which the dragoman generally has a good supply, soon gets very 

Preserveif are to be had at the larger towns. The traveller had better 
lis own toine and a sufficient supply should be taken. The sweet wine of 
>untry is unrefreshing and unwholesome. An abundant supply of tobacco, 
h need not be of very good quality, should be taken for the purpose 
eping the muleteers, escorts, and occasional guides in good humour. 

9. The dragoman shall be courteous and obliging towards 
travellers ; if otherwise, they shall be entitled to dismiss him 
ly time before the termination of the journey. The travellers 

have liberty to fix the hours for halting and for meals, and 
le the places for pitching the tents. They shall in every re- 
; be masters of their own movements. 

nme of the dragomans are fond of assuming a patronising manner 
■ds their employers. The sooner this impertinence is checked, the 
satisfactory will be the traveller's subsequent relations with his guide, 
le successful termination of the journey travellers are too apt from 
res of good nature to give the dragoman a more favourable testimonial 
he really deserves. This is nothing short of an >ct of injustice to 
iture employers, and tends to confirm him in his fattlt"- Thetestimo- 
herefore, should not omit to mention any serious caO*® f^' dissatiflfac- 

Information with regard to dragomans Cname Ift^g^^pes spoken, 
ict, and charges) will always be gratefully received by the Editor oi 


the Handbook. ->- The stages of the joamey depeod on the distances be- 
tween the wells and places where provender is procurable. The start 
should always be made early, in order that time may be left at the end 
of the journey for rest or a re^eshing walk before dinner. 

§ 10. The dragoman shall have eyerything in readiness for 
starting on . . . April, at . . . o'clock, from and inclnding which 
day the journey shall occnpy, or shall he reckoned as occupying, 
. . . days at least. The dragoman shall not he entitled to make any 
charge for his retnm-jonrney. Shonld the jonmey he prolonged hy 
any fanlt of the dragoman, the trayellers shall not he liable to any 
extra payment on that account. 

This article is for the protection of the dragoman, and is to prevent 
his being arbitrarily dismissed at a distance from home and without 
compensation. As a dragoman rarely has the opportunity of making 
more than two or three journeys of any length during one year, it is 
natural that he should stipulate for as high a minimum of days for the 
journey as possible. 

The chiarges of the dragomans are high, partly because the duration 
of their harvest is short, and partly because many travellers are too ready 
to give whatever is demanded. There have, moreover, been of late various 
government and other expeditions in Syria, whose members have been 
unnecessarily lavish in their expenditure, and therefore unjust to succeed- 
ing travellers. 

§ 11. The travellers shall pay the dragoman for each day during 
the -whole journey the sum of . . . francs. The amount is to he 
paid In gold. In towns or villages, such as Damascus, Haifa, etc., 
the travellers shall have the option of living at hotels, or mon- 
asteries, or in the tents, all at the cost of the dragoman. 

Or: During the stay of the travellers at Damascus, Beirut, etc., 
they shall have the option of lodging at a hotel at their own ex- 
pense, during which time the dragoman shall receive no payment 
hut the daily hire of the horses (3-4 fr. each). 

The traveller will sometimes prefer sleeping at a hotel to camping in 
his tent, and it is therefore important that he should reserve liberty 
to do BO at pleasure. When the diagoman is bound to defray the hotel- 
expenses, he obtains a considerable reduction from the landlords, and is 
himself boarded and lodged gratuitously. 

§ i% In case any dispute should arise hetween the dragoman 
and the travellers, he hereby undertakes to suhmit to the decision 
of the matter hy the nearest British consul. 

§ 13. The dragoman shall receive payment of one-half (or one- 
third) of the estimated minimum cost of the journey before starting, 
and the remaining half (or two-thirds) on the termination of the 
whole journey. He is prohihited from asking the travellers for mo- 
ney during the journey. 

Signatures. * 

A. B. C, Dragoman. 

Consular attestation and stamp. 

I, the undersigned 0, acknowledge receipt of . . . francs from 
Messrs. A and B, as the first instalment of one-half (or one-third) 
of the estimated minimum cost of the ahove journey. 

Date, C, Dragoman. 

jj_ with DrftBOK 

« ,iisP«nBB with the 

'vrw'it. It will te 

r the lodgliga for fc 

lui » — "n a hotel ^i**^ -^t^^*- ^^ — ' T* 

T. •li.t .Item te"*%»tter »l,|,?"«.,j *« »,.*"■(». '"•.;"» 

««,«„«1.M, !■»••, "idle je«;''>»,t'';"«.V?».j2"><e.' >B„J« 

"^"o^;* """«'eUershr!!l H.-1**- , a couple of 

««<lolte*C'' ''**«n'li4 d?^' ^*>» tjavellixxK. "^"^t dress-clothes 
'*'^1! «^ **'*ry. Thp f ?/^*n.e service, e*o- » ''^^ to m»ke the 

'"'"'anted T^'**'' of the dlw **i«i se-wlnS ^'^^i^ tailor J»»*^^«" 
"^m-^A '^'"'eJIers wfli ^''^Ity «f fl»din« *^***Jr adopt Oriental 
*'«C»I,V*"» Without wn«M*'-'^44^be"«cli««d *?tlL t^e Unguage 

* ^'Wri «,"' ^ommer, Tg^f * I* the 3 o«TTvey '^^y „e pxiiohased 

"^'^IbfelntteT- *l^l,*-^^**»"r^i^ ie»*»»«^ «sefuU el*«^'; 
the po,t, ^^^T*°^*^«s»l «""' 

^AraWM' shoes) 

• hat, or » Pi*^ 
e added, i- «" ,*" 

tion againBt etin- 
t") -which may «>e 
to the top of tne 
lape. This^ head- 
„Bt the sun. Jb^ 

iJtLiho Eurojtea" • 
SI -which aoes not 
(eduin mantle ol 
se toloiably ?^«"- 
coat aljo«t 30 fr. 
-ht sha-wls of fine 
alBO "be purchased. 

y be noticed here, 

I Europe. A good 

a flask , a strong 

-Ijoofes, a pocket- 

-■wire ia useful for 
eyleas -watches are 
; the journey is not 
t at home. 

-wet spots. Travellers 
hich is often eipoaed 
ite, in addition M 'ha 
re a lemedy in these 


"v^^t^^^^^t® is common in Syria, the rxor.^ and bead should be 
%£^d Cp. xxvi3. Orey spectacles may l>e used with ad vantagre 
^C>« suffer from the glare of briirht ^^^^""^ZT^TJ^^^ 
^^^^K^^^^Bsary to camp in the open «ir, *^VJrr™.^' 
yy^^^vexed, as the ^- -^/jTald ^^^^^ 
^^^'^C^^ ^y^«- ^* '*^^^ hardly he said tn ^^^ ^^ 

'^l^W^J? »void risk of sprains, l>r«^^^ 'g^* M-seelng. 1 The 
?*^«W8\^^/' botanising, geologising, ^^^^^ily protected from 
t*'^^' bOa^^^^ «l^est, which must ^^^^^Imedies, made up i„ 
*^^ope frottT V^^**^ at least the following ^^.^^^ f^^^^. quinine 
^ ^^K or ^ , prescription of a V^y^^^^^^'-r^e^sfor chronic constipa- 
*^^^- pills i""^^*^ specific. ^V^^^^^^^^ ccilorwtel is more active, 
*"^ is ben* * ?^°"' ^^ a similar medicine ;^^^^jl of caator oil is 
^^«o serviiv! ^^^ '" capsnles. (A ^^ssert^sp ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
aperient arf^ v ^ ^^ cases of diarrhoBa or ^^^.^^^ ^^ the eyes: an 
^^-^oaikf^ ^^ ^P^'^'w* in pills. For 1»"*^ ^ glass rod to drop it 
^'nto the ^i- S * medical prescription) a"^ -p^r stings of insects : 
^mmonir^i;' ^''^^^^^^^^'ffoffnuinr^'sdj^^'o^ sublimate tabUts, 
«orforormVf^''7^^^^« and bruises : «^'*f^'''' 
'^^^ (for disinfecting), and collodion- 

> party or fpj^/«a«'i?*t2'. Native ^^"^Vfr.; fee^V^-lfr.; 

^"nei wine, af i„^ ^^^nf^ed ^*^" grfan beer, \^,i^; avails himself 

^'«", al,on^'^»»* 3-4 fr-, B*'^*„1ess *!»« *!erie8 at Jerusalem for 

ft oecoiDfflodf- » ^»y ^'i *a V tbe «»«»*^*f5rmu8the added the 

''^*-l«.«« a tifrS *V**i afforded ^^ -^^i^:). ^°l„lVliA the traveller, 

^'"^i'>eo/iS«ftHat8iim CP/^^„to«t ^1^<>^^^^^^^ at a loss to 

wpedaljyiff ™f» *»Ja of e^^^^^'Je ^o'^^^^hento these itemsls 

^>}^>4, efen t*^* of tte UTigu»g^^«„«s. ^^t? allow altogether 

f «< *e bilis^j*^ -^einsalein "r I>»^ uer ^«« ie„,, and from 

»*»'"30fr art., ** C-B. xxxliO. t**® * Yftf» *" t extra; see p.xTl.-^ 

^^'"oBeirtUndVf *>* thTrontes from J of oo«Wf '^^rty travels «,«h 

'^^ «to«e"i^«-***ascu8. CSte*"^^* ^ben t^^ ^^ »„a number of 

?' P« JS!;^'! > «f course, on *^^^oVO^T\l Sorx. Jerusalem to 
':• tte aorter^P'^st^ „. Less ^^^/^^r^^ da.ys * ^^ ^^e lattex case 
*«II«4S6a ,ad^^«> such as *»^te lot»g«*' ey ^i*^ "ervants and 
fN™j.„.„;^^^ \*«:«t, than for *^tt.r»-J.<>^^/ot»'8« « °"^« f<" 
^ to W ^*«^T.T.y has a long ^^^^ lag^^* 
^'^ aooount. A- "* 
















/ ■"•• 


/ «sr 



/ //^ 


^ ^3»o 



/ • 

/ // 


■^— ^ s§< 



I -iHC**^' 

fe ?. Til 

^ — -^^ •? 

/ / / 

I M f 






a- • r • 

!?Bi %)•§ * fe«r-^ ■■» 3 • S 

. • • 2i -^ -^ 
• . . • -^^^ 



the interioi and in N. Syria. These variations ivill be noted ta 
ir place in the Handhook. «^oot 

The rate of exchange is Ua\)le to constant fluctuation, xne exao* 
e of exchange should always be ascertained from a banker a»f\ 
le money as possible exchanged in the bazaars and inns, or o^ 
igoman. It is always advisable to keep accounts and *s*^ P" 
piastres, which the traveller wiU find much n»<>^V ""^ Ire- 
in reckoning in francs or shillings. Money should always oe o» 
Lly kept under lock and key , and shown as little as P°^^"\^^l 
ier that the cupidity of attendants may not be excited, w ^en 
ling into the interior of the country the traveller s^.^^^^."''*^*^:^ 
fee plenty of small change (copper and metallicj wit^ nim, »» 
untry-people sometimes refuse to change even a mejioi lor si, 
srs, which may reduce the traveller to straits. ^ ^ . +^ _-.^ar 
As it is a favourite fashion with women in *^t !,««i^T«ns 
3cklaees formed of gold or silver coins strung together, numerous 
ieces of money perforated with holes are in common circulanon. 
uch coins, especially if the holes are large, should be ^fJ^^^^/^^^ 
le traveller, as he would often have ^^^^^^''.^^'^^^JJt^^ 
Joins which are worn smooth on one side, should also ^« '^J®^*^ 
Jold coins should be rung on a stone to see that they sound tm^ 

Weights and measures.^ The only system l«gf Vf^rold wlighto 
ecimal aystem based on the metre, litre, and eja«^°^®>^^*JS< of weight is 
nd measuj-Pfl ^r^ utill in use everywhere m Syria. _ ine «»»• -^ . --„^ _ 

' 1231/, lbs. 

r i.zo^/^ ihs^ yir-^/i^ — 18 litres or 

The unit of tneamres of capacity is the Mudd C^««^, -_ ^i^e and 
*bout 4 gaUons ; 1 BubHyeh = i/fmudd, 1 Keleh = 2 mudd. ^xn 
:)fher Jiquids are usually sold hy weight in Syria- ^^^^ ^^^^ - 

073, The unit of '*»««»* and superficial »wa««fW»<w« « »^^^ 
fy* centimetres or about 26 in. j 1 square dra' = «^ square ^. 
1 "edddn =s iQQO square dra' = 734 square metres. 

F. Passports and GnstoiXL House. 
Passports — A passport is indispensable, and sl^ouldhe tjiafbefote 
starting by the Turkish ambassador or consul. Any ^*™f^^.^J^^^. 
tiie journey is not required. On arrival at a Syrian P^^ t^etm 
eller's passDort is as^^^d for, but travellers are usually aUo^^J/^ 
pass on Vo4^^ their passport and handiag the otticiaUheu^^^^ 
«a^d. This is Preferable to giving up the passport which the TurkisU 
°fdciaJfl have^i^o Uabit of keeping and sending on to the con ^ 
whereby mu^. ^. endless delay and trouble is occasioned. Topassfioin 
one WiiSyet iL tl^e next within the TuikisU empire Ce. g. fiom Jeiu- 
'^^^'^ toDai!;^o^«D a ^tezkereh' or permission to travel is neceBBatv. 
l^Ws docume^r 12 is ssued by the police authorities on the requisition of 
'^^ consul an? t%^^^ ^ P^' ?^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ duty of 3 fr. to theconsuU^ 
^"^ a ^ee of aK^-fc 3 Pi- ^^r theKawass who procures the passport, tor 
'a^'h success! o^VVil^yet * PoUcetrMais necessary, costing 21/2 pi. jayh. 


Ciiitom House. — The traveller's luggage Is gonerall 

jected to examinatioa at the douane. Cigars are eagerly 80u 
and taied at 76 O/o of the declared value. The iutroduc 
Egyptian cigarettes into Syria is strictly prohibited and is pu 
by line and confiscation. Firearms and ammunition may ; 
impoited(100oaitridge8free). — Books are strictly oxamin. 
all these cases, a bakhshish of a few francs will generally ens 
trayeller against molestation, hut it should of course not be 
too openly, or in presence of the snperior officials. 

All goods exported are liable to a duty of 1 pe^ <5®^* ^ 
value, and the exportation of antiquities is entirely proh 
ThetraTeller is therefore liable to another examination on 1 
the country, bnthewill generally have no difficulty ^^ ^^' 
exemption in the way above indicated. If luggage ***® *^ 
acioM a frontier, the keys must he sent with it, in order that 
undergo the custom-house examination ; but the traveller i 
never part from' his luggage unless he can address it to soiii 
to whom he is known, or (after first obtaining permission; 

Q. Ck>]unilate8. 

Consuls in the East enjoy the same privilege of ®^*®^^j' 

as ambassadors in Europe. Some of these are consuls P^ *^^ 

(.'consulesmissi'), othe" merely commercial. The ^^^^ j^^i^^^ 

ican consuls of the former class (at Jerusalem and ^^^^^ 

exercise jurisdiction in all civil matters of ^^*I*^*®-,^men b' 

countrymen, and in complaint against their ^^^^^J^^reigii! 

foreigners. Disputes between Turkish subjects ***? ^-omaii 

decided by the Turkish courts, with the aid of the ^*^ ^^ci 

foreigner's consulate. Disputes about real estate are * ^^^g ^ 

the Turkish courts. The vice-consuls and consu-la-^ »« ^^ ^^^ 

ordinate to the consuls and only act at the ^^^^^^^^j^er she 

control of the latter. In all emergencies the ^ *^*^1^ annoy 

possible, apply to his consul, with whose al<^ -Aod. ^^^ 

a lawsuit in a native court may generally be a vol ^^^jjnen 

as well as self-interest, will generally piomp* ^® oons^^*^ 

on their national representatives. The ^kawasses', ^^^ ^ot en 

ants, are often very useful to travellers, and t^^^^^^^-ratuity* 

ask payment for their services, generally exp©*^* * 

H. Post Offto© and Telegir»P^- ^^^t 

Postal Anangemeiits, -^ The head-offtces ^^ostal "^^ 
and Cyprus are at Beirut. Turkey has joined *^?^si;ro ?^'*' 
postage for European letters of Va oz. is 1 P^^q P*^*?; ^c 
pamphlets 10 paras for every 2 oz. Post cards ^ -^,^t i* ^^ 

l^etters may be sent to Syria poate rcstaf^^^ ' 

,tter^ Veil aB m E^* ^V the T^L^ir^ ''«'^*««- 
rpd t'^^^rt fo'f certain ,' *^«nc>. ^''«/<'««jW» •«rvj<.e 

'.-'X^'^l' ote'^S'^^a',?:' ^l^S^'Pl* Offices m 
'nd &^ SoKr^' ^Ml^ Arabic and TurWsS 

Fre>Vj^* g must be^'V bold and legible band 

V i * nVV '■'^^*«anS?'' 'o""'*** *o Europe. 
y **^ft>'^''!; V2»'- a VoM^^ toi^* "^ * consulate. 
?''* * /^f^^i. J»»*«tna*« ' *c remote provinces or 
rf^A ♦/* ^ftpy 55 **«« uUgroms, pet word : 
'' i-^0)^ Britain 7« «• Portugal 69 o. 

 Sj/ V 72 : S^tzerland 51 

J. BeggaT g^^ ^Yj^^^j^^^ j^g aCroBfius, and 
regatd tlie Etx> .^telliglWeto them are the objects 
dman, — so t^^^^ity, they imagine, is unknown 
tiavolling. ^^T ©1 its privations for more keenly 
in Teality -we V ^8 pie^ail, is to some extent tli© 
iclL eiioneouB "^^^ countiy vhere nature's require- 
tKem selves. In *gyis scaioo, a few piastres seem 
simple, and mo^ Jhetefoie often tempted to give 
f^ TiavellexB »^ pieaBUie at trifling cost, fox- 
»du.cing tempotaty f^p^^ity axe theTel>y so^n , to 
e^s of insaUahl® ^ ^^ and the demoialisatlon of 
wixce of thelT sncc©^ 


the redpieuts themselyes. As a nile, bakhshtsh should never be 
given except for seivices rendered, or to the siok and aged. 

In every village the traveller is assailed with crowds of ragged, 
half-naked children, shouting ^bakhshish ^ bakhshUhy ydkhow^a!' 
The best reply is to complete the rhyme with, ^md flth, md 
fish' (there is nothing), which will generally have the effect of 
dispersing them. A beggar may also be answered with the words 
^ Allah yaHik' (may God give thee I), which always have a silencing 

The word bakhshUhy which resounds so perpetaally in the travel- 
ler's ears during his sojourn in the East, and haunts him long 
afterwards, simply means ^a gift', and as everything is to be had for 
gifts, the word has many different applications. Thus with bakhshish 
the tardy operations of the custom-house officer are accelerated, 
bakhshish supplies the place of a passport, bakhshish is the alms 
bestowed on a beggar, bakhshish means black mail, and lastly a large 
proportion of the public officials of the country are said to live 

almost exclusively on bakhshish. 

When paying a visit to a person of rank it is the eustom of the eonn- 
try to give his servant a bakhshish on leaving. In Christian villages tra- 
vellers are often invited to inspect the church, when it is usual to give 
the priest (khitri) a trifle *for the church' (min thdn el-k9tU$eh). If bakh- 
shish has to be given to any person, for example, a particularly rapacious 
Beduin shdkh, it is best to offer him first 20 or 30 pi. less tban originally 
intended, and give him the remainder afterwards. Bakhshish should only 
be given at the last moment before starting. 

K. Fublio Safety* Weaponi. Escorts. ^ ^w . 

Weapons are unnecessary on the main routes (p. xi) but in- ^ 
dispensable on the others, as weapons, eonspicuously carried, add 
a great deal to the iiapSHkM«e with which the ^Frank' is r«fard«d 
by Ifc* nativ0|l. On the importation of weapons, see p. xxxi. The 
requisite licenses to carry weapons and to hunt are issued by the 
police on the application of the consul (fee 1 1 pi. sagh). 

Escort. — For the tour to the Dead Sea it is necessary to have an 
escort of one of the people of Abu DU (p. 163), who receives 1-1 Va 
mejidi a day for this service. The same fee is payable for the Tur- 
kish military escort which is requisite when visiting Palmyra and 
some other places. Details will be found under each route. In dis- 
tricts £. of the Jordan, where the Turkish supremacy is but nomi- 
nally recognised, the price is much higher. The unwritten law of the 
Bednins grants each tribe the privilege of escorting travellers (in 
return for a suitable bakhshish) to the frontier of its territory. As 
a rule, however, one shekh will contract to escort the travellers 
through a number of tribal territories and to settle with the other 
shekha, a matter which frequently leads to wearisome negociations. 

The desert proper is safer than the border land between it and 
the cultivated country. Its confines are infested with marauders of all 
kinds, but once in the interior of the territory of a desert-tribe, and 

Palestine and Syria. 2nd ed. c 

e one 0* its sli^khs, the traveller ^U gener- 

V^e^tv©*^ wv^L ^o8^1^»lity. Fends laetween t^e 

\,ckO\$vTasiTv, ^.Tiai it woxxld be rasli to atteiapt to 

^<3b^ «i«k Vtv^ctwiv to \>e going on ; l)iit the writer 

\iete^XQtftTvAe^ atta^^s have been preconcerted 

m^ t\«k dt&gomi^ in order to extort a biglier 

vveWei, ■wMcb Mras aften^ardg divided among 

vtory att&clns axe occasionally made on travellers 

te distiicts, bwt only when tbe attacking party 

To use one's -weapons in sncb oases may lead to 

18 the traveller vrbo kills an Arab immediately 

danger of retaliation from tbe whole tri'be. 

fees to be paid to Beduin escorts in diatrictB whicli 

'tisli supremacy, no definite rule can be laid down. 

^^y obstinate to a most provoking degree, nop- 

3L*Veiier by delay, and thus induce him to accept 

■^hoy frequently demand a certain sum from eacli 

g party, but it is more convenient and advanta- 

tbem affixed sum in piastres for tbe whole party. 

Conducted through the medium of the consulate. 

Persons who officiously proffer their aeryices. 

a guard should be posted outside the tents ; 

other towns which will be mentioned in the 

ould be got for this purpose from the com- 

^alue should he placed either under the trav- 

r tbe middle of the tent as possible, lest they 

of bands intruding from the outside. In case 

issed, a complaint should at once be lodged 

aearest village /"ehekh el^beled) and, if this is 

'ma^gistrate of the nearest town of importance. 

iiewise be on his guard against the thievish 

HonmBtexieB, SDospitality. Kb&iig. 

ii8 on tbe great tourist route are the only places 

properly bo called. Most of these establish- 

>mfortabIe, but as the landlords and servants 

liristianSf the arrangements are not so satis- 

] hotels. The average charge for board and 

• day; for a servant, 3-4 fr. For a prolonged 

should be stipulated for. ~Wine is generally 

ot ch&rged in the l>ill. There are no restau- 

le in the East, exicept in a few towns (Beirfit, 

re a ^reat boon to tlie traveller. In addition 
p. 17), we may mention the Russian hos- 
ebron. The accommodation is good. In 
as* bring a letter of introduction from the 
alem. Provisions slionld also be brought. 

--luuuanon is fA«r.j J '"'^®'^ Person oi **^t^ ^^Is. -prieB"" i~.-«». 
„'^"'A in placets ? *"« kon!ero^ tlxe <^J%^'l Iou8«l«»8e"t 
* » ffliMlonary .t r^ *®w are suoh If tli«*® ir« xaade to them. 
^« wlM ..T *« Plooe, annii r." -hr^-aT.^ ^ ^ Oriental eti- 

queCt^n.'*"""^*! of Z^8 ***r fl^e^rio**^*^ A Payment Is 
madeonttf ^ *ould of couZ t ^'^^ "l^^ reserved. 

»"»«c«Vtf ^ ^♦^ » few^^^^^e , ^^^Stea '^^.^^^ is served in 
f'^d.T ^"-•'^"A « no^ «^- The coffe isgrP*- ^e asked for 
^>T^Z^'^'"'' "«»^a} ^^leteried, « ^^g»r ^«^^y, ft^sMy 

«« t .?!,* '» Oriental!' J^^t ^^U^«« *Ss *toe^*^argtlelvs , ^, 

Pipe/'&'f'**); the host ehr^*^^ts t>*i*lfsitoT8 ^*%be ■bottona.*' j 
Second ."""^"leh should nevt^^^ot-^^ex A q'«***trord« '?*'^»«r «»» 
"M^f 'fcr*"**^' tJ^^ ^eauel!* >^^ sVo*^?^ *rx^ Zt i^ removed a„ 
t "*•« another plpe^'*;^i^^^«.a« »^o TO^* c* 



replaced by one fresh filled. If the charcoal goes out too soon, a 
fresh lump may be called for with the word ^b<Mta\ To prevent 
contact with the mouthpiece of the stem (mofbtshjj a small tube 
of paper may be Inserted into it. 

N. Bathf. 

The baths used in Syria are those commonly known as Russian 
and Turkish baths. The hardra (see Plan), as well as the separate 
baths (magktas and hcmaftyeh), are roofed with flat ceilings, in which 
are openings covered with coloured glass. The magh^as contain a 
bath let into the pavement and a marble basin for washing, pro- 
vided with taps for cold and warm water, while the hanafiyeh have 
warm water only. All these chambers are paved with marble slabs. 
The har&ra, or public bath-chamber is filled with steam. All 
the chambers are heated by flues under the pavement and behind 
the walls. 

I. Entrance. 2. MesMah (a kind of antechamber, where the poorer 
bathers undress). 3. Fasktyeh (fonntain). 4. Dito&n (better dressing-rooms). 
5. Coffee-seller. 6. Bext-'el-awtoel (warm dressing room for cold weather). 
8. W. C^s. 7. Entrance to the (9) har&ra (or 'sudatorium'). 10. DiUfAn. 

II. MagfUas (chambers with basins). 13. ffaMnftpeh (chambers with basins 

and taps for hot and cold water). '13. Furnaces. 14. Boilers. 

When a cloth is hung up at the entrance to the baths they are 
occupied by women only. The baths are always cleanest in the 
early morning. Fridays and festivals are to be avoided, as numerous 
Muslims bathe early on these days. 

The visitor first enters a large vaulted chamber covered with a 

•"' »..i «ll»»> S.'"".^ '*"<>'«' ««• <.»»»' "'-S^ 

»«oon« the akin WtioroDrtiy jnoia*. *^„k , * J'm™".*" "-"'"a 
*J», o, 'r^'^PeMtionofBhampooinff- Tr^i****"?^ or rough pi^^ „, 

/"""SM X »"/ a«<,r tM., im^O'l** v■'«,s«s'i:!■».l";»• 
tih. •" P°i "' M • tfcilA «ox»" - <" r,-'"^"-.1'>^X;.~>»i»»"' 
Ilia ^ ** P«>«^*^' eoW -^«*«'« is ep*^ 
••ht ■« tin" "'«11T *='" 

--,. ,«^.h.h..^, - 


/« ^*f often oalT "^ too Mgb » ?"r«ff eied «ie artic^" •- - 

6^«e. Afavi^«d back and »* !»?* " ori^tal 8toT.k««5«« 

^t»^«*' Ctaka'^^.'^te expression ^.x* One ^^^^ «e 

*<lt **ieimte** for nothing), ^?^ LJ.^n ^mi>^<^ ^^l 

Hi f « tie ejrtf Offer in order to m»^\ * g^keY Pei«on« 
**^4> i«bi?**«asion 'm.« »Ad*»«* ^«ves sometimes K^o* 
;?4«?' °* lav^ ««»«ng witlx the ^tf^^te has paid ^^^^ 

*ic- ^\^^^^;iSo:itTo".t -9^- -^^f ;-{^ 

^ha ^^* cent on each p^rol^ase. ^^ ^^^^ 

^"^^^CorBaL^at gp 18, 283). 


■.«d',;i'> '■»».„ ''■'>»™.- 

t^ ' "°* Porch. '""t«te.t;*^^/o of the value. TraveDers 

"» «;• .nd .,7 P I '» «;. .onntry .o u>lie ton.. E^p. 

noDiB, ^"'orBnig^* 'mportation of clieiix Is punished 

n° _ . " 1 and 2 . , 

gnaJKy/y"'' Che r ..  

^rtCffiA P'-.'dj.ifi'^'^tingaa/ipi- sAffh for • boi or2l 

''"i ,""»« r "" Oil"!' le.f piroked. It •• jnt.a.hon, 
«.S ; •■ ••.'\'"'» •tS.r;?,'^«. woody ill.™.- The ,,l,e ., 
wSa "'•«•« Qt,?"' il .y^lb..). grown In tb, 

I.„i""T"l,,."rr°"Pml|» «. the eiportoMol. into the n„„o- 
tillsJi """"loin, "^best-.^itod still, sTnugglod tohaoEO can 

•C" »• .4,°y««.,',?*'/-. .°„"dTa-»- Tto <.r..-n,..I.„d, 
Tbc '''foouB *■•*«« and dsuk-ljro-wn, from hoing 

■^S^Ho^.ho nfrgnol.. .oi P"-M. the 


tout Bioca tli.t pe^^J 


They are cubical in form and covered with a dome, whence they 
derive the name of kuhbeh ; they seldom cover an area of more than 
20-30 sq. yds., they are generally whitewashed, and often empty 
and infested with scorpions. In Syria almost every village has its 
vdy, venerated alike by Muslims, Christians, and Jews. Objects de- 
posited In it are safe from theft. 

R. Dwelling!. 

The dwellings of the country-people are nanally of clay. In the 
plains they bnild with clay bricks, in the mountains with stone. The 
houses generally oontaiu one or two rooms on a level with the ground ; 
fireplaces and chimneys are unknown. The ceilings are of wood- 
work, covered with twigs and clay. 

The priirate houses even of the well-to-do townspeople are sel- 
dom more than two stories in height, and vary greatly in their eon- 
stmction. The following, however, is the most usual arrangement : 
(1) The PrineipfU Rooms, particularly those of the Harem , look 
into the court or garden, if there is one. (2) The windows look- 
ing towards the street are small, at a considerable height from the 
ground, and closely barred, while those of the upper floor are closed 
with wooden lattices, which, however, are gradually giving way to 
glass windows with shutters. (3) The Corridor, which leads from 
the street into the court, takes an abrupt turn, in order that passers- 
1>7 may not be able to see into the court. (4) The Court (kdth) is 
paved with slabs of stone, and frequently planted with orange and 
citron trees, with a large basin of clear water in the centre. 

Close to the entrance to the court is the mandara , or reception- 
room of the master of the house , from which a door covered with a 
curtain leads into the court. To the right and left of the passage run- 
ning in a straight direction from this door the floor is slightly raised. 
The divan runs round three sides of the room. In the walls are gener- 
ally a number of cupboards, and higher up are shelves. Many 
rooms are adorned with enamelled inscriptions. In summer, visitors 
are not received in the reception chamber, but under an open arch 
nsually adjoining the court and facing the north. — A small door 
leads into a second court and to the women^s apartments. The 
houses are very irregularly built, so that each apartment often 
seems to have been constructed without reference to any other. 

S. Intercourse with Orientals. ^ 

Orientals accuse Europeans of doing everything the wrong 
▼ay , such as writing from left to right , while they do the reverse, 
and uncovering the head on entering a room , while they remove 
their shoes, but keep their heads covered. The traveller should 
endeavour to habituate himself to the custom of taking off the 

* '•""the <i> f* °^Jmz* 

rules e^OMl^^M^ y,^i??'^dered agave bre^^ ^^ 

ke visitor .be ^th tbem. 

it whereti^^*lOotg''*f ved i^ paying a visi* »? *« 

vomwithin^^'^^tire/* **e door witH the xfou 

: outside foi ^^ tie ca«e o/Mo^lim houses, the 

jii to be in |.j^ re^ minutes in order to give the 

reception-roojJ^ ^<^«rt time to retire. He is then 

of the roonj ' ^heie a low divan or sofa runs 

e door. Accoj ^ . ^^^^ ^^ honour always heing 

e host desires ^^^^ ^^ the greater or less degree 

, and approar^k ^^^"^ ^*''' ^^ «'*««*» ^® °^®* ™^^® 
are conopr*.- ®* ®°® <^^ ™ore steps towards him. 

esrin theC"*, ''^ ^^'"'^ f««« I"- *^> ''^" 
mtflifl ^fx^T^^^^J"* ''evolves an immense waste 

I flni vi ''^ '^^^'^^ whatever to their time, the 

uua ms patience sorely tried. If a Yisitor drops 
l«f r?.®^®' ^* ^<^"^<* '^e an unpardonable affront 
^ost to dismiss him on the plea of being engaged. 
^or 18 announced at meal-time , it is de rigtseur 
ast as a matter of form, to partake. At all other 
.Supplied with coffee, which a servant, with 
^s heart, presents to eaoh in turn, according to 
'sed over when coffee is handed round is deemed 
^sult of the gravest kind. Having emptied his 
^st not put it down on the ground, which is 
®» but keep it in his hand until it is taken from 
after which he salutes his host in the nsual 
.placing his right hand on his breast and after- 
ts forehead. The longer the host wishes to have 
visitor, the later he orders the coffee to be 
'itor cannot take his leave before partaking of 
i originated with the Beduins , who only re- 
f their guests as inviolable after they had eaten 
W^hen visited by natives, the Buropean should 
hem liberally with coffee, particularly when he 
'r with his Beduin escort. — It is also nsual to 
^sitor, the cigarette being now the ordinary form. 
'mber mouth-piece , and its bowl resting on a 
* ground, is more in vogue w^ith the Turks. 
' course, be returned as in Europe. Those who 
' an absence receive visits from their aoquain- 
®xpected to call on thiein. 

^Je, should never enq^uire after the wives of a 
^ to the fair sex being sedulously veiled from 
•^iug at women in the street or in a house is 
» and may in some oases be attended with 


feta*4»snW^^X^«>lnS still. ra.Tor ''i^,„^.jj„ '««r, J *>o,rf , 

fcl«««TQl4B«li»Kwitli peTsons -who J^ P^^t^t tc 
tjillniii^rj seflieoi civility cm *»« 1*^*,' "* *( 
hibfeWtoAapiieeotMety article l>oforeli»na , « pj^^^' 
™illye!Iwhu.\insnWnR an end. to then; meroeusry j^^ 
On the othai Uo4, the moBt ordiximry obBerrei euinon 
(trad hIHi the Urt thtt the degraded l^w'fi""^™ ""Maun^i 
raw eirtUBsi ooontriee ia qoite «iifenowi» in ijyn*, tod it , 
biW7 Mem lo tim tliit the modem expression ^street a,, 
misnometaniminBDltlothe people from "l**"" " " Juipp^ 
dBriy*a, ThspaoplBoIthewjoiitry, oven of t^a poorest u,j ^ 
iMdiiMtei cUm, often pOBiBsa a native dignity, *9lf-reapeQ 
pioofnlnew of m»nnOT, ofirMch, the traveliar will grieve t^ 
til own wnntiyinen of !>(s,t higher status in society are for (. 
putottetlydestitate. Notwithstanding their iiidiTidusl eol^! 
t<io,ihedHterBntiiitiYe«imniimitleB will he obaeived to bold n, 
with MDurkfthle MthfalnosB, mil the bond of a conimori ,„.* 
"KiBh tikes the plaoe of 'party' in other ooontriea, «nd ronw,' 
idherents to iddiess eioh olhei as 'yd akAil' tmy brother) "J 
moiB tiiu) 1 iag[g name. * 

The tnnfllter ahonld tTold being too exacting or «nap(pjQ 
rtould bear in mind that many of the atti^eB are mere ch?.*: 
*ho often display a toncMng siropHclty and IdndHnea, of^f' 
ntion. He should, moreoTor, do all in his power to siutafi, the^ 
MtibliBhedrepntationof the 'Idlmeh frenjiyeh' , the Vordofsp ** 
m whi(i Orienials tue wont to pUce implicit coiifldenoe. ""i 

n. QeograpMcal Jfotice. 
Owffrapliy. CllmatB. O«olag7. I7or». f^uia, 

•Wfsphj. — Syria is a country wdinh possesses yery ni. . 
P'»P'>p'iir.l limits, aithongh the ,iame was oriyi''"")' o^muoh «^**' 
'PpHcitioti than at the present day. The subjects of the Assvl. ' 
S'/'"" **" ^''"^ ^*'' *" *^« Mediterranean, were kno»„ ?',' 
Ami "'".^''tr''""' "'■ ^ *•-« abbreviated form, ^^;;^" 
tionV w'^l ' *^ *"" """^s Mme to have different appiio,' 


lift BRKtd to Meneiy, the attiactlons steadily deoretse as we 
praei torn N. to 8. While the two northemniost of the four 
Mrtim ot the country possess the highest mountains In Syria 
uidWitthd, T^eU-wateied TaUeys, the soutliem region* ar^ 
MmptrtiTely flat and sterile. In the midst ot the table-land of the 
«^a, M the beautiful hasln which separates Lebanon ftom 
^ti-Libums Is caUed, rise within a short distance of each othei 
two Btieuns, one of which, theljtdny, flows towards the S. and 
^r numeioM sinnosities falls >to the sea to the N. of Tyre, 
i^etheothei,theOfon««.ca.'AH;, flowing towards the N., de- 
MHOes a moie oltoiitons lonte lonnd the monntains before It 
re«iM the sea On the Anti-Lihanus again rise three rlTers which 
tJ^«t"'^ .*"^^ ^'^^ "^^ the ^"'da near ZebedAni, which 
wattB the oasis of Damasons, the A'waj in Mt. Hermon, and farther 
&T^ZT', ** P'^«iP»l ri-fer of Palestine. AH t^ew «tream« 
mo™2* T*]" «»»* antral monntain-gronp of Syria. These 
,^^ '^ ,''''****' »° ae two northernmost regions of Syria, 
wSriT^'i^'f*' "'Ming ftom N. to S., the most eastern of 
m.^t«^«.^ i^ -^a*"" (Arab. Jebel chSheria, the e«item 
ZS{RS"i"^*°'^8 »* ite »<"ithem extremity In the G,«rf 
ft"T?^?ft-); The western and higher of the two ranges is 
»d T^- *^^*- •^«*'' ^»«»«3. which cnlminates near Belrflt 

el.iii?*\.^''"''>»*«™l»»*e^ towards the N- near the Nahr 
ti^lk ^'^' *» *« N- of ''Moh begins » range of hills 
SSSd J!"*"r*!"* Mta. after the people by whom they are In- 
?he ^".I !!."? *^*«' "«« the J«6rf Afcra', the J«ro«s Oo..«, of 
tI theN «/*T'*^> eonspicnons snmmit-toweringp »bove tte oo«t. 

w tke Bible, ^t ?'"*™' *"* *^®vT? f ots the Jordan from 

"o-^ngtowardsth " *** "°^ T *♦  '^^r.n^^ts southern course 
Mtilitlo,e«lte:??»e«. and compels It to pntaue ax ^^^ 

'^ Wow the n!^'> the I>e«^ ^^''//f'^ter of this part of the 
^Mtiy has exr^'^e^el- The soolnded character ^^ cUmate, its 

'**atant», aort ^*«ed a very marked Infloenoe ^^^^ occasion 

<» okierre. ^*S products, as the traveller ^trM o» 

Beyond the t xr ^«e the volcanic hills 

^ '^. fiZ ''Oldan, not far from Hermon, y" . ^,jis»lti<' and Uva 
*™»tioii, al«» ^hole of the Hanrftn, which is o volcanic craters 
** exhibits to this day a number oi 


-tend tlie mountains of Gilead, pattlally 

^Moal> foTixx an extensive taTale-laud, sep- 

--xaJds tlie B. Ijy a low T&nge of hills only. 

'JL^ pexennial streams, the rain soon mn- 

^^gh tlie Btony ground. Some of the old 

^:r, are deeply exoded. A wl^y frequently 

^^o^ding to the places it passes. 


•fctie great ineqtialities in the surface of the 
« €>0 greatly in different parts of Syria. The 
^jf two seasons only, the rainy and the dry. 
^ _ -tiiio® of the year, lasts ftom. the middle of 

i^^^-tvS»'^- ^^^^°^ *^® Taeginning of May to the end 
1^^*- ^^^rC ^^jjiost unintexraptedly cloudless. Thunder 
IX^, ^ ^-^^t^harvest Ql Sam. xii. 17, 18) are of very 
Y '*'-^^^'^^^^ay»*^®'fe s-i© occasional thunderstorms and 
\x^ ^^^ .^»-®*' mists still hover ahout the mountains, 
y:t/^ .^s:^^^^t>^y disappear entirely, and the atmosphere 
r ^""^^^^ clear, as is apparent from the iiitenser 

j^^ ^^.^^X-^ ^f^^ stars. Keavy dews usually fall at night, 
i^''^\^:^^ ^- ^:<itner, "but this is not the case in the desert. 
n^^^^ ^ S- H°J^® f^om the ^W. for66day«, bringing 
^ ^^S^^^^^Cf^ , days, and from the N.W. for 114 

^^^^itigates the heat on most days in summer 

^^^ -v^hich has no ozone, usually sets in in the 

:>_ ^fore the rainy season begins. It takes up 

^* attacks the growing crops hefore they are 

"'_:^^^ -^:p^^^ of ft harvest. It frequently blows for sev- 

' \^ ^ -T'-^lrtti^^^®^' *^® thermometer rising to 104*' F. 

^^^^ ^^^'^^y^ ^* *^ Tttnpleasant haze, and causes head- 

«^^-^^^ ^-l^^^sness. At times, It blows in violent gusts. 

^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ or Egyptian wind, JEftawMtn, so oaUed 

^^Z^^^ j^ ^ ^^ ^ O^oim^f%) days after Easter. — Owing 

^ * -^^:< ^^^^^<,^^ ®*^^^ ^®®®^ ^or beauty in summer, ex- 

^^*^-<^ -^>^r7^^*^*^^s where there is water enough for 

dw^^ ^ ^ ^ d®*®'* *^®^ exhibits a dreary waste of 

aii^ ^^^^o*"^^. ^!f®®' *^® springs gradually dry up, 

\ V^ '^i>^^*i*® ^ *^® mountains. 

n. ^^^ ^ i^ different parts of the country ; in the 

vu^^^^*^^ jjatvest 18 generally in the latter half of 
tn^^^^'*^4^ the first half of June. The barley is of- 
v^%>^< i. 

^ ^:r^^<^o*o^®* *?^^^ ^®8^ to rise, and the rainy 

bi^/^:^ *-^,^ed i'^ ^y.several thunderstorms. This is 

»s ^^^ 0^T. oi *^® »i>>l6 (Dent. xi. 14; Joel ii. 23), 

Mid. ^0^^ parched soil that the husbandman can 

le* ^ ^ -|>^ 3.A^^. wmds then bring showers which 


»dftea<,ei«ofthenoa,> «f« muofc Impaired ^eCw"'"''^?/ 
^,mi,ri, «J« tribe, iind no%»*«z«. to8„^««roy^' 

le«i«nttu.njen^^; ««««nd stUl more tfce Jord« " '^"'wpe. 


»PPl?tr«K ™P««*»3re ,K -^ il'^°Fahr., the lowest --iO^CJan. la^ 
AlepL *'' ''"'"le M tw** 62Vs». Tliese data may be he,? 
«'&«'', *•'» «Mu*tK ^"l-«on1itry. Tie teat at I)am«,cul* 
'anpentn*''* N.'Wr \^e desert, *» necessarily greater, ^^ 
tteLtnV """esea-L ®P off the oool sea-toreezes. The ni6»» 

««««'»Uy bL!'*" *« khl*^'«d by the sea air. With the exc^ 'aon 
«dmoS »*"'<'^'*" "^ sJrooco prevails, a cool ^^^ere 
. r''<'«t*^"«l>tt'ul *^«>dng8 at I>am»sc»«. and the uight. 

^t small, *® <>ftie i>^* 

^'on. tJ)«» T ysft. onu *^ the river flo-vrs* ^ ,, a i-J^ oasiu 
!r!'''^S:? CS'/C the Mediterraxxeau A X „. 

!J'"*«'bieT J* ''««-iev^ the Jordan »« tH El-Ohor. ^ Sea 

xlviii GEOLOGY. 

this Talley is terrible. At the beginning of May, the thermoinetei has 
been known to mark 110** in the shade. The harvest in the Gh6r is 

much earlier tlian in the rest of Syria, taking place at the end of 

April and in the beginning of May. 

Geology. — The geological structure of Syria is as follows : — 
(1). From both sides of the Red Sea extend masses of granite 
and gneiss across the S. part of the peninsula of Sinai to the 'Araba, 
in the vicinity of the Dead Sea, the same formation occurring also 
at places on the eastern slopes to the N. of the watershed between 
the Dead Sea and the Bay of 'Akaba. 

(2). Next to this primitive formation occurs a kind of sandstone, 
called by Lartet 'grfes nubien' from its extensive occurrence in Nubia. 
This sandstone , which is often very hard and generally of a dark 
red or blackish colour, also overlies the edge of the granite and 
gneiss of Sinai and ascends the E. slope of the 'Araba, and is thus 
exposed to view almost all along the lower (Moabitish) shore of 
the Dead Sea. On the W. slopes, both of Lebanon and Anti- 
Libanus , the same sandstone also occurs, forming a basis for the 
superincumbent limestone. 

(3). Succeeding the primitive formation and the sandstone 
appears the limestone , which forms the main mass of the lofty 
Lebanon and Hermon , and which Lartet identifies by its fossils 
with the 'Ntfocomien' which occurs in the Swiss Jura and belongs 
to the lowest chalk- formation. The limestone of this formation 
occupies the whole plateau of Palestine and the country to the E. 
of the Jordan, the peninsula of Sinai to the N. of the part oocnpied 
by the primitive rocks, and the valley of the Nile to a point far 
above Camac. 

(4). The nummulite limestone, which belongs to the Icwer 

tertiary formation, is of rare occurrence, appearing on Carmel, £bal 

and Gerizim only, while the tertiary sandstone, though it stretches 

from Lower Egypt to the vicinity of Gaza, does not extend into Syria. 

(5). The most recent formations, on the other hand, such as the 

dunes of sea-sand, the alluvium of rivers, and the deposits of 

lakes, cover the whole of the W. margin of Syria, from the I>elta of 

Egypt as far as the point where Lebanon approaches the coast, that 

is, the whole of Philistia, the plain of Sharon, and the entire valley 

of the Jordan from the watershed in the 'Araba as far as Hermoii. 

(69 . The l>»saltic rocks of the Plutonic or Volcanic formation 

^Uo occur extensively ii^ Syria. From the vast alluvial tract of the 

desert in the cen*'^® ^^ Arabia, towards the N.W. those masses of 

l>asalt begin to rise v^hich form the plateau of the Tuiai (^p. xlv^ 

and the whole of "the Haur&n, as well as the region to the E. of the 

Lake of Tiberias C^^^*")' *^® ^^^^® ^^ ?*'®* *o *^® ^- ^^ *^at lake 
and lastly p^^ of ^^^ districts of Tiberias and Nazareth. This 
basaltic region frequently rises into wildly riven and inaccessihl© 


:m^i (Hwr^y^ '-..^?**, ^ *'*P ' however , ^*irl^€>^ ^^T **^^«« in 

foRWigltiU*^ ' *"® geological tftraotare of Syri^ *^ 

\!i^ft^t\i\Y^e ^limitiTe rooks preraU; iio:^t ocioxi^s ^ ^^* 'ollowg . 

ttTiiitoTiftS ^^o^ ^™®* *® chalky limestone "^^Iki-S. ^^^^ o* red 

itt»»o(tiLeTOUfttty, overlaid with nummtillto ^^^Mfc^^*^^ *«>»nig the 

m\«»l',\ttttT,i«<^**'*l Syria, i^po«*tlie «^X<^%^X^^!^^ ^"^^ »Hu- 

Hcnu-The fertiUty if the soil of »J^a 1b ^:xLi;oll-^ . 
mui Mid \>y classical anthois as weU as lu- tlie BiTt>i^ ^ "* ^^^ TtiU 
'desert' consists, not of sand, hnt of ®^^®^^t; soli "^fj^ *^« Syrian 
e&Tly tain piodncesailchcTop of grasses »^<ino^e>rtnL ^M<5h after the 
the most Inxniiant pasture. Lebanon aXso, tlion^^ at:*K ' **ofdlnit 
fot the most pait \)aTten, was to a grea* extent xiT^a^^ Present day 
ancient times, and still possesses feriiile soil ^vrlTioi^^ ^^^^'i in 
lepaythe industry of the husbandman. A pi^^^^ of -mw "^^^M Weli 
by the beautiful cultivated teiraces of *^l^<»Uiclaix orf «!« ^ *® *^orded 
the W. side of the mountain. In many of the va^l^ST^' *^^*®^y ojT 
of similar tenaces , of the watchmen s houses mW^^' *^^ » trace* 
Bible, and of the enclosures of ancient gardens, axe «7ifi^"^^ ^'^ tllft 
in the midst of what is now a complete wilderness ^^'^rvabju 

I. GmraaAL YiBW. Ve may distinguish the foilovri 
regions of Syrian vegetation. ^^S ^^eteti* 

{Xy The whole of the eoast-aistrict helong:s ^o *Ti« 
MediUrraneannora, which extends arotind the >>«? ^^^^^ °^the 
reaching inland as far as the lowet liUl-cotmtry . Of +».? *^** «ea 
most characteristic plants are numerous evexireen h ^^^* the 
narrow, leathery leaves, and short-lived spring fl/J^^^* ^th 
vegetation of the coasts of Syria and Palestine is th^r«7®^®' The 
to that of Spain, Algeria, and Sicily, v^rlth some f ew ^?iS ^^^ihr 

espedaUy towards the S. , in the direction of Egypt S^^^^ons 
tuUp, and anemone, the annual grasses, the shrubs nf ^^^iU 
and myrtle , the pine , and the olive clearly distlnirnl«h *?^®*n<Jer 
as a member of the great Mediterranean family , whi/e fK ^* ^<>^* 
Axederaeh wMch abounds on the coast of Phoenicia, and t^ ^^^^ 
Syeomorw nearBeirftt mark the transition to a wanner rein ^^^ 

The region of this Mediterranean floxa is a somewh 
•ne ; for , as soon as the coast is quitted and the higher ** ^*"'o^ 
the interior approached, the character of the vegetation ch^^^^^ °' 

m. This next region is that of the Oriental Vegetati^' 
Steppe- The ^' limit of this region is formed by drawl °^ '^^ 
from tho pass of Lebanon, towards the E. of Beirut, to the ^ * ^^^^ 
the hills of Judah in the S. of Palestine, Beyond this lln%^^* ^^ 
domain of the Oriental Flora. One of its characteristics is *^® 
variety of species, but the underwood is of a dry and th^'^** 
description, and the growth of trees very stunted. JTumerous smT^ 
pale«tine and Syria. 2nd ed. ^ *^^' 

1 . FLORA. . . , 

8«y, Prickly bu,heE of K>t«ri«m ; the grey, f^'"^',^u ; »« boidd>«, 
Mlliwit,butEm»lUnd™pWl>-«itl.ering ^P^"^, ?htatle w>>icl> *?*" 
"'^^Ptedominstini Coti.inia, a peraliar kind »•*" . oD the hlUs 

"iti^""'" '■■»"> Other. .1 . mch h.iia««»>=' """ ' 
"•, hot ttoe ,„ „„,tlon.. , „„..„„ •' "f 

wmMkllff ''^""»te, which gi'es tlse to >'!*„( Nuhie on the 
'•'!"m^i.'' •=»""1=>. i«e.ewh.t ■«=»?"'■• *?!,°pa pr»«~A J 
Pl™ oC *• ""Pto- H„. oceut. the -O.h. '<^''°%t",'ll'-'"t^ 
'ieatia^ "^^riBU^ of the Bouthem Seheie, the u ^ricfto'fw""* 
-^/Wo^^"' ' theMood-ied perMittcLorontfcue. tee ^^^^„ja 

the J-v '^^ Ji'Kmia eardala, the ^ ; then, " ^ g^j^,,^ 

"• .eh.^ '■?"♦'"• »' the yegetetion ot Al,y..InU o, NnM". ■» 

o»trop,o«l «„l,ortUah6i-"ithpeUn'l"'""«; „^„, the 

e ilnrf „^.f ** *• *>>« burghul, the ordinary food of the Sy»en p 
PoSe, ,? "^°"eh boiled rrith le.vcn end dried 1" .I", '", 
i„"V'""«'« m.k, Ireed of , bet Ihi. grain i. f"'^yi 
,,I°" *° «••• o»ttl,. OaU ... not otlw.ated in Syria, thojjh >"» 
h.,,*?-": <»»>nt for u... are froqn.ntly found. Be.ld- «te.t 

•■•Im, bem. 

queotly found. Besides ^"""i,, , 

P,.,„ ^** culture ofthoeineha. eteadlly increa.ed of late years. J-" 


J'Ab - *"" J'eiruBalem. A good de&l of irliie Is "lao grown in B*"*!""- 
«tn ■*''"«« «^c tralnad along the ground or on treUUe* and midb- 
ig,^" *•" *ro«s , the grapea are exceUent. — A kind of lyiip («''■' 
,^ frequently m*de liy boiling down the grapes ; and B bIio"" ST[»P 
r^jPreparod frODQ figs and other fmits. CoOBiderablo quintUieB i^ 

efMS s^ro-v^n round DamaBcuB and Ea-Sa^. 
^, ,^*>e tr-ee xnost frequently planted throu ghout Labsnoo « the 
tf„'^«'-'-V- «•■«*= "^"^ ''*'^*« ''"it fAforue aI6a>, whioh «»« fi"' "i" 
"flttoed iii*o Syria in the 6th cent. The silk-cultnia ot Syn» » 

W^^^A j^?.*' l-^e-rfr.waHk. The ..?« "^ ^^- In 1886, 

C«U*ta cl»**°y CDl*mted in N. eyria, , tix« _ 
tains to»illert'0»- lDla88 12,6^ bales CaOGo ^^\*"* «»Pon 

e»\\l lilliBi off Binee the Middle Age». " **»dastry h„ 

BjAiiiftiettitiTB Isnd oftheoii-oe. Knd Oll-v^^ - 

. irtijlB^wdurtoEtlioeouDtiy, but tb.ey a.-,^ ^^iMcoL* *^-' 

Ufflinmntion Hid fof the m»niif«otiire of ao»p 'Ti.'""*^ ' 

' DjniucM TieW »Q ^unual crop o( *^0"* IBO toB- "t.,^ ^W" 

.ndmioDiof the interior blaek itina. Xho oui?, ««eon 

oliKisBlaidUjiiicteislng in Syria, e«p6ciaUy or. lT***«n 

ZrifwJ; .DiSiidA. Aboat 7500 tons of oil are t^r^***« «m 

Oil ia ilBo obtained from the utarn*, ■which ig*^ "««c:«d an 

iiitrirtg of ajria to the N. of DiioaBOUS , aa a,lao «♦ V''**^ 

MitiaSil oome prindpiUy (rem *^nttal Syrt« -'«"eei 

en.po(»bont600toQi7eitl», 'hilo P»Bt»chi„a rz-J T'^^'^h y 

Mltinted In N-Siria (.Aleppo), 'bonee 4-500 ton« *'' *^ 

DMOflBciB omies on k vary hrlak trade i„ <»>_,' ^^'^ «'I 

piewr»ed by eiposnie to the snn, ot -wMoh 3000 CTr.^ _ ''""^^ 

lnl889. Thetetnol., rfTM^h400to 500 tons ^/^ '^^'J 

mirket, fom isepitate irtiole. ^ "^"t int 

To5aeco, lot nhUh 3vri4 nia lormeily fanied ia nn 
in Lebanon, mi Men theie tie production ig dooUoJ^ " ^'•'•a 
In the deiert, neatDiuiMciiB, a»i oa Jebei 'Aii^ ''' *•* 
BelH to theE. o£ Joid&n, kali oi asltwort is Rrow ""' *» 

The pot&BB piBMied from It ia ehiefly uaed in «,„ „„ ° ^tensjir. 
eomitty. . «o«P-worj„ ^f 

An important article of eommeice in Northern Syria 

OBpUt piodueed by the oiks there; they ate aaeil .-„ j*^^ "^e o, 

irTui^y exported to Europe im%: 500 tonsl J? ?*'»*, f, 

cnltivatea chiefly In N. Syrti. The eiport in 1889 -wm i^?2'"*« 

Other areolos of commetce ate aliznil , or ntaddsr '"°*- 

dyeing ; the b»rk of the pomegisMte-tree whict jg ^^ ^' used i, 

for toanisE putpoBes; and aomsoh, nhich Is nlso UBsdit" ^"et 

After mulbarriee and oliTOs the (ip is the moat Imnnri '"""W 

tree at Syria. Tha froit, either ftesh oi dried, forms in i"' *''^'- 

titide at food. In the height oC Bummei the caeiut, »hi k^°"*"' 

wtimei diatricts form* excellent and fotmidahle IiejJr ^ **•« 

ita sweet, but BOmewhiit mawkish prickly peat with , if ^' ^''^Jds 

geedB. P«r and appi, „„, aie not rare , hut the po,^ ""^f ""Us 

8yti« we intetiQi iii flavour to those of Egypt and Bagdad "^," °' 

§»td» are famed for their orangea, which are exported lit 

QosntitiM- Cifoui, peatAti, and ilmondt aieaiso fteouBTiti *"^'* 

Tbelarge-totthetreeiofSyriitisthenoblBMiia,,^^ "J'^sen. 


Valoma oafc ^ouTislxes iu ^^^ K- /J^^l E. of Palestine, ^^^;^;;^^^ 
ocdc ftequently occurs to the S. of Camel, The terebinth is *"^ted 
ttee of coBamon ooctmence. The whiU or silver l'^^**',*.!.itim\>ei 

chiefly in the neighhonrhood Of Damascus, for the sake oi ^^A,^ . 

for huilding-purposes. The carob (^Ceratonia siliqua ; ^''\^jo^'s 

Sea. It 18 soiaetiBaes ^ . ^^^J^ i» **; J^^enor. In **^^*^-, The 
of the Jordan valley *^/**^^^^ and the poplar ^^^''X^Vc^ 
Valoma cole fiourislxes m t^^ N. and E. of Palestine, *'?^_^^! ',he, 
oak frequently occurs 
tree of common ooctir] 
chiefly in the neighhoT 

for hnilding-pnrposes . ^ ^^. ^.v,.«* »^>^ ^^ , - 

Luke XV. 16) is by no means uncommon. Its fruit, the 
bread, is a staple article of food with the lower orders- ^^^g 

The cucumbers of Syria are much prized. The long ^®®- ^ ^a- 
with notched skins are the juiciest. They are eaten x»"^ ^^ . ^e 
tives without any dressing whatever. The lettuce is ®**®'\ ^ they 
same simple manner. Onions form another article of ^^?±^ of 
thrive best in the sandy soil ahout Ascalon. Several v^^^^^^^he 
melon , some of them attaining a great size , are 6«>^^®^V^dif»- 
other vegetehles of the country are the egg-plant ri^eJonc/ena oa 

Mnj, ^^ the Umieh (Hibiscus esculmtZ), Artichokes ^^^"^^^^t. 
gns grow wild, and the delicious truffle is found ^^ J^J" ^^^n 
ooTaniZ *'^ ^ ^""^ '"^ '^*^^''' P^**^^' especially by H^^ ^"^^ 


^"of.^erh ^^^^^^^- (!)• I>omestic Animals, Sheep: A'^^ 

u the^^tV^- ^* *^® P'^ent day, as in ancient times, the "^^^ 
speo^tu thw.T'* favourable for its support. The commonc^ 
aimosTth^n 1 ^**-***led. Except in the larger towns, id«/J^^ 
are^mUrte^if "^'^^ "**«^ in Syria. A considerable r^^^^f^^^"^^^ 
for i™i^ man n^^'? Kurdistan, while the sinev^s are exported to Europe 

^ost :femo„i L 3** of N. Syria is tlie finest , and Aleppo ib 

,, Tb^ <,:;:ouofT ^^^'^ ^«l»ge i'^ Syria possesses its flocks oi gu»- 

*^e JTo^d^n tie T ?^* "« s°iall and ill-looking. In the valley ol 

/^uclM. usGd for ■^'laian buffalo, whioli is so common in Kgyp^^ 

>eci rar j>ioui.K**^«^l*ural purposes. In Syria the ox is genewli7 

.;^ez>aMozi, w^^e^^g Only, and is seldom slaughtered, except ^^ 

^oonsidGFiibi^ ^^^ the exportation of ox-Mdes, vili Beirut, istiot 

if. '3^1i« cam el ^r- 

*/***« tiesert. ^5" ^ is seldom nsed. ex^cept by the nomadic tribes 

^?^ I>loii^lii,i^ r^* employed for riaiiig, carrying burdens, and eTcn 

<Otli. Tlxe T^^^ ^^o hair or wool is ^w-oven into acoaiseWndol 

"**ntry generally lia^o f e^w camels of theli own, but 


Mlfj.taLrfL^'W rarely sell ttem "^^^,'«n,pe/, 
MiiimilB iteto-niemly the Joixi* property o/geve,^ 
TbMslorsMMeled-wlllibaTley aad oliaff. 

Tlie OrienUl donkBs Is moie nearly allied ^ 'lie vn^ 
li mntt moie urtWe tbaa liis European conyeuer. j., 
priiea HBftoee oHV largo wl>ite variety which ig i'- 
Slib-BeSninBot lie Syrian dOBert. A species of wfjj ^^^ 
WiemefultliinE. Syria. 

{t). Wild Animal*. A connecting link between tie (j 
lod (he ■wlia Hilmili 1b fotmea in Syria by the dog j„j 
Etch town 111* Tillage Is Inrested. -witb a« many DusterJes 
M ita refuBe can snpport. These scavengers of He East, ' 
are often wiled , bath lustily at strangers, but uever blio * 
piOTOked, The Bhoep-doga, On tlie contrary, "re apt to be da^ "^ 
Hydnipholia Is eitremely taie in tbe East. It is hardjy *^ 
to keep a dog in the house In the East , as the slreat-dogs ^Z^ 
felUbly wony him If they have an opportnnfty. Orey.'" 
kowavei, aie lometlmes kept for coarBlng : the ntttre spepfo**"' 
peitbeaaty. * f 

Heit to the dog mnat bo mentioiied the jackal f Arab. tB(j,.,> 
fowling and irhimpering of irhloh are often heard at nigj,. " i 
^larly a little after sonaet. They often rove about in ' P' 
Wliau foiei are spoken of in the Bible, it Is probabJe that 1*"°' 
•wlneluaed ondat that name. There are two speefes of tj,"^** 
In Lebanm the wolf fdSb) also I3 not nnnommon. The hy '"' 
not an animal of which human beings need be aftaJd. '^*''» i 

ThedomesticcatoftheEastisTaielyquitetanie. There... 
lereral kinds of wild eata, but they are seldom met with o,"" 
l»^t feline speeies the leopard fnimrj ia now almost exlertiiin , 'J' 
»nd the same may be eaidoftho hunting-cat or hunting leon • 
""^ IB now rarely toalned for the chase , m i* Connerl, ^i  
lie lion hu long been oifinot. — The bear is aometlDiea Bneo,,**' 
*"« on Lebanon. "" 

There an ae.eral varfatias 0/ bats in Syria, chiefly to be fo„„^ 
Mjennmeren, eave™.. There are ,Uo rX««. "»««'"^1« "monj 
»«"i«thegraceti.lJiimpiDgDioosao/ the desort Four specie. * 
We» are met with. ThA coni^ 1 J f in the Bible ra " 
!%•*««.; aretha^vrfr of theSr""""'^//31 -The wt\^'« 
"7" .irooghont the whole of g.' f'«°'P- ?" *^n by '"« Chrt«t^.°" 
»nll;doniesti.swxneare never *' ■"■*'" "«i«n8 

The laielle ii common. iJ°^* "^"'- - hunted by the « 
-tr, by whom, as In Ce„tri\|jSyri.^ it^ 'J^^^C into laiV^^I 

. -.^^"^ FAUNA. 

closures, and there captured or slain. — THe «^^^*^Vn^^or«ref 
Sinai iUii^ or tra'al/is frequently seen in tHe mountain-gorges 

around tlie Dead Sea. 

BisDs. The domestic hen is very common tliroughout Syria. 
Bucks are only to hefound in a wild state, l>eins very numeiouE in 
tlie plain of the Jordan On all the hills tlie Caccdbis saxaUlis, a 
large and heautiful kind of T)aTtridge , is very common ; and near 
*^,^I>ead Sea is found the s^^^^^ desert-fowl (^^operdtx 

^W. Quails occur in all the corn-fields of tlie plains. Wild pigeons 
are especially numerous in Lebanon. The plains of Jezreel and 
some other localities are frequented by large flocks of storks, cranes, 
and becassins. Amonff the birds of prey tlie eagle And the vnlture 
are the most conspicuous , the former haunting the wildernesses 
about the Dead Sea and on the Litany. There are several kinds of 
ravens in Palestine. Singi«g-^"^s , too , are not numerous , the 
most notable being the tlirush-like nightingale of Palestine (Arab. 
hulbuV). About the beginning and end of winter are seen vast flights 
of birds of passage, on -tlielx way to Egypt and more southern clima- 
tes, or on their return • among these is the cuckoo, whose note is 
often heard in spring. 

Rbptilbs. The traveller ^^^^ frequently have opportunities of 
observing the *cteeping -tlilxigs' of Syria. In his apartment at night 
he will often hear the slirill cry of the harmless little gecko. In the 
southern coast-districts -tlie common chameleon is not unfrequently 
seen. Among the mountainfl occurs the dark-coloured kharddn of the 
Arabs, with its prickly *»!! and back. The crocodile appears very 
rarely fp 2370 Snakes abound, many of them being poisonous, but 
their bite is seldom or never attended with a fatal result. The land- 
tortoise is common ; the snaall tailed water-tortoise is less frequent. 

Fish The Jordan and. the Lake of Tiberias abound in flshy 
which ascend or descend the streams according to the season. 
Different varieties are found in almost all the perennial waters of 


IifSBCTs (8e>^ P- ^^iv)- Mosquitoes aria not particularly virulent 
in Palestine • ^^^ ^ muob danger to be apprehended from the 
waa^s and fonx^^^^^^^ looking hornets. The nests of wild bees are 
often found in <?left8 of the rocks, while hives of tame bees, gener- 
ally in the /on*» of eylindiical vessels of earthenware, are frequently 

seen. Gra5^Z»<^PP®™» or locusts, which often entirely devour the 

crops, are a teirT^'' *^ **^« j^tisbandman. They are only eaten by the 

Beduins ax^ons^ are fa^xTtA on the Syrian coast N. of Beirut, 

and the flsher^ occupies a la^«® number of persons. The yield is 



m. populatiott, Divirions, and Wames of Syria 
at different periods- 

XI. • ^ \.i*^n'tf* of the land of Canaan 
Uike almoBt aU nations, the ^^^^^}^Xlfcs.^tocJ,thones^ were 
possesaedlegends that the pmneval ^^*^i**f *^ .jkruAims (Josh. xl. 
races of giaats. These races had vanous names - ^^ Zamxummima, 
21,22},fiepftaiTiw(Gen.xW.5), Emtm9, ^*^^ ^52. Dent, ii,)- 
ADima (Dent. u. 10-23), and Horims C'^^f'yy'^Ty the inhahitants 
n. fa;. From the very eaxUest period oi Jordan (t^e country E. 
of Cfliwan, that is, of the country W. of *'*®^ .^^ ^hie Semitic race. 
of the Jordan was called GUead), ^^^^^S±o design*^^© the group 
SemiticiBapurely conventional term, used -.^^^ny allied hy their 
of peoples who are shown to he ^^^'^^^^J^^ytion a^^^ similar in 
languages, which arc of a peculiar constro ^^^ Canaaiiites were 
eh&iactei to Hebrew. According to Gen. *- anlly in^ply ^^** *^®y 
descendants of Ham; hut this does not '^^^f^jj^ spj-called' Semites. 
weie not ethnographically connected -^tn , ^ Jordan are usually 
The Semitic inhahitants of the country ^W- <>* "* tUey are also called 
called CoManUtt in the O.T. In some P^**^y^£»r found on Egyp- 
Amorites, in agreement with the designation ^jxi*ll trihes : e. g., 
tian monuments. They formed a numt)©^ ^^^crere also a Canaanite 
the Perittites, Jcftusitw, etc. The PhoenicUi^ Ztion o^ *^® IsraeUtes, 
nation (p.^69> — At the time of the i^^ff* tion f« superior to 
the Canaanites had reached a height of civilis-' 

that of the Israelites. -l^^^^s consisted of : C^J 

(h). The Semitic trihes akin to the H®f ^^^ . rti) The Amwonr- 

The Moabites, at the S. E. end of the Pead »« ^j^^ Mdomiiea, who 

««, whose territory Uy E. of the Jordan ;e J f»r as the hay of 

«M, Whose territory Uy E. of the Jordan ;L*^ ^^^ as the hay oi 
occnpied the region of the 'Araha Cp- ^2 J ora ^oth sides of the 
;Akaba (Elath), and the mountains of^'^J^ ^130 '^f^'^^'^f^^ 
'Araha. ~ Among the descendants of Esan axe ^^^^ ^n tKe desert 

AmdekUes, a wandering trihe, who V^^}!±^t}^4^i^^'^: mentioned 
ofEt-Tih to the S. of Palestine. The Afidi^fif*^^^^^ 

in Exod. 18 as allied to Israel, ^ere also non^ad , g ^^ . The 

(ch The4roma«m« must also he teckoned j^^ain Zol>a , hoth 

^"^domsofArr^^TsekCI^a^^^r^Brit *^« ^*'*'^- ^^''' 
contiguons to the Israelites, are ^^^^^oi*. ^ of the Philis^ 
'^^^"^n^*^**^^ in Lebanon and f.f ^^essio^ ^/^^^^^ 
(dj. The piai« ^„ xv.^ 9 coast was In po»^ ^^© Istaenies. 
«'«(p.l54)\rr^;otthelmiBi8«t^n -f *^ ^..d founded .n 

empS^^m^i'S* "*«*« ^'**'*" «««ed forw«M from 

m L «1 ''^ ' ^ '''"^^^r-^em> Cp- W»^ ?*« of tte Interior of 

*« ««.i E ^y "**'•' *?^ ^Cd ^k pos-^^r^J^ divided iuto 12 

P«lMH^ T * **' *e Jordan, »»« ro.J^ented »« " others in Ms- 

*««' «»« 1 ^:"^'e "^US^ "^ *^« "^"^ '^ 

dosUO -"«• 

r%*o., «•«»>- 

„,,!,. Jo«a.o 

H- 'ten d***"* 

Itia, the nM>*f^ 

,,M15., »»■" 
U, to the »■ oj 

Si «.«.««»! 

iMimodot — I'' 
it«i.a«i to ti. It 

1 M follows; \» 

^OSMER i>i-sriSlor»S. ETC- 

tellMtos ol ftB btk Mmt. these *^*"^*'*'°**,, ^^i ^^^ «» 

polii ipuLB.: (a-) Buplifalmrf., metropolis ^^•"Pf^i»; (4) \ 

EiMB. (ina DmuaeM ind P»liny«-»:> ; iP} fT^***^ 1 W 
niWJn, wWch Inolnded the gTO»ter part of -^ °''*« '"d *«ni«M 
hidCMuMletiUejplUl. {T) FaZttMt*'*^ -". '*r«b. I/rrfu,^ i 
dm), Oilitee, »nd Pems In the naxro-wor atmae, Scmopojj ' 
lliB (.piul, [81 PoIoMtfiKi 177, or Sal*ttaris, inolndlnj tie ,„ 
linsiom o( tts N»lnt«»n8 in the Sontb of tba ooontry, /* 
reHon o( &ll>Miraid» the Eist •« /*r «« the Arnon, ^jj." 
M Its MplW. (9) The piovinee of ^ra*** embraced ,i,^ ' 
Kgion or the fiuulin S. >b *»i m the Amon «i»" "■ to (fc, 
tbe tUIbt of tie Joid«ii, uid had Bo»tr» as lt«oapltoi. 

y. InthetlmBof the Abbaaidoa, 8yri» »™" <'*'^<Jed l„^ 
PilMtlBe, (2) the diBtrlrt of «ie Jordan, C^) Hom?, f4) D.Jt' 
(5) KiimEgrtn, (6) the milltuy border CAntloch). «sc 

TL The polhicil conidtation of the Kiftffdom of ■'wiwaie-, J T 
predsely dmjur to tbM of th« western. fend«l sUtM. ■fj^ ^ I 
piomineat orown-TMsala were the Prince of Aatioch, |j,g „ ""J ^ 
of Ede»!i ind Tripoli , the Prince of TIberiaB , the Connl otj^ 
iiidAsMion, «ndlLoLordofMoiHroyalCt'"'Ke''"* "'""cientlf "*' 

TIL 8jii»i. «lIeda4-«Mmby the ArabB, "ider whlc), ""-, 
loay intinde PaiestinB fFilistm]. The name siguitLtB the , "" 1 
sitMled K thft 'left', ax distliigniflhed from EJ- Yemen, or S. Amk-"*^ k 
•fce IsDd Bltaated to the 'right'. The Tnrkiali name tor Syrl» j, '^'»> ' 
Win. TheToik, divided tie oonnlir Into five pash»llo»; AJen 
nipoU, Dunwcni, e«id« (afterwards Aore}, and Palestine S^l 
'U> dttisioB hM been nnieh modlfled In the oonrae of oontnrt l 

The preient divisions are the following: 0^ ^'' "iiay„*l' 
^'«ww, with the 3 »,\i.t9 of Aleppo, M,rMb, and «»'•) C2)n,ei" 
dsp^ndrat ..nj-t of Zflr (mr w-Z*.,. /-gi ^he iHHyet of b,^" 

ta«B rf Beirtt and the ^Bntr/?^'" ^\li «ea and the Jo' *i« ' 

^i',„i;.i.o„;*jfB«ik4. c^i^t, fom., ,n^- 

! l^iW mSTORY. ^„.u, 

i? IWlded into the s»nH8 of Hama , ^'"""'^"^Uarrif of the ^* 

dependent sanj.V ««der * ""j^vonior-geaer'l' 

J of each wlUyet i^ » '^'^ "e„t8 (sa^J*^^!^; 
divided into 80 many dep»rW»«^^| Sg ^i^ded in^ 
«.«te«.mf : each department »««» „ , «»««"»«; 


''I'ose province is divided into so many dep»rWa«^| Sg ^.^ded in^ 

P'e«ded over hy a>„«tejar«f ; each 4«P»^»«'^t »»d.t » «»^^; 

so many divisions ftilmma^mlik, ¥»4»): *^„dtriyeh , n»W»J 

J^w, the divisions again cintaln «8t««te (»^«j;„e8. ^_ , 

"nder mu<«„, a„d thege again aie diTidfed «*«^e only- A««?^: 

in»  ancient statistics v^e possess refer to l-aies petoiah C'*"*^ 

"f*° the oldest historical a^wuent, the ^o^g^* J^qoo, the nat- 

faaJh *^^ '»«» "^P'We of hearing arms »^»^^ * <io«nt8 , t^^^ 

the nu^/^^e^" "iii. ^^ch is also hased "^^^^danoe ^^^J^^ 

we number of the Danite warriors as 600. ^^ "f^^jiters, Nnm»^ 

we must reduce the exaggerated statemeute o*l»*^'^*iie of Dw«»« 

Popuiatioa is afeout 540 pe^ons to each 8<l»»~J°rt,ust have hw* 

tine, not^iti^gtandlng its numerous 'waste Pl««« ' ^ stlU ino«» ^" 

X.?«*®^ I»er 8q,^re mile. Josephus «»8|«^^to^. The area 

o^^^ffas *^« population of Galilee alOne ** » ^^'JoaU or ahout 

of ancent I»a.Xe8tlne is now occupied by ahout 650,000 sou 

o-* persons to tie square mile. 

History of Palestine and Syria. 

.,, '• The same lellcs of preMstoric times are fonvA lu ' jojdan, 

"Kfter coimt;jric>s : numbers of dolmens in the cotmtry U;* ^^ ^^^cmIbsIJ 

^^omioclis, «i.xiLa large artificial tnmnU, the lalttfci ^^f^J^^i^ Fliw* 

'^Otoeroixs xix *lie valley of the Jordan and tlie plain ot »»®*'7 ^^es of > 

'Oois also ±*jr^<lTiently ooon*; l>nt, on the other hand, i»o * 

^o«2:o a^o £k.:ire found. •* ^ould fl«®** 

^. Ftoxxx «lxe 2Egyptian records in stone and papyrus u ^ pj^^ggtiiie 

^^«t, Iji «lxe» eajTliest times known to us, Syria or at Any Tawj 

*««-.R^^*i»ae»s a dependency of Egypt. As regards <»^!**!^i^table 
J;*ctiiros, a.xi^ at^riculture, aie country had reached a not inc«iw^^^ 

^«i§:li.* ore oivxXlsation. The places mentioned in *^®ir! J^fled 
'^^Os'tly "l>e>si.x". -t;l!i.e same names as at the P^®8®^^* ^*y* Ji; atone in- 
*<^^ns J^^s^icl<5Lo and ydfa we^e of special importanofe. '^f^^^^ Xb 
®*^Jlptloxx of <y€x,'rrtac mentions 119 named of pl»«®8 "^^ ^ i *;jiiottgb 
^^I>*actxx o:C Ixi^l* rank , who has left a record of his tra^w 

S^i k ibA ^^^JL^V^^^^ ^' mentions 3S «c>i^i« ^^ ^^^ 

tafeea, m^ itx^s© ^hich udll wander &lK>xit; ±r^^ ^^^ «^all nnm ^ 
fciWe ivTimt^rs- Theae wandering triltes -o^tS. ^^^try in "l^**^ 
TiU^wiwl cannot now be fixed — ficom :E;s'y^^ aT^^ forward 
olSliittitito tbe country E. of the JoxdaTi. rj^ «?*^^ *^® I>enin« f* 
t\iei o^ed the l)a8M of a farther unifonxi t»oH Ji ^^*' leader M * 
^ayelopmeut. Their settlement in tl^e <5oxi^,,j^^^^^l and reliVi ®® 
^M effected very slowly, partly by 5JJ«® o^ ^^irxiia • ^^ the TrS^'*« 

assimiUUon ^Ith the Canaanites. Tlie bo1« -feo^Vi ^*«ly by n^n Z*^ 
/^^^2)esat this period (that of the Judges) ^^^^t?^ ^nioh Cf.^^^1 
ratioii of the national deity rafcM?^*^ l^o tlx^ ii«.J!r® common t« ®** 
nounced, and not Jehovah) , to wliom cori^^^f^^ ®^o«H be^"^^"" 
natfonai god of the Canaanites. Botn ^ere Wo^sh^-^**^®^ -^«'a^ V?' 
places', and for this reason the later -Hel^x^.^ >i^ ?^®^ ^n the '<k« ® 
worship of the high places as idolatry- ^^^torlans regard 'f^ 

n. The attftolB of their western J®lshl>on»« , ^« 

cansed the Israelites more trouble than tlie -^L, ^ ^ ^^^UsHn 
Canaanites in the land. It i& the great meri^ or tK^^*^®** ^Hh ♦t*' 
Samusi. that he discovered the rigbt remedy i^ ^ Patriotic <« ^« 
of a national monarchy and the rigbt man for m ^^^^Uahtn^^^* 

Benjamin. With Sanl hegins the decond period ^?t"^ ''l S^t^^^* 
the period when the whole people -were nnlt©^ 5^^ Israel's hUta' **^ 
nndet one sceptre. This regeneration, howeveT- 2-5 ^^^ ^ftro? ^' 
withont Intertlne struggles. ' <^m not taig ^, ^* 

Simultaneously with Sanl, the Jndean hero r> ^ ^ ^^® 

Jadah, and for a time was *king' of Ziklag und^^e?,?* **e j ' *^e 
tion* On Saul's death David succeeded in makin*. ^^.^^^^e p'^ ^^ 
Jndah, though stUl dependent on the Philistines '°^'^^'Mj3o«'^ 

scene. With a hand of freehooters he roved tliT¥»„«:^ ^^^ on *r 
^ a time was *king' of Ziklag und^'^^^^Sftf' ^*«Vor 

kingdom ^as governed hy Ishhosheth , the sdn'of "«j ^?® '^OftW^ 
hia able general Ahner. It was not until after a -protr*' ^^^ed h 
and after Ahner and Ishhosheth had been assasslna^JT*^ ^*^^grl7 
vid snooeeded in extending his sway over all the tribe **** JD 

Owing to David's energy, the country incSxeased greJ.!^^ ^^^f^el *' 
hoth as regards its internal development and its forei^^ ^^ Po^er 
The €dty of Jehus was wrested from the Jebnsites, and ^^^^^ons ' 
David fonnded a castle which formed the nnolens of hi^^ ^*- Zion 



Kabbah, the eapital of the Ammonites, to bebesieffAT' V^^ <^Wd 

pital of Jerusalem. He next delivered the conntry ftQ ^*«re ca 
stines by his victory in the valley of Rephaim. He then T *^® ^^^^i- 
Moabites and Edomites, the ancient enemies of Israel ^''^'^^ed the 
Syrians, ^ho had come to the aid of the Ammonites f"^^ the 

He not only extended his dominions as far as DamaL*^ <^*P*ured 
put the Syrian prince of Hamath to tribnte. He osLim!' ^^^ ^^en 
sons in ^^e conquered districts, and dniing his reii^ ii f ^ ^^- 

1^ fflSTORY. 

Attained its greatest extent, stretching as fax as the ^entrance ol 
Hamath' towards the 1^., and as far as Tiphsah (Thapsacns) on the 
Euphrates towards the N.E. E^en at a later period these distant 
points theoretically formed the eTtremities of the Israelitish do- 
minions (Ezek. xMi. 16-^; Numb, xxxiv. 8). David, however, 
^as soon threatened with dangers from withlB. His son Ahsalom 
rebelled against him, and the king was compelled for a time to flee 
»>eyoiid Jordan. With the aid of Joab he, at length, succeeded in rc- 
entenng Jerusalem in triumph •, but the Inenrreotion soon broke out 
attesh, as even at this period the northern pTOvinces made common 
cause against the southern, in which the king had his residence. 
, . :? *P**® ^ *11 these conflicts, this ivas a period of remarkable 
weuectual activity. The royal court was gradually organised on 
«Ae model of those of the other nations with whom the Israelites 
«wne In contact. They began also to erect bnildings in a handsomer 
style. David caused a census of his people to be made, and estab- 
lished a standing army and a body-guard. 

Ihe government of Soi-omon contributed still more to develop 
the resources of the country. Solomon proceeded to erect a magnifi- 
cent palace with a spaoions temple (p. 36), and Jerusalem was now 
lortifled. Intercourse witb. neighbouring nations , especially *«rith 
^'^pt, became more active, and trade received a great Impulse. 
Solomon was regarded, at least among later Orientals, as a model 
of a wise monarch. After a brief period of prosperity, the decline of 
the empire began. Damascus threw off the yoke of the Israelites, 
Edom revolted, and dissensions sprang up in the interior. On the 
death of Solomon his kingdom was dismembered. 

in. After the separation of the southern firom the northern king- 
dom, Shechem was constituted the capital of the latter by Jero- 
boam I., but the seat of government was afterwards removed to Sa- 
maria by Omri. Owing to the constant discord and jealousy which 
disquieted the rival kingdoms, as well as their internal dissensions, 
they fell an easy prey to the encroachments of their neighbours. 
The princes of Damasons undertook several successful campaigns 
against the northern Icingdom, and it was not until the reign of 
Jeroboam II. that the kingdom attained to considerable dimensions. 
From this period (a"bont B.C. 603) dates the stele of King Mesha 
of Moab, the most ancient monument bearing a Semitic Insfflription 
that has yet been discovered. While many of the sovereigns were 
zealously addicted to tke worship of strange gods, yet, on the other 
_iand^ the worship o^ Yahweh was essentially advanced by the wrifr- 
"igs otAhnGs, SosetSLy Micah, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and other prophets. 
The advancetconsis-fcoa. mainly in loftier ideas of the moral and spiri- 
*^*ln*t«re olF; tlie» X>€>ity, leading to the conception of Yahweh as 
the God, not niere»Xy of Israel, 1»nt of the whole world. This was a 
oasis on which tto^^ religion of Istael could be preserved and devel- 
oped ahiid the ooiK^ix5« troubles. 


Bf the middle of the 8lh cent, the AMycUns had sneoeeded in 
making seiious en«roaehments apon the northern kingdomi and it 
wa£ only with their assistanoe that King Ahaz, the snooessoi of Jo- 
tham, siMceeded la deCending himself against Israel. He, as well 
u Ms suooessojr Hezekiah, paid tdbute to the Assyrians. In 721, the 
kingdom of Israel was destioyed, the inhahitants sent to the East, 
and colonists sulHstitated for them. In spite of the warnings of Isaiah, 
Hezekiah entered into an alliaaoe with Egypt and Ethiopia, in oon- 
seqnenoe of which Sennacherib of Assyria proceeded to attack the 
allies. The conquest of Jemsalem, however, was prevented by the 
well-known iaoident of the destroetion of Sennacherib's army, 
caoaed possibly by the sudden breaking-ont of a plague. Judah 
now became alternately the victim of Assyria and of Egypt. — One 
of the most important events in the history of the religion of Israel 
is the oentralisatioa of the worship of Yahweh in Jerusalem in the 
daya of Josiah, a movement consequent on the introduction of the 
new book of the law, Deuteronomy. At this time, Jeremiah eom- 
menoed his labours. At length, in 598, the kingdom of Judah was 
virtually destroyed, and Nebuchadnezzar carried off King Jehoiakim 
with 10,000 of the principal inhabitants, including the prophet 
fizekiel, to Babylon. A revolt by the last king Zedekiah resulted 
in the destruction of Jerusalem iu 587 and a second deportation of 
its inhabitants. Soon after this, many Jews, and Jeremiah among 
them, migrated to Egypt. Thus was the ancient Jewish kingdom at 
length thoroughly disintegrated. 

IV. During ike captivity, besides Ezekiel and Jeremiah, there 
floarished also the sublime anonymous prophet who wrote chap- 
ten 40-66 of the Book of Isaiah. In the year 538, Oynis^ after hav- 
ing conquered Babylon, permitted the Jews to return to their native 
country. Those who availed themselves of this permission were al- 
most exclusively natives of the southern kingdom , which accord- 
ingly thenceforth formed the principal part of the Jewish state. The 
erection of the new Temple, which had long been obstructed by the 
Samaritans and other neighbouring nations, was chiefly promoted 
^Y the prophets Haggai and Zachariah (516), but the new edifice 
fell far sh(»rt of the splendour of that of Solomon. Ezra, however, 
and Nehemiah established a set form of ritual, following Ezekiel and 
the priestly legislation in Leviticus and Numbers. At a later period, 
the Samaritans erected a sanctuary of their own on Mt. Gerizim. 

V. The Maobi>onian Supsbxaot begins in 332, but after 
Alexander's death Palestine became the scene of the wars between 
the ^Diadochi', as his successors were called. Military colonies and 
Oreek towns were founded in the interior of the country. Greek 
culture soon made rapid progress in Syria. The ruins of Graeco- 
fioman theatres, even in out-of-the-way places, thereUcs of templftfl. 
the inseriptions, and coins, show that the ideas and the ritual of the 
cultured (dasses of Syria had in time become thoroughly Greek. The 

Je,. adhered Biost "^e-f"^*^" paTually l.e«*^ ^ese^vld 1.y *h« 
3td cent., the Ma.tnaxo l»i\8*^ ,*{ the l»*to' Tltf «f olxiefly dissem- 

hiemohy. Gteet also came ^n»'^^ ^KyP* ' ^*^^ evett to'»t* 
InaUd through t^e JeN^ish ^^'"i m«ng the J^J'* -^^n, the hi«sb- 
tookBwere tianslated into G^'L X, »ideA hy ^"f ''^e state. ^ 
* P«ty fayoutaWe to «x« ^^"f ''glpteme pP^er *^ *^*hioh King 
Priest, snoceeded iu sectxring t»t_„ie took pl««e» ^^_ aeseoiation 
wnsequence ot this, a ftetce f ;?f ' » severely- ^^''^t *li« ^"^ 
Antioohna Epiplianes chastised the J ^^^ '^TJa-r^^hoBe 8on 

0/ their temple had teeiv the '?'*J^^t Matta-thlaB C*-®^; Syriaa" in 
ftkeinsuxiei^ts^aa the heroic vnert» ^^f«a.tittK *^* "{Tto !« 

Jo<J<M Afacc»h»Ti8 at length <^^<^^ lestorea the l^empi ^^If 

wverai li*xdly contested ^»"^<«' '^^nC ox >*»°^\1t^oio8veton8 
'""red uses- TJndeT tte Asmonean T?"^^'oonip«»*^^**J S^ ieco»<* 
''tie 2nd oeixt. B.CO, the Jews e^oyeda^ ^ddle of thej 
>«rio<J of ixatioT!..! independence, and m ^^iAel».hly ex^ ^^le 

*o,attli^ s 

^'^r';r^5«x^sX----^^~^^^ thiB d.«^^j,', 

nan 8ia^_«^«^^*]r- " Jted In the goveTtime^t tUe id ,_ j„ 

^O, the Paxthians 
of that *''^ 

, Paxthians pl^nidexed Syria ^^^^^^^^tdug ^f 
liat period Herod sticoeoded vo. " ^^tre^^fi 

governorslilp of Jxid«a. It ^*® /;. he aotuaU^ 

^ sole governorslilp of Jxid«a. It ^*® -^. ^e aotuaU^ 
r After he had coi\q.iierod JeT^salom, ^J* ^^le B^" 

Vlis office. He was etvtixely sxibsetj^ent w ^^ ^^^ 
^«ed many handsoTiie edlAces to Ta© f^®.^ ^^tthe 
"-^^e also caused %^& Temple to \>e ^^'^^f^y M *^^ 
^^©d faithful to tlieix law, xepxesented ^"^.^^^ snd 
IV ^^* *^® pressxixe of liis teTxipoxaV j^ax^*** 
'^^^ 5^11 their affairs l>y a. foxeign po^w^eT. ^tve''b©P^ 

>:«^^^ ^.O. 4, Herod tlxe Oxeat died, ^'^^^'^ }^j^ wet^ 
^^^^^^t monarch's xeign. Tlie domlnioTiS oi J^^^^^t^w, 
'•^^Xo Philip ^exe gi^rexi -tlie districts of **^® Ju^ip*; 
' - -t>«^e GaUlee and :Pexaea, to A^xolielans ^»'^*^*' W to 
^ "^^^^jlii A.I>. 6, tlie toTxitoxy of A^xclvelatva ^^ '^^18 of 
^,^oce of Syria, l>iit; wa.s ^o^exned "by P^^^^>^«Mfle 
^^forv»xd,t^^patxiotio p&xty stmong the JeV*/®^.^e8 
^^otiistic to the foreign -yolsLe. T'onnding *^®^J^:!Lv 
^ed ^^^^ «Po^^ of ^ ITirtwe Itingdom, in ^'^^^Vtf i) 
^srijoy independence , x\^^y e:jtp^ted the MeBBi»^ «> 


bring to them political deliyeranee, whereas Christ himself declared 
that his kingdom was not of this world. £nfariated by this announce- 
ment, they compelled Pilate , the R^man governor, to yield to their 
desires and to cmcify their Victim. The power of the native princes, 
such as Herod Agrippa I., who was the last prince to unite the whole 
ofHeiod's kingdom under one monarch and Agrippa II., whose share 
of Jewish territory was, strictly speaking, confined to a few towns 
in Galilee, became merely nominal as that of the Roman governors 
increased. At length , in consequence of the maladministration of 
Oeegius Florins, a national insurrection broke out with great 
violence. Jerusalem itself was governed by several different parties 
in suooession, but it was at length captured by Titus, A. D. 70, 
when the Temple was destroyed and many of the Jews slain. 
Although part of the people was scattered , and those who remained 
in the country were now completely powerless , their rage against 
their oppressors burst forth afresh on one other occasion. Under the 
leadeiship of Simton, sumamed Bar Coehba (^son of the star'), who 
wu recognised by the celebrated Rabbi Ben Aklba as the Messiah, 
they revolted against the Romans, and suooeeded in carrying on the 
war for 31/2 yw. (132-135), after which the Insurrection was quelled 
aud the last remnant of the Jewish kingdom destroyed. Jerusalem 
became a Roman colony, and the Jews were even denied access to 
their ancient capital. 

During these last centuries, however, and even later, Jewish 
litexature continued to be cultivated. The learning of the schools, 
vMch, in connection with the written law, had hitherto been hand- 
ed down by oral tradition only, was now committed to writing, and 
thm the Talmud came into existence between the 3rd and 6th cent- 
luies A.D. On the other hand, the germs of a different kind of 
literature also sprang up among the early Christian communities. In 
N. Syria the Gentile, and in S. Syria the Jewish Christians predo- 
niinited, while the Gnostic systems which arose in the East in the 
W cent gained considerable ground even in Syria. 

Since the beginning of the Greek period Antioch had become, 
and continued to be, the most important town in Syria. It was 
bounded by Seleucus Nicator and named after his father. At the 
>une time, Damascus continued to flourish as the chief seat of the 
««avan trade. Throughout Syria at this period the Aramaic lan- 
S^e, a dialeet akin to Hebrew, was chiefly spoken, although the 
Greek language and culture were gradually being introduced. Un- 
der the Greek, and afterwards under the Roman supremacy, there 
>pnng up , even in remote parts of the country, numerous edifices 
0' great splendour. About the beginning of our era, Palmyra, in par- 
tienlar, was noted for the magnificence of its architecture. For a 
considerable time it was the capital of an important, independent 
empire, and its monuments of the later Roman period still bear wit- 
ness to its ancient glory. NotwithsUnding the growth of Roman in- 


« -4 *nd «xc& loTUidation of lAany BoBian oolonieg, it is, 

ftuenoe in Sytl»j "f^et^^iou, that after tiie beginning of the AraM^ 

bo^©vei,^o^"j' - j^^ lEtoman names were superseded by the old 

siiptemaoy t°^^7. ^l. xn»t;ead of Ptolemals), a proof that western 

Semitic 0*^^ T foV^n. ^e^xy deep root. 

cBltuie ^»^^f ^ fti± -614, the whole of Chrwtian Syria, in-- 

VU. In Au.i^. .^xeflted from the Eastern Romwi empire by 

cUding^aieatitt®' ^ ^g^^ ^^^ severed from it for ten yeaii, soon 

Chosroca, Kxug ^* ^^^ proved a still nwte fonnidable foe to the 

after whiflh the ^^^ ^ time immemorial nomadio tribes of Aiaha 

Byzautltte emperow. m^ ^ as f« as Mesopotamia (comp. 

had ranged ^^^^J^^f^^^^^ centuries of our era ptemoaitory symptoms 

^;^*^-. ^"TI^^tTio^^g e^PanBion had manifested themselves 

^^ *^7ti!^!f tri^r X^onseqmeE^ of the distress caused by wars 

iucB), their diff«ences with whom gave rise to *^^ •^S^'^J J^ 
oftheiJr««tesand r«me»««, which were prolongedjtoost down 
to modern Umes. For centuries before the P'O'^^*'^^^^' ^^^ 
Islam the A]»bs had everywhere, in Syria as well as on the 
Euphrates, been a thorn in the side of the tottering Byzantoe 
«"^Pire, bit now that they were united they proved a most fiMrm- 
idable foe -^ 

This union of the scattered tribes was effected by Mohammbd 
C«®e p. Ixxxv^ whose doctrines a^»>tened in the Arabs that religious 
enthusiasm which prompted them to underUke their marveUously 
S'lccessful campai^is o^ **^« 7tli and foUowing centuries, thongn 
^ope of plund^ was doubtless a, strong additional inoenUve. As 
«*rly as the beirfnm»g of the reign of 'Omar, the second klwlW, 
^^ose political energry «>ntribix*ed quite as much to the con- 
«oJUdation of the A^tLhUn sway »s the 'revelations' of the prophet, 
Syria was thrown open to the .A^r&U by the bloody battle of the 
?ieromyoe8 CYarm^ii^J ^ ^34, axx^ at the beginning of the follow- 
V^«^ year Damascus ^»s CapturoCL by the generals KhMid an* 
'^^^ 'Ubeida W^xtlxin a short period the Byzantmes lost the 
^^ole of Syria as f»r ^ Alepx^o , and 'Omar himself was pre- 
*f,^* *t the oapitnlation of Jeru»^lei»- I» °^*^? ^t *^® ^^^ *»<^ 
J'^iages Arabian military coloni^fi ^«® ^^^ pUnted. The moat 
f^oiioufl part of tlii« period of SyrUn histor^T began with the 
f?f*fi8ination of '-AW, the son-ir^-la^ of the prophet, and fooctth 
*^*ltf. A poUtical reaction on ^fcfao part of the hleccan anstoosj^^ 
J^ Arabia had sprcuas up against ^^h^^ pa^enus ^f J^^«^ ori^u. 
l""^ it was onlyaf^er the unpre^c^eaented successes of the Hn^^Uii 
^^8 tbat the countrymen of ]S^ol^*mmed began to appxeciiat^ ^^^^ 


MlTO^e'-'l*''!,"?]!;"^*''- Many beUever., however, .dhered 
^,Ksi^ the rightfri Jicegerent of the proph«« , and'e"„ '^ 

iAi«ii*»tfte.«nte«t«>ctof the «Afrt« (p. cntrr), wUoh stiU exist* 
iiiVn!l», took 1«« origin. Nati^al hatred, *oo, eontiibuted greatly 
tiibmeatthoqnMrel, and a series of bloody eonflioto ensaed. The 
Mmaa thttoenis, howeyer, oonq«ered 'All , and tbe a«at of the 
/ii^te ir» transfened iy MuOyiiya from Medtna to Damaecns. 
iK^n soeeeeifA In seennngthe hereditary liyht to the khall- 
We fc-n Ito dfl»«end«i»t» , the Omayyadea , many ot whom prored 

»«t fitted »d «»*^'*^'!;?"fh« M f-^*" ^"'*"« **"» '«*«" »' 
M.1tJ^hetMe««J»**'*^/L? J^;'5i.*"\« penetrated eaatwardg 
utaialBfla and Oentrri Asia, woatwards as far a« the Atlantic 

S Jdt^-^e»*^J**\::/'\" ^^-f**^""^!- The ancient 

I -nrt emotn a despo*"™' ^*h » court Of constantly ineieasing 

l^ «tt.»l^y «m««octed \»fW"»«»-_^ »*ri«t adherence to the 

«mn«4e!, W their religion was essentially subordinated to 

1 re«c^ w lueirltaMe, and It was in Persia that it first showed 

iteU. Keliglotts duestlons afforded a pretext for intrigues against 

tli.0m»7ySle.. The yowerfnl f«mily of the 'Abbjuidet, who were 

.bo of Meoean origin, wed eyery •■^'liable means for the realisation 

\ of thrit amMtioxis sohemes, and at length aooomplished their object 

ky the cruel aMSSsinatlon of the (taiayyades CJ^O). The central 

polBt of the empite was now removed to the banks of the Euphrates 

tnd the Tleris As had already heen the case under several of the 

Omtyyades, 8^ agiAn hecame the theatre of fierce party-struggles, 

wUlepoUtUjalrivibles were aggravated by the dissensions of rehgioag 

sects, some of which manifested commnnistlo tendencies and plotted 

tnii^t the existing ooMtitutlon. The poUtioal history of the Arab 

raleis of tikese oentuiies presents a continuous scene of war and 

Woodshed, accompanied by an interminable series ot wteotane dig. 

.ensions, intrigues, and murders At the same ^i*"*' ^^T"'*'' «8pe- 
daUy during the leign of Hardn «-Ba.ft»d, the Arabs b^n to 

mantfest a greater taste for scieutlflc kno^vledge f- °'™\«»' of 
schools of iSlosophy were founded in Syria, "^ P»^«°^»rty at 

Damasous. The Arab scholars ol>*»l"<^,*^*','"'°^i*;?«* from at'^^k 
philosophers from the Syrians, whose Uteratore, ^f**"* *J°°,* Poet- 
Christli. epoch, flonrished for a prolonged period, /'^n nnde, ^^^ 
MS.r«,^e. 'so, too, « acquaintance with medxrfne,a^^^^ 
and matheiatlo. reached the Arabs 4i"ctly»r indirectly through ^^^ 
Greeks ; and. Indeed, in no department of science did *hey exhibn 
much 6rigln«Uty. Even In works on the 8~f f »»*,^Vl*'t''°*^*^ of 
their own language, a subject which they treated with great aounxe^, 

Palestine and Syria. 2nd ed. 

mSTORT. Ixvli 

chiefs of nolnadio Turkish tribes, who now for the ilrst time made 
ihdi appearance as oonqnerors in western Asia. In seyeral parts of 
Syria the Aaatusins (p. xcrvi), a seot who nnsompulonsly practised the 
crime named after them, possessed considerable power, and eren 
occupied a number of fortresses. It was by their hand that Niz&m 
el-Mnlk, tiie great vizier of the all-powerful Seljok MaUkshah 
(1072-92), wag murdered. After Malekshah's death the empire 
of the Seljnks was divided, one branch establishing Itself at 
Damasons, another at Aleppo. 

Vm. These interminable disorders within the Muslim empire 
contribiited greatly to the snecess of the first intrepid little bands of 
the Okusabbbs. Baldwin succeeded in conquering N. Syria as far 
as Mesopotamia, and Bohemnnd captured Antioch in 1098*, but 
Damascus successfully resisted every attack. Even among the 
Ghilgtians, however, much discord and jealousy prevailed; their 
enthusiasm for the holy cause soon grew cold, and political con- 
siderations again became paramount. It was not until after the 
capture of Jerusalem (15th July, 1099) that the Muslims became 
folly aware of the danger which threatened them from the Crusaders. 
But the jealousies among the Muslim rulers enabled the Christians 
to maiatain themselves for a considerable time, although with 
varying fortunes, at Edessa, on the coast of the Mediterranean, and in 
Palestine. Oodfrey de Bomllony the first king of Jerusalem (d. 1 100), 
was succeeded by his 'brother Baldwin I. About the beginning of the 
reign of the next king, Baldwin JI. (1118), the European conquests in 
the East had reached their cUmax, and at the same period were founded 
the orders of the Knights ofBU John and the Templars , which were 
destined to become the great champions of Christianity in the East. 

Instead, however, of concentrating their forces and advancing on 
Damascus, the Crusaders contented themselves with repeated attempts 
to capture the city. Politically they were weak and incapable. 
In 1136, the victorious progress of the Franks was effectually 
checked by the opposition of the bold emtr Zengi. In N. Syria 
John, the Byzantine emperor, again attempted to interpose, his 
designs being hostile to Christians and Muslims alike, but was 
obliged to retire, whereupon Edessa also declared itself in favour 
of Zengi (1144). At the time of his death Zengi was master of 
Mosul, Mesopotamia, and a great part of Syria, and he bequeathed 
the principality of Aleppo to his son Ni^eddtn. The second con- 
quest of Edessa by the latter in 1146 gave rise to the Second Crusade 
(1147-49). The Franks, however, met with no success, and the 
capture of Damascus was frustrated by the intrigues of Oriental 
Christians. Niireddtn wrested many of their possessions from the 
Franks, and at last captured Damascus also, which had hitherto 
been occupied by another dynasty. In 1163, he sent an expedition 
against Egypt under his general Shirkuh, who was associated with 
the Curd SaWi cd-JDIn (Saladin). The laUer, a man of singular 


energy, soon b^''™^^^ *" making Mmself master of Egjpt; and 
stwn Nfttedd>«"» *«»*!' i" 1173, he took sdTBnWg-© ot ibe dit- 
(ensioiu la ST^' *^ oonqaeT that conntr]' iIbo, and tbne beume 
ihe most ds,ngeTOos enemy of the iaolited poeaesslooi ot the 
Franks. A bie»ci of truce by the weak Guy of LiiBlgmn, King 
ol Jernaalem, »t length led to war. In 1187, at the battle o/H»ttJn 
; (p-249;), Sal«diQ signally defeated theFrankB, after which (fca wMe 

I o'P»le»tine fell into Mb poBBCBBion; but he treated the OhrlstianB 

^th lenienoy. The fall of JernBaleiQ canaed saoli Bensatlon fn the 
West, that » Third Ctosade waB undertakan. Frederick I., Emperor 
otaermany, who headed the expedition was drowned fn Ciliola, 
I oMoieieaohingtheHolyLand. The town of'AkkafSt.Jeand'Acre), 

^^.'.^""6 "iage, chiefly conducted by the vesBels of French and 
ou^t"nf T **^"' '•' ** '^''S'l' »ptnred in 1191; but the con- 
amoiie t»> J^"'*"" ""* prBTented by the outbreak otdlssenBion* 
of En,i, .. "^'**"' ParticBlarly between Richard Ccenr de Lion 
digisTof , T ""^ ^''^"P Augwtn. of France. In spite of pro- 
'antaaea ni.V'?' °° *''*' P"^ °' ^e English monarch, the BOle ad- 
were the nnft ^^-^ *''' ""^ ^'""^^ f™" 3»1'"1*° »* *''« *""""« **"* 
misaion for m^*^-"" °' " narrow strip of the coast district, and per- 
departure of .fc '™^ '** '***' JecnMlem. Ssladln died soon after the 
Bl-'Adil »a, 'ranks ; his empire was dismembered; and Meilfc 
The Fourth Ct""a ""^ °"^^ forwidablo antagonist of the Framks. 
»B little aa n.'i'*^^C1204;) promoted Fraukish Interests lo Palestine 
of Rsa, Genoa i"*' '" ^<'"' "' these cruBsdee the Italian dtiea 
to th-'- ' »nd Veiiine had actively participated with a -view 

^"^' " Interests. The Fifth Crusade, led by King 

"*" ^fi217J, was equally Dnsuccessful. At length, 

^J' "' ' affairs beiny highly favourable to his enterprise, 

g,"P^ " Frederick II. , who had been compelled fey the 

^"° crusade, had tbe good fbrtune to obtain poBsea- 

pg(( ' ^ convention fox a period of ten years (12293- 

"rmv * "Pfii '* **^ scene of unintermpted fenila among the 

^ipedl't^'^ ""''* enT*' P"rtI«Dlariy the EVy"6''''^«- I" I'WOi ^ French 

by St ; P'Ot-etj ^*^Oured to gain a fooling in Palestine, bnt the 

ZX lu"'' '" iaJo ^'S"^^ failare. The last Ctnsade, nndertoken 

•WonjA ^^""■iiie ' "'** equally froltlosa. 

""d a( , *"" '^tfaj ' ''^'^ enemy appeared on the scene. The ICharea- 
?*'""* ™«"' "ett, * 'isja began to devastate Syria fn the year 1240, 
\r^'"'*hm ^^er^^iun. Syria, bat, oiring to the Inoessant wsrs 

rj^^itn ' /^"^r^ t, dynasties, vpero afterwards driven tonaids 

n^'' « cn,f*^ "* *««**'>' treated the Christiana with great omelty. 
„,'''■' Of „,^ nw^lother change. - Various princ«B, inacoordanne 
b'^'*»J P'O'ldio ">1» had been pro^a-len'fcr centnrtae, were In the 
^JJeik^^^'^^Sed !*"6m8elvefl witla » body-guard composed partly 
«»eao inH,^/or the purpose, generally of Tnrkish origin, in 
'^ slaves 8tiooo«ded In nsurplng the raptema 

. mSTORT. lilx 

power. Eibek, the flist foundei of a BfAKBiiUXB dynaaty, had to 
imdergo many oonflicts with Nasiif the Eyynbide prince of N. Syria, 
before he gained possession of Syria. The Mongol* now assumed 
a more and more threatening attitude towards Syria. They had 
long since put an end to the empire of the khaltfs at Bagdad, and 
they now directed their attacks against NUir. HiUa^ captured 
Aleppo (Haleh) about 1260, after which he continued his Tlctorious 
career through Syria. Damascus, haying surrendered, was spared. 
On reaching the confines of Egypt, however, HiUagCL was compelled 
to retire; and th,e Mameluke Sultan Kotuz, with the aid of his 
famous general BeibarSj recovered nearly the whole of Syria from 
the Mongols. Beibars himself now usurped the supreme power, and 
maintained his authority against both Mongols an Franks. He 
captured Ciesarea and Ars^f in 1265, Safed and YiU, in 1266, and 
Antloch in 1268, and reduced the Assassins of Syria to great extrem- 
ities. Not a year passed without his personally undertaking some 
campaign, and to this day, many towers and fortifications in Syria 
bear hia name. He died in 1277, and his degenerate son was de- 
throned in 1279 by the emir KU&wiin , who maintained his autho- 
rity in Syria by force of arms, and has left many memorials ot his 
glorioufi reign. He encroached so much on the possessions of the 
Franks, that they retained a few towns on the coast only ; and at 
length, after the storming of Acre in 1291, they were completely 
driven out of Palestine. 

After this period the history of Syria presents few points of 
interest. The contests of the Mamelukes, and, after 1382, those of 
the Circassian sultans, those of the native princes and the Mongolian 
governors, and particularly those of the Ilkhaus of Persia, continued 
incessantly, but few of these princes are worthy of special mention. 
In the year 1400, the condition of Syria was farther aggravated by 
a gieat predatory incursion of the Mongols under Timur^ on which 
occasion multitudes of the inhabitants were butchered. Many of the 
scholars and artists of the country, including the famous armourers 
of Damascus, were carried to Samarkand. 

X. In the year 1516, war broke out between the Osmaks and 
the Mamelukes, and the latter were defeated to the N. of Aleppo 
by Sultan Seltm. The whole of Syria was conqueted by theOsmans, 
and thenceforward the country shared the fortunes of the Osman 
dynasty. The sultans claim to be the successors of the khallfis ; 
that is , they maintain the form of the ancient theocratic constitu- 
tion. As soon, however, as the first flower of the Osmans had 
passed away, the inferiority of the Turkish race to the Arabian 
became apparent. To this day, the government is carried on in the 
same way as it was under Selim, and the formal pretence of ad- 
ministration by rapidly changing pashas still continues. 

Napoleon I., when returning from Egypt, captured Y&fa in 1799 
and laid siege to Acre. He defeated the Turks on the plain of 



ML , lJaX»3C®^'^' ^liat betteT 

^ .^A aa tat as Safed ai^^^^geA s^^.^^uS leforms, 

ipTeaeiv^ c^TiWT^, ^^^^''^^:;» fi^AQ 39^ effected ^ilitia <m J- 

estaMiBlieA a tegulat class of omoialB, *^^^^enta^ 8^^^ 
lE\iTopean model. Of late yeais, a le^ «^ -fe^lit "Pasl^a'' 

ruBhdtych) \iave \)eeii founded. ti-oBtatt J® ^^^ tlitV* 

'AMallaH Pasha, son of the ^^^f^^^^^^t in ^*^*f o^fegy^^l 
having rendexed himself almost ^n^^2^''tlZeri^^^ "^^^ ^r^^^ 
afforded a pretext to Mohammed *Ali, t^® ??a«11-^. ^®^*?^^Tii8e^!« 
to intervene forcibly in the affairs of SynaCi^^^^^ of the *^\^^^ 

in alliance with the Emtr BesliiT Cp- ^^^3' * iJf olxaifti»®^ ' . *; ^ai^'' 
and with his aid Ibr&htm Pasha, son *^^ ^^^* his ^^»^^*^ ^oi^? 
general who had already acquired e^P^f %^*^^^A the 'Ttitlts ax ^^^^^ 
paigns, captured Acre and Damascus, *^*®*^!^ \iB victonous *- 
and Beilan in N. Syria, and even extended J^ ^.^ match towas 

beyond the confines of Syria. He then co^*^^^!L gtiU i<^^? ^^tftned 
Constantinople, and his success might l^a^^.^^r^rticulat, ^^*®^^ ^he 
had not the European powers, and Russia ^^ ^ ^en EgYP* *^~„,cv 
for the purpose of bringing about a pe*«® ,?? «ot, hoT^^evet, ™;^ 
Porte. The Egyptian supremacy in Syria <^^J^ taxation and con 
improve the condition of that unhappy ^^^^^ |>'efore. Mo^amme^ 
scription continuing to be as burdensome »^ g judicious ; »»^ 

'All meant well, l>ut his measures were not ai^^j^.^^ ^^^^ght upon 
being A parvenu, lie exhibited a tyrannical ®P^^^--,,^ection htoke out 
him the hatred of the Syrians. In 1834, *^, "' g,|^ thePxuses and 
against him in Palestine, l>ut was quelled, a}*^^^^ lg39, at Nisib, 
f>f ^^f ^"^^^^ ^^^^^ fa^ from being suhdued. ^^^ Turks. Mean- 
w^lf ^i^^!f.* ^^^^^^ -mother bVant ^^^^JiJ^ in c^^^^^ 

J^ebanon^evo^^^^ imposed on the land, «*^*fil\^reupon withdrew 
'^ P^ot^oZlll^ ^1*^^ F'«^«^ g^^^^r during the same year, 
**e ^oineTrW ^''^^^o^ammed. At length, /^^^.-gtria regained 
^^^•- ^oHie /;^?^i« intervention of England *f f^^'^en turned 
^"''^Bt theX ^^^^^^ "Ahdul-Meiid, the scale ^a^^^.„_e of Acre 
'^ >ei- T^^^r^^"^^ ^y thf bombardment ^^^^^^^f^'^l 
^,J^oe thatZ^^X^^^^ authority was now '^;^«**^7rd5floultle^ to 
el^'^^^tbo^fJ^^^ *^« Turks have had considerate difllou 
^^l.^ozn^r^^i^*^ *^e greatconflictof religions opinio^^^^^^^ 
T'^^s ofy^iZ^'^^^^^ to all alike. The last «>f the innum 
?^- i>. 5iT) ^'^^^^rt* ixas been the theatre was the ^^^f Jro^^I 
^^^c interim* '^ *^** occasion France, as the g^»*^!*^^^^,^*^ 
^y^a, and *^* «^^* a body of troops to Protect the Ohnsttan^ 
^^erable «^^^^^^ *^« disturbed districts to he occupied for 

formta ^^JP - »Mi<ie that intexvention tlie X^ehanon ^^^tnot h^s 
'll is^r^ ^"^^^ ^"^ l-^dependent sanoalgL Qp. IvU^J, the go^etnot ^f 
^equiT^^. ^o -pxof ess the Christian religion. 



Cluroixological Table. 

^"Kronology. "CTjp 

-tl&e Sil>lA 9,Te inBuffieient for tbe constraction of 
-to -tike period of the exile, therefore, the dati 
a. ozLly l>e taken ae approximate. 







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to ** c^ 

ri "^ 02 

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t" b- t- 













(0 o 


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S d "S 
^ S Jj 

d « 



















Bftsekiah. Alliance with Egypt. Sennaelierib inyades Judah 
when on hit expedition against Egypt. 



Josiah , under the guidance of Jeremiah and Zephaniah, 
centraliaes the worship of Jahweh. Josiah falls whilst 
fighting against the Egyptians at Megiddo. The king- 
dom dependent on Pharaoh-Necho, King of Egypt. 

Jehoahaz, son of Josiah, dethroned by Pharaoh-Kecho. 

Eliakim, brother of Jehoahaz, made king by Kecho under 
the name of Jehoiakim. Syria tributary to Egypt. Af- 
ter Neeho''s defeat at Garchemish, Jehoiakim serves 
ITebuchadneazar, but rebels after three years. 

Jehoiachin. Nebuchadnezzar takes Jerusalem and carries 
the inhabitants away captiyes. 

Zedekiah, uncle of Jehoiachin, relying on Pharoah-Hophra, 
King of Egypt, rebels against Nebuchadnezzar. 

Siege of Jerusalem j destruction of the Temple ^ the 
princes carried away captiye to Babylon ^ others flee 
to' Egypt. End of the kingdom of Jud4h. 

The Babylonians besiege Tyre (13 years). 

Jehoiachin is released from prison by Eyil-merodach. 

By permission of Gyrus, Zerubbabel and Jeshua conduct 
about 50,000 of the Jews back to Palestine. 

Foundation of the Second Temple. Its erection obstructed 
by the Samaritans. 

Completion of the Temple. Establishment of the ritual 
by the priests and Leyites. 

During the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, Ezra brings 
back 6000 Jews. 

Kehemiah, cupbearer of Artaxerxes, is appointed go- 
yemor of Jerusalem, and fortifies the city. Erection of 
a temple on Ht. Oerizim. 

Sidon destroyed by the Persian king Artaxerxes Ochus. 

Alexander the Great conquers Syria after [the battle of 


Tyre captured and destroyed. The Jews submit to Alexan- 
der. Andromachus , and afterwards Memnon , goyemor 
of Palestine. 

Ptolemy takes possession of Syria and Palestine. 

Antigonus wrests Palestine from him. 

Beginning of the era of the Seleucidse. 








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636 et seq. 

Partition of the kingdom. Birth of Christ. 

Qairinios appointed proconsul. Judas Gaulonites rebels 

in consequence of the appointment of Roman procurators. 
Gaiaphas, high-priest. 
Pontius Pilate appointed governor. 
Ministry of Christ. Crucided about 31. 
MaruUus succeeds Pilate. 

Revolt of Theudas.quelledby the procurator Cuspins Fadus. 
Cumanus, procurator. 
Felix, procurator of Judeea. 
Porcius Festus, procurator, resides at Csesarea. 
Gessius Florus, procurator of Judeea, causes the outbreak 

of a rebellion. 
Vespasian conquers Galilee. 
Titus captures Jerusalem. Lucilius Bassus and Flavins 

Syiva quell the insurrection in the rest of the country. 
Bar Cochba, acknowledged as the Messiah by the Rabbi 

Akiba, is, put down. 
Ammius Rufus, governor of Palestine. 
Bar Cochba heads a predatory war against the Romans. 

Bar Cochba captures Jerusalem. Julius Severus, «eat by 

Hadrian, storms Jerusalem. 
Bar Cochba slain. Jerusalem converted into a heathen 

colony, under the name of iElia Capitolina. 
Antonius Heliogabalus of Emesa, Emperor of Rome. 
Philip Arabs of the Hauran, Emperor of Rome. 
Odenatus, King of Palmyra. 
Aurelian defeats Zenobia and destroys Palmyra. 
Constantine the Great. Recognition of Christianity. 
Pilgrimage of St. Helena to Jerusalem. 
Justinian I. 

Chosroes II., King of Persia, conquers Syria and Palestine. 
Heraclius , Emperor of Byzantium , reconquers these pro- 
Birth of Mohammed. 
Mohammed's flight (Hijra) from Mecca to El Medina 

(16th July). 
Death of Mohammed. 
Abu Bekr, father-in-law of Mohammed, first Ehaltf. The 

general Kh&lid conquers Bofra in Syria. 
'Omar, Khalif. 
Defeat of the Byzantines on the TarmAk. Syria falls into 

the hands of the Arabs. Damascus, Jerusalem, and 

Antioch captured. 



6U-656 'Othman, Kh«I!f. 

666-661 rj^li, Khaltf. 

661-679 Ma<&wiya, tbe first Klwllf of the fttmily of the Omay- 

yadet, makes Damasciis bis Tesidenee. 
680-683 Yerid I. 
683-685 M erwin I. ; he defeats the Keisites in the neighbourhood 

of Damascns. 
685-706 'Abd el-Melik. Battles with 'AbdalUh Ibn es-Znbeir at 

Meoea (602) and with 'Abd er-Rahman (704). 
705-715 Welid I. ; the Arabian supremacy extended to Spain (711). 
715-717 Suleimftn defeats the Byzantines. 
717-720 'Omar H. 
720-724 Yeaid II. 
724-743 Hishim. 
743-744 Welid U. 

744 Teoidlll.} rerolt in Palestine. — - Ibr&him, brother of 

Yesid, reigns for a few months. 

745 Merw&n II. deprives Ibrfthim of bis authority. Continued 

disturbances in Syria. 
760 Merw&n defeated by the 'Abbasides at the battle of the 
Z&b. The central point of the kingdom removed to 
'Ir&k (Bagdad). 
780 (1) Ahmed ibn Tulikn, governor of Egypt, conquers the whole 

of Syria. 
901 (2) Rise of the turbulent sect of Garmates. 
934 (5) Ifchshid, founder of the dynasty of Ikhshides, appointed 

governor of Syria and Bgypt. 
944-967 Self ed-DauIeh, a Hamdahide, fights against the Greeks and 
the Ikhshides at Aleppo. 
969 The Fatimites conquer Egypt, and, after repeated attempts, 
the whole of Syria also. Continued struggles. 
107O (1) Rise of the Seljuks, who gradually obtain possession of 
the whole of Syria — capturing Damascus about 1075, 
and Antioch about 1085. 
108B Beginning of ihe first Crusade ; Godfrey de Bouillon, Bald- 
win, Bohemund, Raimund IV. 

1098 The Crusaders oapture Antioch. 

1099 Baldwin declared prince of Edessa. Conquest of Jerusalem. 

Godfrey d6 Bouillon king \ defeats the Egyptians at Ascalon. 
1100-1118 Baldwin I. , King Of Jerusalem. The Franks capture Ose- 

sarea, Tripoli, and Beirfit. 
1104-1128 Togtektn, Prince of Damascus, defeats the Franks. 
1118-1131 Baldwin II. ; under him the Frank dominions reach their 

greatest extent. 





















Falke of Anjoa, King of Jerusalem. 

Baldwin III., conquers Acre in 1153. 

Kiireddin, son of Zengl, mler of N. Syria, captures Da- 
mascns (dynasty of the Atabekes) \ he takes Edessa and 
oppresses the Franks. 

Second Crusade, under Louis VU. of France and Con- 
rad III. of Germany. 

The Franks endeavour to capture Damascus, of which l^Ar- 
eddSn gains possession six years later. 

Amalrich, King of Jerusalem, undertakes a campaign 
against Egypt. 

Salah ed-Din (Saladin), the Eyyubide, puts an end to the 
dynasty of the F&timites in Egypt, 

Baldwin IV., the Leper. 

Victory of the Franks at Bamleh. 

Saladin becomes master of the whole of Syria, except the 
Frank possessions. 

Baldwin V. 

Guy of Lusignan. 

Saladin gains a victory at Hattin , and conquers nearly the 
whole of Palestine. 

Third Crusade, under Frederick Barbarossa, Bichard Coeur 
de Lion, and Philip Augustus. 

Saladin cedes the sea-board from Tftfa to Acre to the 
Franks. Death of Saladin. 

Fifth Crusade. Frederick II. obtains Jerusalem, etc. 
from Kamil, Sultan of Egypt. 

The Kharesmians, invited to aid the Egyptians, ravage 

The Mongols under HMagtl conquer N. and Central 
Sjrria, and penetrate as far as the Egyptian frontier. 

Beibars , the Mameluke Sultan of Egypt , recaptures Da- 
mascus, and defeats the Franks (1265-1268). 

Kil&wtln, Sultan of Egypt. 

His son, Melik el-Ashraf , puts an end to the Frank rule 
in Palestine. 

Timurlenk (Tamerlane) conquers Syria. 

Selim I. wrests Syria from the Mamelukes and Incorpo- 
rates it with the Turkish empire. 

Fakhreddin, emir of the Druses. 

Napoleon conquers TiLfa. Battle of Mt. Tabor. Retreat. 

Mohammed 'Ali Pasha of Egypt \ his adopted son Ibrftbtm 
conquers Syria, and the country is ceded to Egypt by 
Turkey at the peace of Kutahya in 1888. 




Turkey introduces reforms. Sultan 'Abdul Mejid Issues 
the Khatti Sherif of Giilklianeh. 

Intervention of the European powers. Syria re-conquered 
for the Porte, chiefly by the English fleet. 

An affray in the church of the Katiyity at Jerusalem 
leads, after long negociations, to war with Russia (1853 

The Druses rise against the Christians. French expe- 
dition in 1861. 

V. Present Fopiilation and Statbtics of Syria. 


I. Fopulation. EthnogiapMcaUy, tbe population of Syria cou- 
sistfi of Flanks, Jews, Syrians, Aiabs, and Tuiks ; or, according to 
religions, of Mohammedans, Christians, Jews, and several other sects. 

The traveller v^ill soon learn to distingmsh the Jews, Christians, 
and Muslims of Syria by their features and dress. 

The F&ANKS (Europeans) who are resident in Palestine, form a 
very smaLL proportion of th& population. Distinct from them are 
the so-called *Levantine9\ Europeans (especially Italians and Greeks) 
or descendants of Europeans, who have entirely adopted the man- 
ners of the country. 

The Jbws who remained in the country were but few in number; 
most of those who now reside in Palestine are comparatively recent 
settlers from Europe (see p. Ixxxv). 

By Syilians we understand the descendants of all those peoples 
who spoke Aiamaic at the beginning of our era, with the exception 
of the Jews. The native Christians are descendants of the popula* 
tion which occupied Syria before the promulgation of £l-IsUm. The 
establishment of El>Isllim as the state-religion of Syria caused a num« 
bei of Christians (Syrians and Greeks) to embrace it, while others 
adhered to their own religion. The Aramaic language gave place to 
the Arabic, though the former held its ground for a considerable 
time. The only trace of Aramaic at the present day is an admixture 
of that language with the Arabic spoken In three villages of Antl- 
Libanus. The race of Arabian dwellers in towns has been modified by 
admixture of the Syrian type (as it has been in Egypt by the Coptic). 

The Ababian Pofui«a.tion consists of hddarij or settled, and 
hidawi (pi. heda)^ or nomadic tribes. The latter are mostly of pure 
Arab blood; the settled population is of very mixed origin. The 
ancient place-names have indeed been retained by the villagers with 

3^o\tV» t>^ *^eq\iently with very trifling changes of 

^eTSiwVa^J^^*®^/^ ^joU^Y • ^ \^ zxL±yir^ . The explanation of this fact is that 

^touwacUtioTv V.^^g^gje6 'tlxa.-t any newer Semitic nation was able to 

\X was oTvW ^l^^o iU© ®^\® *^ix^g settlements and assimilate itself with 

^uB\x\ta^^7 ^^ j^ such c^sLses, the change of religion played a very 

iVieii IP^J^^^g^xt. At^^ ^" ^ii-is way not only most of the ancient place- 

uBimpoTta^ rjTOsexved wi.-tltx marvellous fidelity, but also other ar- 

Xiamea ^ei p^^^ names «i,xxd. the false traditions connected with 

Utxaiily ^ Samaritans, foar instance, tried to make out that 'all the 
ihem. '-T. x^-jcal ^o^^ pl^«^^s were to be found in their territory 
*^^^^i6^ and similarly tl»-_o Jews, when their principal possession 

tP' . -'^ f Galilee, en<a-«*a.^oured to locate holy places therein 
consi^ed oi ^^^^^ nanc^ ^s liare been preserved by the present 
(p. 207) •, a ^^Yior l=»-^xi.d, in those parts of the country which 

population, wn^^ ^^ g©ii-«:«-ixie Arabs (Beduins) the ancient names 
hav© D®** A'aa.n'oeared.. 

have mostly ^^^^^^ pjotess^dly MusUms, but, as a rule, their sole 

TheBBDm^ ^^^^ ara.^ their predatory expeditions, and they 

care is for ^^^^ ^^ thei-TC xeligious rites. They are the direct 

attend but w ^^^^ sai.^ nomads who have inhabited Arabia 

descendants 01 ^^^^^^ »X?li.eir dwellings consist of portable tents 

fTom *^J^®/^ ts' hair. C^^^^^ doubtless were the black tents of 

^*A^ ""^^XnedinSolomc^n's Song, i. 5.) The material is woven by 

^^'^^XinXme^ and is o€ very close texture, almost Impervious 

to rain The tent is form^ A "^y stretching this stuff over poles , one 

side being left open to a height of five or six feet. It is then divided 

into two compartments, oxxe lor the women, the other for the men. 

In the centre of the latter Is arranged a fire-place , the fuel used in 

which consists of dried brmasli^ood and dung. The Beduins live by 

cattle-breeding, and possess Immense herds of sheep and camels. 

They can rarely be induced. *o i'^^^ *^e soil. Several tribes, however, 

are gradually becoming moX-e settled, and this transition is actively 

promoted by government. Tlie Beduins generally live very poorly, 

their chief food being bread a-xid milk ; but when a guest arrives they 

kill a sheep or goat, and oocasionally even a camel. The tTavellei 

should grenerally make for *lie fi"* tent on the right of the entrance 

fceinr^lf-^^,"^**' '"™«1' of *lie ""ne of these tribes ti. 

,.!.«Ji vL '•?'' «»^ses maxv-y complications. TtT^JiV ^^« 1»^ ^^ 

I™^^^ ^^,der no app^^^Tvsion foi theii lives ^!,\"*'« ' l«>^e^^'> 
armea -resistance, andVa^^ t^xe misfortune^ \^^^^«« the, o^e, 

an^^«*.^i*?V 6r'^8 these o^-V^axe" of the de ert lif .^} $^« «, t^ieir 
and ,iot lightly to be de«*xoved; hut they atfAotari^'' ^«^^' T>*^^^ 

^* thieves 1 »nd 

^e«s!t for -tU® P^^perty of otheM i^i. 

^"*^*^^^, 1^^^^ ^^€a\eT ^bi)ni l^liey ia^e^- ^J«/ '••^e been 
k^iTOto\e8.^^ - "** ^^eti Bttippea of K*! ,^f^**'** *" * perfectly 

W^^«^^^^tt*' W^^^ For tlTonJ 

ofmti\\L«t©^** ^^^'^/^^^irwi+K-r X ^ between tlie nomadic an w 

^^^^^.U^!^^*^^^^«* *^„^^*^^«« of their wanderinir Cw 
Itsomed^ie^lvaT?!^^^*, ^ower that the peasantry prefer p^ 
bwtkiliOoA' (fch«>»^eh , a tribiite in ^aln), or black mail, to their 
j«edjiton Beisb.^<>^^ » *« tniBting to the protection of ^Temment 
as t\ie 1\aVti8\i governors and tax-gatherers are oi^ten eren more 
oppieaswe au^ ia:p*cio\i8 than the Bedoins. 

¥oitmate\v ^^^ *^® government, these wandering tribes are 

seldom ou amicable teims with each other. They consist of two 

maiii \)i«LUche8 •. one of these consists of the 'i^enezeh, who migrate 

in winteT towards Central Arabia , while the other emhraces those 

tribes wMeb remain permanently in Syria. The 'Aenezeh at the 

present 4ay form the most powerfol section of the Bedwins , and 

are snhdivided into four leading tribes (Kahileh) the TVuid 'All,* 

theHeseneh, the RnvaU, and the Bisher, nnmherinff altogether 
about 25-30,000 souls. The settled tribes are those permanently 
resident in Palestine, the HanrSln, the BeV&'a, and N". Syria; thns 
in the Bel^a are the 'Adw^n, in the valley of the Jordan the so-called 
Oh6i Arabs (Ghawarineh), and in Moah the Beni Sakhr. These are 
called 'ahl eshshem&l\ or people of the North, while the Bedning 
to the 8. of the Dead Sea are known as 'ahl el-hiblV, or people of 
the South. 

Every tribe of Bedulns is presided over by a shdkh, whose 
authority, however, is more or less limited by the jealousy of his 
clans-men ; nor is he the principal leader in time of war. The Bedulns 
are very fond of singing, story-telling , and poetry, which last, 
however, is at present in a state of very imperfect development. <fV^.^^ 

The Tuiag (p. Ux) are not a numerous class of the community ^ i:f'h. 
m Syria. The y^ are intellec tualliJnlerior to the Axal^s » but are "^ 4 XT' 
geneiaUy goo3Pnatured, — Tte efifendi (av&i^rn^)y ^^Jt^^^^^h. ^'^-^^'^ I 
gentleman, however, is sometimes proud and arrogant. 1 here are ^'^ \ 

twopartiesofTniks ^ the Old, and the Young, or libeMl pi^ty ,>^ , 

The govemois in the provinces change with the change or govem- "^ ' 
ment at Constantinople. As the two parties usually come i^^*© office j 

m rapid succession, none of the governors ©an reckon witi^ ^^^^ , 

eertainty on his plans being carried out by his sucoeMor. ^he j 

youi^ Turks, who profess to imitate European i^^^^f^'JZ ^^ ^^ ^ 
purely supeiflcial manner. They generally begin »t ^^^JJ^^^ end, 
many of them fancymg that the p^of of a modern education ooasutg 
m wearingFiank dress and in drinking spirituous li*!^^''^;, ^^^ugh- 
out Turkey, indeed, the whole race i! H decayiug/«^^^««ener. 
ate condition. In N. Syria, as well as ou the Great Hermon, are 
Palefltine and Syria. 2nd ed. 


still seTeral nomadio Tnrki&h tribes, oi Turoomans , whose mode of 
life is the same as that of the Bediiin Aiabs. 

II. StatistioB. The population of Syria has g:iowii considerably 
of late years, owing to a large extent to Immigration in consequence 
of the Russo-Turkish war. This increase is particularly noticeable 
in the sea^port towns and in Jerusalem and Damascus. Reliable data 
for an estimate of the population are very scanty. The Turkish 
state- calendar for 1B07 (1889) gives the following figures for the 
wilayet Siiriya: 

Muslims 347496 Armenians 193 

Greek-Orthodox 39,419 Jews 6,342 

Greek-Catholic 13.999 Maronites 4,964 

Syrian-Catholic 6,137 Protestants 703 

Armenian-Catholic 188 Latins 96 

Total 419,236. 
We have no statistics of late date for the other wilayets. On 
the whole, the population of Syria may be considered as not exceed- 
ing 2 millions, giving an average of about 17 persons to the sq. mile. 

III, Eeligions. The three Semitic races which people Syria, 
Jews, Syrians, and Arabs, are similar in intellectual character. The 
Semites possess a rich fund of imagination, but no capacity for 
abstract thought. They have therefore never produced any philoso- 
phical system, properly so called, nor have they ever developed the 
higher forms of epic or dramatic poetry, or shown any taste for the 
flue arts. On the other hand, the three great religions, the Jewish, 
the Christian, and indirectly also the Mohammedan, have had their 
origin in Syria, and the Semites are thus entitled to a very impor- 
tant rank in the worid's history. The last phase which religious 
thought assumed among the primitive and unmixed Semites was that 
of El-Islam, which was both the last practical attempt to establish 
the theocracy so indispensable to the feeling of a Semite and at the 
same time the conclusion of Semitic prophecy. 

The Muslims form about four-fifths of the whole population of 
Syria. They still regard themselves as possessors of the special 
favour of God, and as rulers of the world , preferred by Him to all 
other nations. In Egypt European influence, having been encouraged 
at court since the beginning of the present century , has greatly 
43 mitigated the arrogance of Muslims towards strangers ; but in Syria 

^ the contrasts between the different sects are still very marked. EI- 

Sp IsUm is conscious here of having retained its hold on the milk of 

^ the population, but the Muslims can scarcely be said to be more 

fanatical than the adherents of the other religions. On the whole, 
the Muslims are inferior in education, but superior in morals to the 
Ciiristians, especially as regards trustworthiness. Of late years 
competition has induced the Muslims in their turn to establish 


HELIGIONS. ,,^,yj 

nwaeronB scioolfi l?«^i, 

^^P.lxxxv etgea ®^^®****"e8pectingEl-Xsl&m will be found 

The C:a:Rjgjj^^* 
*nd as, With f^^ ®^ *^« East chiefly belong to -tli© C?«-«cA CAwrcA, 
asnally oondnctflH ®^^I'*^0n8 , they speak Ara-bio , i:l^eiT services are 
aow^ever, are Qr^ ^^ *^at language. Most of l^l^e sxipeiior clergy, 
ao other langTiJ;*® JyMrth, whoreadmass in Qi-eels:, and understand 
asses of whioft *». Greeks possess many sciliools, in the upper 
^ai8 chnreh ar/ ^'««^ language is tanslxt. Tlie members of 
«i^€d iii^ t» ^®^ 'Orthodox Greek', ai^a. t^lxose of Syria are 
«OTt. The D**^.^*'riarchates, that of JerxiSfiLlem, and that of 
fv^A ^**^ 0/ p 1 *^^ 0^ Jerusalem has jTiTisa.iction over the 
nndeliQBi* Pe«fde * ®**iie , while a number oiT l^leliops 'in partibus 
1,^ if * ^iew toeni.^'* *^« monastery at JerasaTom, "being appointed 
isnops Of Seba^S *^®® the importance of tlieir oliiof . These are the 
reLM?/*'^W^^®^' Nibulufl, Lydda, Qaza, ana Es-Salt The 
dio^A *^®i> din **^> Petra, and Bethleliem , oil. the other hand, 
Ba'alK^ ^^^ Tv^^^- To this patriarcliate <yt Belriit belong the 
Polii® 7 ^^^nayl-^® *<> Asia Minor, inclixdixig I>ainasons, Aleppo, 
are u^' ^*e oL^^- , the bishops being stylea 'matrans' (metro- 
.y^OTe bittewi ^^« are generally very f»Tia.iAoal , hnt the Latins 
JenillT"^'** and V^^^ted ^V *^«°^ **^»^ *^® :Rro*e8tante. 
^<^bi^^' ^^^ thi^ ^T>tie Jacobites are almost -anknown, except at 
^thed^''^' Th^^^s a sect akin to tlie latter, called the %rton 
J^^sesse.?^"®' con^ ^^^tcobites are monopliys«esj that is, they adhere 
^'»'^eon,r!!«*tur^^^ned by the Council of Olialoedon, that Christ 
^^«y dew ^^ 'iat^? "^^ly ; or, in other words, they admit the exist- 
^^^^(TL^^^^t ^^^» ^«t maintain that In hxm they became one. 
^'- W^' ^l^^*^e from a certalii Jacob BaradfiJ, Bishop of 
^^««»elT'* *>i:iS.'^ anringthepersecntloxmof tl^ssectunderJustin- 
p' ^' Cm' ^^o^^^^h the East in poverty ,*Tid sncceeded in mak- 
f'^k« and>*^»x ^^ Vties. Like the areefes , tbey use leavened bread 
T'^'^^^es r7^*^^ ^^<i cross themselves ^Itb one flngeronly. The 
n?'^ticai f^on *. "^se the Greek caleiiaar ; and the monks still 
at^Ce^'^^^r^^*^ the era of the S^l^ttcxd^^. Ixxm^ Their 
* ^iMt'y^ r^t^^ is ancient Syrian . Tbe paWarch of the jZ 
^°^eof>M 2S^^^^d at Antioch , bn* Ms headquarters are now 
f^^'^^oft^^iXl^^^tn. Most of tbe Jacobites reside there, ani 
L^^y W> IxiiS^Jf ^k Syrian. These Syrians are for the mosi Trf 
l'^ ^b ' • T^^^« cental capacity, axxd their monks a^dl^ln 
^''^^iWf^^o^'*^^ Jacobite monkB, llfee the Greek, never^^^^^ 

-5f^-'^^^^ -^*' '-^-^^ '-'''''^ ^^"-"eV:; 

^^^ sl^tiii^ ^^^^ and to tbe efforts of many^f^^ *5*"^f 

""^^^^ ^^nt^A^^""^ ^^^ ««Perior to tbe Greek and the s/ril'f* 
^® past Rome has made great efforts to obtaili 

a ftim footing in the Eas*, *^^ she has succeeded iu iowB^ftg ^^^ 
affiliated cliuiclies , tbe ^^^^« Ca^AoWc (United Greek), and tie 
Syrian Catholic, amoug tne (ireeks and Syrians respectively, io 
this day Lazarists, Fiancisoans, and Jesuits are actively engaged in 
extending these chuTches. These Oriental catholic churches, however, 
have hithietto assexted their independence of Kome in some pattio- 
ulais. They celehiate mass in Arabic (at least the Greek section), 
they administex the saoxament iu both kinds, and their priests may 
be married meu, though they may not marry after ordination. Ihe 
Greek. Catholic church (^MeloMtes) is a very important body. It is 
governed by a patriarch at Damascus , and to this sect belong the 
wealthiest and most aristocratic of the Christians. The Syrian Cath- 
olics have a patriarch at Aleppo, who sometimes also resides atMerdin. 
Since 1182, the Maronitea have also belonged to the Romanists. 
They v^ere originally monothelites ; that is, they held that Christ 
was animated by one will only. Their name is derived from a 
certain Marou, who is said to have lived in the 6th cent. The 
complete subjection of the Maronltes to the Romish Church was 
effected about the year 1600, after a Collegium Maronitarum had 
been founded at Rome in 1584, where a number of Maronite 
scholars distinguished themselves. The Maronite church still 
possesses special privileges, including that of reading mass in Syrian, 
and the right of the inferior clergy to marry. The patriarch , who 
resides in the monastery of Kanndbin (p. 351), is elected by the 
bishops , subject to the approval of Rome. The episcopal dioceses 
are AJeppo , Ba'albek , Jebeil , Tripoli , Ehden , Damascus , Beirut, 
Tyre, and Cyprus. Intellect and morality of the Maronites are un- 
developed; they are most bitter enemies of their neighbours the Druses. 
Their chief seat is in Lebanon, particularly in the region of Bsherreh, 
above Tripoli, where they possess many handsome monasteries 
some of which even contain printing-presses for their liturgies and 
other works. The entire Maronite population of Lebanon comprises 
about 200,000 souls. The Maronites live by agriculture and cattle- 
breeding , and . the silk-culture forms another of their chief occu- 
pations. They have succeeded in asserting a certain degree of inde- 
pendence of the Turkish government (p. 298). 

Among the Latins must also be included the foreign Frank 
MojikSj who have long possessed monasteries of their own in the 
Holy Land (p. xxxv). The Franciscans in particular deserve great 
credit for the zeal they have manifested in providing suitable 
accommodation for pilgrims at many different places. They are 
generally Italians and Spaniards, and more rarely Frenchmen. The 
schools over which they preside exercise a very beneftdal inHuence 
on the native clergy. • — A Latin patriarchate has been established 
at Jerusalem, and there is an apostolic delegate in Beirut. 

The ProtestanU in Syria have been converted chiefly througtv 
tlie agency of American missionaries. Beiriit is the headcLuarteis oi 


the Americans (p.^iST), 'wliOBeinflnence la i^ 

lansolLetoon. Tlie mission in Palestine ^**^«* ^mongtheCbriBt- 
mh and Gennans. -^ The chief reproach int* ^^^^^loted by the Bn^- 
loiw^mmxiiiities against the Protestants i« V2f "^"^ ^^ the other rellg:- 

are s^!?^v'^^*^ ^^^^ «« of several dlffere,^* *i *^^^ ''^''^'^^ "^ *?*'• 
we Spanish-Portug^iege Je^R who iit!^? * ^-^^^^^s- TbeSephardim 
«' the Jews fbm Zl .LlrTLV?!^^^''**^^ *fter the e^nlrfon 

^^ag»ry, Boh2?^'L ^^f ^*^«^««m are from RusbIb, Galicis, 
Gennanwiththpr: ',. f^*' Germany, and Holland, and speak 
^°*o tke PcfuMiwS^ " '^^^^^ accent. These again are snbdivlded 
reject the Talin„^ l^harisees) and the Chasidim. The Karaites, who 
retained their ori • "® *l°^ost extinct. Tlie Jevs of the Bast have 
easily recognise?^^*^ character to a ooiisidexahle extent, and are 
we generally t«ii ^'^ ^^ their physiognomy and their dress. They 
locks of hair .n^ v*'^^ slender in stature, ^eai their peculiar side- 
Jte Sephardi,^ ^'oad-hrimmed felt "hats or tnrhans of dark clotn • 

^ ' 9««ter iA*^^^^ ^^^^ tnrhans, The Jews generally d"^eu 

0' European p^'^^^selves: ^^^y ^^ tliem are nnder the protectioi 

*^e towns ?K^*°* *re also diBtingnlsltiaTjle \>y their costnme. ^J^ 
occasfonallv ^^ generally wear the simple red fez, "^^^.^g 
generally i ^'^^eloped in a hlact or dark tnrhan. The *^^8U^ 
Biaterial wLi ^^^ite turbans with a gold thread woven in *» 
The Druie« "®the descendants C?) of tlie prophet wear green turbans- 
^«<ioiiis J ^®*f turbans of snowy whiteness. The peasants a^" 
^/^eAj v^^Hy wear merely a coloured cloth over their heads 
' ^^ttnd with a cord made of wool or camels' hair Ca^^)' 

VI. Doctrines of Bl-I«14m. 

^^nnerg and Onstom* of tlae aCo^amaedaiui. 
'e^li^ j^ stm the most e-te-iv-^^^^^^^^^^^ of tl.e great 

?Cid1 ^^^^' ^^ ^**^^ ""^'L^^lfer took np a position h n . 

*«^of?«i *" * '"^^^''^lrism% *« ^^ called heatheiu^^^**^;^*' 
.^^.^^^^giioraaoe and harbansi» > ''**^«ixi. The 

^^kt'^Tlf ,i^^^ praised;, o^l,/^ » Ie„ i^p^t.^t b"^^^^^ on {he 
ofti SilvA# 36 familv of ^^*^««ttle<* «» *ecc» and wej.^^'^'ih of the 
4'^T>a l^'ei/hrwho ^^^t, ^|ied ahartjy before hia |,4^?«todians 
nc?t:> hiL^^« ftther rAl>d*ll*^ f x^ioa died. The boy ^^*th (about 
uJ^Vh.^^hyea^his ^otl»f*^c«tt^^ »«er the^^a then ed- 

ANk^**'"Ut?r K^ i^^^^«»*=^^^*0t »«» company with bi^ Afterwards 
ni^W>^r^li '^^ ^^^S. ** ? of »^^' in the service o? ?»»ole, and 

*^%,tVVt f J^^'SlV Vei*'"^ ?>n one of these Joumeyl *lie widow 

r^Qf'»«a?al ^^\ £T?b tl^^ ^^Jje religious 11% of the ^ **»«?»' 
w< '!!,»:' tint-, J««ntedwitl»»** i«», "Vit forty vpars of age ;j;<^Jr«bs had 

° Mohammed "*^* 


levelation ^Mch lie believed it ^^ j^^ mission to impart waa, 
as lie declaied , liotMng ne^- His religion was of the most remote 
antiquity, all men -being supposed by him to he horn Muslims, 
tliougli sunounding oircumstaiioes might subsequently cause them 
to fall away from tlie true religion. Even in the Jewish and Chris- 
tian Bcriptuies {X\iQ Torah , Psalms, and Gospels), he maintained, 
there were passageb xeferring to himself and El-IsUm, but these 
passages had been suppressed, altered, or misinterpreted. So far 
as Mo1i>ammed was acquainted with Judaism and Christianity, he 
disapproved of the rigour of theix ethics, which vrere apt to 
degenerate into a hody of mere empty forms, while he also rejected 
their dogmatic teaching as utterly false. Above all he repudiated 
whatever seemed to him to savour of polytheism, including the 
doctrine of the Trinity , which 'assigned partners' to the one and 
only God. Every human heing who possesses a capacity for belief 
he considered hound to believe in the new revelation of El-Islaro, 
and every Muslim is hound to promulgate this faith. Practically, 
however, this stringency was afterwards, relaxed , as the Muslims 
found themselves obliged to enter into pacific treaties with nations 
beyond the confines of Arabia. A distinction was also drawn 
between peoples who were already in possession of a revelation, 
such as Jews, Christians, and Sabians, and idolaters, the last of 
whom were to be rigorously persecuted. 

The Muslim creed is embodied in the words •• *Thexe is no God 
but God (Allah), and Mohammed is the prophet of God' + (Id ilMa 
ill' alldh, wa Mohammedur-rasillu-lldh) . This formula, however, 
contains the most important doctrine only ; for the Muslim is bound 
to believe in three cardinal points : (1) God and the angels, (2) 
written revelation and the prophets, and (3) the resurrection, judg- 
ment, eternal life, and predestination. 

struck with tbe vanity of idolatry. He honestly believed be deceived revela- 
tions from heaven. He cannot therefore be called an impostor. A dream 
which he had on Mt. Hira near Mecca gave him the first impulse, and ne 
soon began with ardent enthusiasm to promulgate monotheism and *<> ^*'° 
bis hearers against incurring the pains of hell. It is uncertain whether 
Mohammed himself could read and write. His new doctrine was c*".^^ 
IslAm, or iBubjection to God. At first he made convert* in his own fMUiiy 
only and the 'Muslims' were persecuted by the Meccans. Many of them, 
and at length Mohammed also (622), accordingly emigrated to Medina, 
where the new religion made great progress. After the death of Khattija, 
Mohammed took several other wives, partly from political "motives. 

'He now endeavoured to stir up the Meccans , and war broke out lo 
consequence. He was victorious at Bedr, but lost the hattle of the ^Jhua. 
His i^iiitary campaigns were tUenceforth incessant, ^f, o^^^^SuiS? 
influence over theBeduins, and sv.cceeded in uniting tJ^^P^^i^'^i^oU 
In 630, the Muslims at length captured the town o^, M,^*^^»> *^^.omUte 7 
were destroyed. Mohammed's liealth, however . had been 5«mp^|;„* 
undermined by his unremitting exertions for about twenty-four years, 
he died on 8th June 632 at Medina, and was «te"ed there. j ^.^^^ 

t Aliah is also the name of God used by the Jews and cnnsi. 
who speak Arabic. 

WOTRINES OF BL-lSi:-.A.B«:- Ixxxvil 

(1). GodanbthbAkokls. The ei»:pl»«'^A«5 AsseT^ion of the unity 
of God is by no meaMs pecaliar to Molha-mmed^miam. As God is a 
Spirit, embracing alj perfection within "liims^lf', ninety-nine of his 
different attributes were afterwards ga*lie:r»<i. ifi'o-Di. *lie Korin ^ aud 
these now form tlie Ifoslim rosary. Grea.i; inai>ortATi.©e is also attached 
to the feet that tiie cieation of the -worX*! ^w^as oCTec^ed. by a simple 
effort of the divine will. (God said 'Le* "ti^liexo l>e', and there was .1 

The story given in the Korlkn ot t,lx& oxeaLtdLon. and of the coii- 
sequeDt cosmogonio changes is taken fTOXtt. -fcYft^^ ;B±1>1©, "with varlittions 
from Rahbinieal, Penian, and other boyutgas. Ood. first created his 
throne J benesth the throne t^sis ^ater ; ^1i.oxil t^^^ eartli was formed 
In order to Iceep the earth steawiy, OoA cr^^ti^^ a.n angel and placed' 
him on a huge rock, which Ir^ i'te tnxn xes-l^ on. tlio hack an<i horns 
of the ball of the world. A^rx^ thns tlie e»aurt;lx is Itopt in itg d^^^. 
position. proper 

In connection with the cr^fittion of -tKe fixmajxrent is that of the 
Jm (demons), beings ooon^^ying a m±a.aie xank between men 
fM angels, some of them "k>«lieiring, ot^l^exs n.n'believing. Xhese 

jmnwe frequently mention©*! in tUe K.ox&.n , a.nd, at a later period 
numerons fables regarding -tlieni were ln-vent;ea. ^o this day the 
heliefin them is very genexa-X. When tJxG Jixan "became arrogant an 
a»gel wag ordered to hanlslk -fell em , and. Ixe a.ccordingly drove them 
tothemounUinsof K&f by -w-li-ioh tlie ea.xtli ie surrounded, whence 
*ey occasionally make inonxsxons. i^4la.m. -wa,s then created on the 
evening of the sixth day, ana. the Muslims ork that account obe 
May as their sahhath. A^ft^er the creation ot Adam comes th« *.ii 

of the angel who conqnerea. tlie jinn. J^s li^« xefused to bow down 
hefoie Adam he was exiled and thenoefo xiwraxa called Ibiu, or^ 
denl. The fall of man i» csonnectea witla MTecoa and the K^Zzl. 

Adam VftB f\kBTn vannl-t-ckA *..r^ "c^ ^ ^-a^ ^^ VklA/».1r fittina A^^, * Oft , 

Adam was there reunited, to E^e- ana tlie l>lack stone derives ul 
colonr from. Adam^ft tears. J^t Jidda, the liarhour for Mecca tlm 
tomb of Eve is pointed o\it to this da.y . A^aam is regarded as the 
first orthodox Mnslim-, Iot Ood, from tlie earUe«t period, provi^Ja 
for a reveUUon. ™®*^ 

Besides the creative activity of Ooa , his maintaining p^wer is 
spedally emphasised as heinff constantly exercised for the !>*«,„ 

!!^T ^^J^}'^ ^^*^^* ^^* inBtrumenta fox this pnrpose ^^ ^^^ 


{yWti he dees after the STapposedTfashion at the angels In^^p^*^^ 
it will he ohserved that he turns his face at the conolusiotx ti^^?™i 

angeb. They ate the heaxeiB of God'a throne and ex^eAxte his 
commands. They also act as mediators l>etTveen God an<i ^^-, 
Mng the constant attendants of the latter. ^When a MusU^ ' 

u win he ohserved that he turns his face at i>ne ovix^-imo^uix ti^^ <. 
Ms Tight and then over his left shoniaex. He *^^'??^ ^^^fei« I^e 
tecoTding angels who stand on each siae of every heliev^-j. J^ ^»^ 
the Tight to record his good, and one o» the left to reco^.^ l^T.vll 
deeds. The ttaYdler will aUo observe the ^^^ ^tJ^^J^^^l^^J ^^^r 
every grave in aMittHrnhnxial-ground. ^By these sit tne t:^^ ^ o v 

^^0 examine tT^e deceased » ^*»^ 20 order that ttie eieeA may not 
ggcape Ma mexaotV ^^ i^s xiioes»«^Xi «y oianted by tie conductor of the 

^\d\e tTieie ateUglons 01 ^ood angeJa, who differ in form, tut 

a,te pxneVy etlieieaV in Biibstanoe , thare are also innumerable sa- 

telli^B oi SaUn, ^\io seduce xx^en to eirorand teach them 80i(»n. 

Ilxey endea^out to pry into tlie secrets of heaven, to prevent which 

tToiev ate pelted mth. tailing stars by the good angels. (This last is 

a notion ot very gteat antiCL^ty,) 

{%), Writtbn Ebv^ultion and thbPaophbts. The earliest men 
yrete all believets, l)ut tliey afterwards fell away firom the true faith. 
A tevelation theTetoTe l>eoaiue necessary, and it is attained hy 
intuition and l>y direct oommnnioation. The prophets are very 
numerous, amounting in all, it is said, to 124,000 ; but their ranks 
I are very different. Some of them have been sent to found new forms 

1 of religion, others to maintain those already existing. The prophets 

I are free from all gross sins ; and they are endowed by God with power 

, to work miracles, which power forms their credentials ; nevertheless, 

they are generally derided and disbelieved. The great prophets are 
) Adam, Noah, Abraham, Jesus, and Mohammed. 

^ Adartij who has been already mentioned, is regarded as a pattern 

1 of human perfection , and is therefore called the 'representative of 

^ God'. — Noah's history is told more than once in the Kor&n, where 

j it is embellished with various additions , such as that he had a 

fourth, but disobedient son. The preaching of Noah and the occur- 
rence of the Deluge axe circumstantially recorded. The ark is said 
to have rested on Mt. JAdi near Mosul. The giant 'Uj , son of 
'Enak , survived the flood. He was of fabulous size, and traditions 
regarding him are still popularly current, 

Abraham (Ibrihim) is spoken of by Mohammed, after the 
example of the Jewish writers , as a personage of the utmost im- 
portance, and, as in the Bible, so also in the Kor&n, he is styled the 
*friend of God' (comp. James ii. 23). Mohammed was desirous oi 
restoring the 'religion of Abraham' , and he attached special im- 
portance to that patriarch as having been the progenitor of the Ajabs 
through Ishmael. Abraham was therefore represented as having 
built the Ka'ba , where his footprints are still shown. One of the 
most beaatiful passages in the Kor&n is in Siireh vl. 76, where 
Abraham is represented as A'St acquiring a knowledge of the one 
true God. His father was a heathen , and Nimrod at the UiOie of 
Abraham's birth had ordered all new-bom children to be slain (a 
legend obviously borrowed from the Slaughter of the Innocents at 
Bethlehem!. Abraham was therefore brought up in a cavern, which 
he quitted in his fifteenth year. 'And when the darkness of night 
came over him he beheld a. star and said — That is my Lord; bu* 
when it set he said — I love »ot those who disappear. Now when 
he saw the inoon rise, he aaid again — This is my Lord ; hut when 

^"^ Ixxxi: 

ir^^adtaft^^, WaxAB Him Who created heaven «id e«tW^ J 

Mthing, and 1 ^^long not to those who assign Him partner ? 

Beridea the sliftVitly altered Bible- narratives we find * stopv "ilf 

kMasD. ha^iBg heen cast into a furnace by JVimrod for h^vinl / 

destaoTed iAo\B, and having escaped nnhnrt. The history of Moses 

as gnen m the K.oian, presents no features of special interest He ' 

is wMftd the 'Bpe»>tex of God', he wrote the Torah. and is very fr«_ 

*0 \il)bUi(j\k. HUV •'r 

In the stoty of Jews Mohammed has perpetrated an absnrd anaoh- 
loxdwn, Mary being confonnded with Miriam , the sister of Moses 
JesTis 18 called ^s^ in the Korin ; but 'Isft is properly Esau, a name 
of lepioach among the Jews ; and this affords ns an indication of the 
sonice whence Mo^mmed derived most of his information. On the 
othei hand, Jesus is styled the *Word of God% as in the Gospel of 
St. John. A parallel is also drawn in the Kor&n between the creation 
of Adam and the nativity of Christ; like Adam, Jesus Is said to 
l?i?*®^ * prophet from childhood, and to have wrought miracles 
which snipasscd those of all other prophets, including even Mo- 
jammed himself. He proclaimed the Gospel, and thus confirmed 
A |«nA ; bnt in certain particuUrs the law was shrogr»t«<i by him 
Another was crnoifled in his stead, but God caused Jesus al«o to 
M / *®^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ taking him up into heaven. 
Alodem investigation shows with increasing clearness how u^^^^ 
onginauty these stories possess, and howMobammed merely repe^t^ 
*ft7 ii ^^ learned from very mixed sources C*"* Jewish, and 
anerwMds Christian also), sometimes entirely misunderstanding 
tne mfoimation thus aoqnired. The same is the case with the 
nnmerons nanatives about other pretended prophets. Even Alexin- 
ff,7 ^re»* i8 raised to the rank of a prophet, and his campaign 
nf^tJW*'^'*^®^*^ '^sl^a^^g been undertaken in *5f,^ ?^*ei-ests 
or moiioth^m. Alexander is also associated vrith the ^hidr Q^^^ 
pronounced ^A«dr), or the animating power of nature , which is 
Bometames Identified with Elijah and St. George. ^ , 

The only other matter of interest connected with M^'^anJOied^s 
In^i??!.*^***'"' "theposition whichhe himself occupies ini*. Moses 
i^iiZ^?'^^^^'^^ ^ advent, but the passages concerning ^^^ 

o^^lT' ?' ^"^^°^«' (St. John xi?. 16), the last and greatest 
of the prophets; bat he does not profess to he entirely free f^^ 
minor sins He confirms previL rtllations? but his appearance 
^ superseded them. His whoirdoSeTrmlracle, and it, there- 
K does not require to be conflrmeTby Vp^^^^^^^ miracles. After his 





altbougli he was not exactly deified, the P0"^»» " f ^^ apotheosis 
that ofthe principal mediator hetween God and ^'^- /g^^^^ „ ^^a, 
of human heiugs is, moieovet, »n idea fore^ *» J''^ j^^^g ^U,^ 
and it -was the Peisians who flist elev»*ed AU «>a^ ^ ^j. 

erally leeiteiB of piayere^ who succeeded him to the ran 

natuial heings. rfifelatlon of entliely 

The KoiviK itself was early ^^Rwded as a te«i .jading', 

supernatural origin. The name signifies r^e«» ^ revelation 
and the book is divided into parte caUed «««*»• V^^ ^ight' in the 
vouchsafed to the prophet took place "> t^e ~ ^J^, of the 
year 609. With many interruptions the «e»"^« ^^^le book, 
Koran extended over twenty-three years, in"' , ^ heaven, 
which had already existed on the '^ell-P^«f «^fr „ „f the 'Abbaslde 
was in the prophet's possession. ^"^"8 tne « . ^^ theKoi&n 

khaltfs it w« a matter of t^J^f "n*<^f^'J^!SI^MTve llkivrtae 
was created or uncreated. C^ie Oriental Ohn^M" ^^^ 

always manifested a great taste for »nbtle *<«^»***^*^»n SAxebs, 
as the Procession of the Holy Ghost.) The e«^«' f "^f the book, 
which on account of their brevity are placed »*««*" ,jhey are In 
are characterised by great fteshness and ''»f'"»;"Lei g^hs of a 
rhyme, but only partially poetic in form. » V*^ "'^tive often 
later period the style is more studied and the n „^u>r- 

tedlous. The Korin is nevertheless regMded «* ^^f^jongigt almost 
piece of Arabic Uterature. The prayers o^ *«?*'|„^ ^hey are entirely 
exclusively of passages from this work , ""'''™=" , commentatois 
ignorant of ite real meaning. Even by the e»i j jjohammed, 
much of the Koran was imperfectly understooa, • j^^^^j 

although extremely proud of his 'Arabic BmK ' jj^ioii of ihe 
to the {use of all kinds of foreign words. ^^^ "" ,iilldien leain 
Koran being prohibited, Persian, Turkish, and Indian «.» 

it entirely by rote. doctrine of tht, 

(3). FuTUBB State and Pbbdbstiiiatiok. "^"^ ,^ ^y gnb- 

resurrection has been grossly corrupted by *® • vfless been boi- 
sequent tradition; but its main features have douDw ^j^utloliTist 
rowed from the Christians, as has also the appea*anoe ^^ ^^^^ 
Mid the part to be played by Christ at the Last "*^" .j -with 
OArist will establish El-Islftm as the religion of the ^^ . 

bim TviU re-appear *lie Mehdi, the tweUth Imto CP- *V.«a Mairoir 

*ff «* °' *J>e eiSh rp- 1"^), ^Mle the peoples »« G»« "^t^X 
rill bn«t tie ba^LP ^ ^J^^^j^ j^ ^ere banished by Al^nder 

he Great (p. i^^f^y The end of all things will ^^^ *^ 
iimpet-bl8st« ;;*?^ _ ^,.»fii Ain.a«i . *i.<> fl,.tnf these blasto -""UkiU 

.'"" — J., ^p. isxTciXJ- A"e end of all things wiiv "-o- 
truxnpet-bUst, *X=^» ^ngelAsrSltl; the first of these bUsto^Ufa" 

fiTf ^ ^^"« bell!^ » second v»iU kwaken the dead. ^^^ '""^^^ 
the Judgment; ^.'^ righteous oxoss to Paradise by » ^™«\'' * 

of Iiell (p. 63) Q^ii*e I^Ue^e In a kind of Umbo, like that of the 


Hebrews and Greeks, while others maintain that the souls of the 
dead proceed directly to the gates of Paradise. At the Judgment 
every man is judged by the books of the recording angels (p. xcixj. 
The book is placed in the right hand of the good , but is bound 
in the left hand of the wicked behind their backs. The scales in 
which good and OYil deeds are weighed plays an important part 
in deciding the souVs fate, a detail which gave rise to the subse* 
quent doctrine of the efficacy of works. This doctrine is carried so 
far that works of supererogation are believed to be placed to the 
credit of the believer. The demons and animals, too, must be judg- 
ed. Hell, as well as heaven, has different regions ; and £l-IsUm 
also assumes the existence of a purgatory, ftom which release is 
possible. Paradise is depicted by Mohammed, in consonance with his 
thoroughly sensual character, as a place of entirely material delights. 
The course of all events, including the salvation or perdition 
of every individual , is , according to the strict interpretation of the 
Koran, absolutely predestined; although several later sects have 
endeavoured to modify this terrible doctrine. It is these views, 
however, which give rise to the pride of the Muslims. By virtue of 
their faith they regard themselves as certainly elect. 

In the second place the Koran is considered to contain, not only 
a standard of ethics, but also a code of civil law. 

The MoBALiTY of £l-IsUm is specially adapted to the character of 
the Arabs. Of duties to one's neighbour, charity is the most highly 
praised, and instances of its practice are not unfrequent. Hospitality 
is much practised by the Beduins, and by the peasantry also in 
those districts which are not overrun with travellers. Frugality is 
another virtue of the Arabs, though too apt to degenerate into av- 
arice and cupidity. The law of debtor and creditor is lenient. Lend- 
ing money at interest is forbidden by the Kor&n, but is nevertheless 
largely practised, the lowest rate in Syria being 12 per cent. The 
prohibition against eating unclean animals , such as swine, is older 
than £l-IsUm, and is based on ancient customary law. Whether 
Mohammed prohibited the use of intoxicating drinks merely because, 
as we learn from pre-islamic poets, drunken carouses were by no 
means Infrequent, cannot now be ascertained. Wine, however, and 
even brandy, are largely consumed by the upper classes, especially 
the Turks. 

Although PoLYaAMY is sanctioned, every Muslim being permit* 
ted to have four wives at a time, and few men remain unmarried, yet 
among the bulk of the population monogamy is far more frequent, 
owing to the difficulty of providing for several wives and families 
at once. The wives, moreover, are very apt to quarrel, to the utter 
destruction of domestic peace , unless the husband can afford to as- 
sign them separate houses. Polygamy stands in close relation to the 
ancient Oriental view that women are creatures of an inferior order; 

^omen praying or "-^^^V^^^^at t^l^A**'^' '-^^fe *«'^^ 
of wearing veils 18 not "^etvt^^^gitvSf^tVo^tgM » o**^;****^ 
sal in the Bast. An YT^il^^S^^Yve ^^6tv'» ®?V»**' awo^"* ^rte^*'^^ 
:^nt to .e called o'^^^^e.v ^^^V^e "^rVV^tfo^ T*^"*"^* 
„ European ladies. *• ^ tr° „^ ^V-l8\*^Ae ^°^„ tet«»i^* ,« X>*<»*^t 
^omen is often «epar»*^«^;,,,t. fV'^^V^^^ftate* **^ote «^* 
peasant and Beduln ^ ^ ^v^.Wi«'*.• \iO«»f ' V^ °^vo^i^« *i,e 

Celled. The «»«« r^«rO*'^V^*8^»**- o^»* *^ o«« °* 2^ 

Mohammed's personaV^^^<^^et\^^*^etv«»' tot*«/^T»^««, t^e 

goffloes to banish the J ^ ,rO*%eVt "P* a<*^Llt8 "? ?te« *'*,ltl, 

which she has recei^«* %^ * titJve* ^o*^^ «*?'V5ity 

„p in great sttl)jeotlo» ^-l*^^^\V»^\^i) ^''^^'^'^If iJ'^^^ods 

l'.^ 1^,^ w them. --.-^.-^ *«\T**®t,«*»^**Lf. t.*}.^ D«^*'_ ««'**' sa 

than love for them- :e:f^^f«V !*^^*e*»^^>f, '^.''(i)?^;^ ?«^y is 
The repetition of f ^*-^^^8.Co* "^ftet **,^te»f ' et. ^* Ttv« *;Joi» 

chief occupations <*\^.^^*^^ 'V^^a^Swl't'^Jte ^'ftUe **'kn»i**„oiO«* 
proclaimed hy the «*** f , J%* •, ^%°ut ^ffiottB »* \ , 1>ef C ^o*"!^ t^ 
mosques: ^ ^"^^""Zj*^^^ *'» ^e Al^HOtitS «\fe^*^*L^.» <^^ 
ahoutli/,hUs after ^^^^^^f^^^of ^Z^%>.-^t^^^ '^^^l^f. 

C5) 'Am-, afternoon, *_ '^^° I co**® rtutee *\?,. fie?*"^ tt** Jt**; 
of prayei also serve ^''-^^^^f,! rf**'" ^^li^^ X <^ <>« ^^*«* 
also divided into t^*' ^^^^^T^ur-i^'^f gteftt'' Vv*V»*?tSf«^ 
sunset. Most people, ^ '^/►^ 'A^^^ld i» *H^e^ <e t^" ^fefor* 
call of the mu'eddi** 'w^^^- ^ lSo>»«^'^ 60t»«**!^ i»*^l>l»C t^^l 

'ato.-»aM (repeatedl-J^--' ^^^lUtvess <>* JL- 1^^® * ,te ?*"!* the f»* 

is no God bit Til*!* ^ '^«»«* A •"«>**■ 'Tt**''* the deee** ^ 

oome to prayer' o'J**-^* ^aC*^ tion, *^ «e. ^*w«itl<>*- A»l« »" see** 

thrflllngly thron./ **^^ ^**tcrt *°*^^otxs t^^o^ <V'ii«?e* 

who are still a^*^ « -f^ ^i^ ^Jot t^« ^ ,e X^** "^e of *S.he ""Tu*'** 

purpose iu the „ ^,r» .-,^*^ ^*** ib* '"^^tds *** „{ his e»'!;,«i ** V*^ 
are permitted^ "^f^^ ^ -^sCt^^lli^ltf ' S^ ^^d 

turn towards L*r^^^^ -^^ * Cee <l'*»I^lo<'*'':ro<i'^*^nd»y: 
begins by hoWi "^^^ ^ ^'^^*«« ^ou ^**t *« «»'^eel'l«?. « Oefl' 

by certain pros!' "^^^^^ ^^^ ^ *''i^eOMl8t^*JVan«'* vet, '** 

recital o^^^y^t^^^-^ ^^* T*^* '*:S^8 ^'^^ 

usual, and is foil **'«^,^:^ -*^-<»- .^ » toU »* * 

»s a day of rest "^^^ T'.^:^T^'l^^* 

been closed ia i^^'^^ ^ 

The Beduins nei^***^ 

tral Arabia call th ""^ 

Anote ™T»^^*/^*^p?^ *^« believer ±0 to ol>«eive the Fabt 
of the moiiili Banvadan. ' rom ^i«ybre«Jc *o «iixi«e* eating and 
drinkiaiweabaolTitelyp^ottio^^, «k>lidthe devon* oven tfcrupnJousJy 
i^oid svaUoving tlxeii s**^^*' Tho /a«t ia for *lie most part rfgor- 
ouriy o\)8eived, Mt piolongedtepaats dnrintf *lio ni^lit afford gome 
compeM&tton. liiny snops and offices are en-fetr^ly closed durin* 
m montlx. Ab tlie Aiabxc ye&x ig j^ ^^^ tli«refbre eleven day* 
shortei tlian ohm, the fast of KamadL&n runs *Iixon«li all the seasons 
mtheooTuseofthirty-thieeyetts, and its obfl&yva.n<^« i« most severely 
felt in anmmei vhen much Buffering is caused l>y tlilret. The 
'Lessei Beiiam' follows Ramadan . 

The PiL&BiHAOB TO Mboca, which every JVtusllm is bound to 
undertake once in hiB life, is alao deserving of roLen.*ioii- In Syria 
the chief hody of pilgrims Start from DamaAeii» in *lio jnouth Dhul- 
ka'deh and follow the pUgrinaage route to JM:eooa by Medina 
with which we shall afterwards become acqizairttocl. In tbe neigh J 
bonihood of Mecca the pUgrima nndresa, laying aside even their 
neadgear, and put on aprons and a piece of olotb over the left 
shouldei. They then perform the circuit of tli^e K:aT>a, kisa tii^ 
black stone, hear the sermon on Mt. 'Arafat near Affecoa, pelt Satan 
with stones in the valley of Mina, and conclxide tlieir pilgrimage 
with a gieat sacrifleial feast. On the day wl»efi tliis takes place at 
Mecca, sheep are slaughtered and a festival called tbe Great Beiran, 
observed throughout the whole of the MoH^amDaedan countries. 
Many of the pilgrims who travel by land fall -victims to the p^^^^ 
tions of the journey, but most of them now perform the greater 
part of the distance by water. The month of the pilgrimage ig 
called Dhul^hijjeh (that ^of the pilgrimage^, »»^ forms the close 
of the MusUm year. ^ in order approximately to convert a year of 
T ?* SI^ ^^® 0^ the Muslim era, subtract 6*2^, divide the remain- 
de'ty 33, and add the quotient to the dividend. Conversely, ^ 
yearoftheMo^iammedan era is converted Into one of the Christian 
era by dividing it by 33 subtracting the quotient fi-om U^ 3,,^ 

^^*%i2^*<>t'«temarnder On 15 July 1893 be^an the Musl^ 
year 1310. •"ttmuoi. 

.nneoted with the Kor&n. 

Most of the Arabic LitskatbRB is connected _^,.,„ 

Works were written « a„?^/petlod to iaterpret tho obscure pas. 

egetic writings dwelling JJ^Uh elaborate minuteness upon every 
possible Bhade of interpre^^tton. Grammar, too, was at flist studied 
solely in ooimoctlon witn the Kor^n , and a prodigious mwa ot 
legal liteiatute was founded exclusively upon the sacred Tolume. 
Of late years, however, some attempts have been made to super- 
sede the ancient law and to introduce a modem European system. 
The Bednins still have their peculiar customary law. 

With regard to theological, legal, and still more to ritualistic 
questions, El-Islam has not always been free from dissension. There 
are in the first place four OHhodox sects , the HanufUes, the ShAfe- 
Hies, the Afalefcitci«, and the Bambalitea, who are named after their 
respective fonnders. In addition to these must he mentioned the 
schools of IVee Thinkers who sprang up at an early period, partly 
owing to the inllnence of Greek philosophy. The orthodox party, 
however, triumphed, not only over these heretics, hnt also in its 
struggle against the voluptuousness and luxury of the most glorious 
period of the khalifs. 

Asoetism and fanaticism were also largely developed among 
professors of El-Isl&m, and another phase of reUgions thought was 
pure Mysticism, which arose chiefly in Persia. The mystics (siJkfi) 
Interpret many texts of the Kor&n allegorically, and this system 
therefore frequently degenerated into Pantheism. It was hy mystics 
who still remained within the pale of El-IsUm (such as the famous 
Ibn el-^Arahi, horn in 1164) that the Orders of Dervishes were 
founded. The dervishes, as well as insane persons, are still highly 
respected hy the people. They generally carry ahout a wooden 
goblet into which the pious put alms or food. They are still reputed 
to be able to work miracles. One of their practices is to shout for 
hours together the word h{i, (he, i. e. Godi) oi Alldh , in order 
to work themselves into a state of religions frenzy. 

Dbrvishbb (dariHOi, plural darOwtsh). The Korin frequently givea 
utterance to the doctrine that our life on earth is" without value, is an 
illasion, a Period of probation. This pessimist philosophy was further 
strengthened by the gloomy conception of God, the terrible aspect of whom 
Mohammed loved to depict, and so evoked a deep feeling of awe among the 
followers of Islam. Thus religiously disposed minds turned to the con- 
templative life, withdrew from the wicked world and devoted themselves 
to ascetic exercises, in order by this means to make sure at least of the 
next world. The mystic love of God was the great spell with which 
to throw oneself into the mysterious ecstaay and by complete absorption 
in contemplation to destroy self, and by this destruction of self C/«'»<^j 
to merge oneself in God (itiihdd). Just as in Europe the monasteries and 
mendicant friars developed out of penitents and hermits, so too did Mofl- 
lim asceticism develope into an. organised system of mendicancy. ^In w*® 
beginning great thinkers and poets (the Persians Sa'di and Hafiz tor 
example) joined the movement, but nowadays the dervishes have degene- 
rated, the soul has departed and nothing remains but the extenaJ m^' 
chanism, so far as it relates to the methods of throwing oneself into 
ecstasy and rendering the body insusceptible to external impressions. 

The WcasHip of Saints ahd Mabtyrs was inculcated in con- 
nection with El-Isl&m at an early period. The faithful undertook 
pilgrimages to the graves of the departed in the tjelief that death 


Jidnot luterrnpt the pOBilMUty of oommunicAtion with them 
Tdmtlw toml> orMo&inimed at HedioA and tbsC of fals gnnigon 
E»dii it Korbela became pamouUrly fAxnotis , «nd oTery utue 
ton won boasted of tbe tomb of its parUoalar s&int. (^oomp. p. nn 
SteSi of cloth are often seen anBpeiided A-om the rBlUngs of these 
tomb!, or on certain trees wMoh are considered sAored , harlng been 
plitedttioie liy devoDt personB. This cnTloiiB oastoni laof«ncie„t 
litis. The saints fseldom of the feminine sen<leT~) are known by 
Uie titleg nebif prophet ; jm^m or(ASJk& «pirlta&l liead, "W''^CSTriac 
m*)loid; thoir ohapelfl are called IcuUeA dome, VTMxtdm Mandliut 
plxi, mtrff plice of pilgrimage. ^ 

Abflnt the end of the 16th centary a reaction ssa.inat the abiigu 
oFEI-Idln Bpnag op in Central A r»bl«,. The "^.ASHABmH or 
Withibis, nsmed after tteit founder 'Alxi el— "W^aJibftb, end^y. 
oniBd to tMtote the lellRion to lu ori^r*"*! ptirtty ; tbey desttojad 
iHlomUof winlB, inclnd-ing even those of IVfoha-mmed and Hosein 
M objects of snperatitiowB raverence; they ciou^ht to restore the 
primiHTa aimplielty of the prophet's code of morals ; and the^ even 
toriiAe the BmoUng of tobacoo as being Intoxioating. They go^ 
horame igrertpoliMcal po-^er, and had not Mohammed 'AUdn^^., 
ithuintorert to inppiesB them, their Inflwence -vronld hav, 
t« nwre widely Bitenied than it no-w la. At the present tizn 
"« '*rj weik. For a time the Wahhahites exierclaed a kl 
Bopiemidj o'Bi the Bednin tribes. The -whole of tbie 
liitiOBiai.jbeiegard8d, in its political aspetrt, as a protest aj 
the Trakiihrf||me, the TuikB being far more to blame |ha 
Anbs toi the deplotible degeneraoy of the >SaBt, owlny to 
sulpaWe neglect ol edneatlon, as well as other shortoomlngB. 

We haie hitherto spoken of the dootrlnes of tbe Sttnnitet (^, 
""WO. tradition'), who form one great sect of EI-IsloiO- At an e 
petisd the Shi'itbs (from shXa, 'sect'^ aeoedod erom the Sntm 
{«eep,liY> TheyMsignod to'Ali, tbe Bon-fn-l»Tr of Mohan,nj 
a rwk eqnal or eveo anperiOT to that of the prophet himself; jj 
repided him »a an incarnation of the Deity, and believed t„ ^ 
divine misBlon of the Imtms deacended froin 'All. MehdJ, y 
last ol these, la beliaTsd by them not to have died , bnt to j 
awaiting in concealment the ooming of the lost day. Opinions ^^ 
very Tiiloni aa to the nomber of these imims. The Persians a, 
>ll ahntes, and in Syria also are Beveral native sects ot (bat p^rg. 
oaaieo, besideB a email number of Immigrant Porsians who a^ 
under the proteetton ot theli consulate. Towards the We"* »'so Shj, 
'itiiniwia widely disseminated at an early period, particnlarjy j^ 
Egypt under the rSglme of the F&ttmlte sovereigns. The Shi'itag 
are eitromely fanatical, refnslng even to eat in the society of p(,j._ 
eom of a different creed. Among the Syrian sects that "^ ^^^ Me- 
tdiritol has maintained tbe Shfite doctrines in the gre»*eBt pnrity_ 
TheypMBBEB Tillages in N. Palestine and in Lebanon as fw «« the 

^ xcvu 


d the fonB^^^ ^^ *^v 

anew toiUtaiu ^l^ethei any of Ij^Vj^^'day, ?^ J^'^ie Pmse 
doctrine from vpildly motives. At a »»\ , worl<i *?. .^g. The 
foand a 7a8t empire, aBd convert the vrnox^^ ^'^t^^undei- 

religion. The Drusofl poufless MmeionB i« .^JWWSU, ^' Jjl perform 
most highly initiated among them are ^"^^kia^. ^J^ Vomen 
standing', m Initiated ayure ^^"l^f '^Sr*^- Ti^generaUy a 
their wobMp in soUtary chapeU ^^^^S^J!^xt^»^^ ff^ the British 
wear the tant&r, or loomed head-dress. ^^ ^^^^b '^^^y andvere 
hospitahie iad amiable raoe, and on 8?^ vtiy 1>^*^ K»ve proved 
eonsBlatee, Tliey axe noted and feared for in ^^ of*^^j^eir princely 
itnotfoitUeii internal dissensions they ''^v^jj^oia*- •*• jj^^iUous to 
moat foniudaMe enemies to the Turkish f^^^'^^^^tx ^*l ^i>er. For a 
faimUeBitt Lebanon have from an early ^© o^»«^^ ^* « »» »» i^*®" 
sahmit ttt the anthority of any one of *^®iLexxi«®^^^ still the case. 
considerable period the Dmses maintained ^ ^\^9 ^^^eshir , of the 
peadeat power in Syria, and to some ®**^^ ^*^^^>i«n Moiammed 
One of tbeir most powerful princes was **i. ^e^ ^ of *^® Pmses 
SheVabfamUy, -whose power, however, ^^f^^er^c^^^* Y^en an attempt 
'Alilost poBsession of Syria. The greatest ^q^Q, ^'^^^ Christians 
aieiheeMaronitesin Lebanon (p. lxxxiv> "Ls»<5r^ ^ tixto- They are 
was mide to chastise the Pruses for the ^*\ite ^ liorsehack and 
at Damascus , many of them migrated ^^^-^^tx ^^ j.©. 
goTemedby village chiefs, orshekhs, veho ^^ppe*^* 
fully caparisoned present a most imposi^*' ^^^^ ^^^^ 

Ouifcomi of tha Xottammadaas. The ti^ ^op^^ ^^ the Bible. 
occasion to obserye that the cnatems o^ Ae^Bor^^ ^f gi% or seven, 
many respects still closely resemble thos© ^ ^j^e *^^«-t po"*P- ^^® 

Circumdsion is performed on boys ^V *f ,gri*^ ^ioo frequently 
or even.hrter, the ceremony being attend©* pTOO^^^^^^ense of the 
child is conducted through the streets , ^^.^\x ^^ ^edi cashmere, 
jotaing some bridal party in order to *^*?* rt>»** nd conspicuous 
pwceedings. The boy generaUy create » ^^^tio^KZh »re designed 
girls' elothes of the richest possible deflot^^ ^^^!^itx ^^^ V^^^""' 
female omamente fespecially gold coiT^^J:. ©y© ^*^ )iim; behalf 
to attract attention, and thus avert the ©vi ^ ^f »n^ *^® ^*'^®' 
A handsomely caparisoned horse is horio^^^^jiie* 5 wiusioiajs l^^ad 
coyeis his face with an embroidered hand^^ of J^ together, 
who performs the operation and a noisy **7^*r»f|^l,, *^ 'S^jr 
thepiocewion. Two hoys are frequently *^5^1,V l^.oh *>J*J^S^^ 
eirla are generally married in their ^^\ m ^ob^ profession 
times as early as their i^^^l The ^"""Lo^ ^^^1*^ "^k!?'**^ 

it IS to anange marriages, and he never h^f » ^^^i^ *«^ g 

h«bnde until the^ed^iSd^Y, e^«^^* 

Palestine and Syria. 2nd ed. 


to ihe lowest classes. When ©^etytMng is arranged, the affianced 
bridegroom has to pay the piiic^*8e*mon©y, vhlch is higher when 
the lady is a spinster than i* ^* " ®^® ^ * widow. Generally speak- 
ing, about two-thirds of th^ ^^^ » **^® amount of which always 
forms a subject of lively diso^f ^°*^' is paid down, while one-third 
is settled upon the wife , ^^^^^ P^yaWe on the death of the hus- 
band, or on his divorcing ^'^^J?™^^ .^^^ ^^^1- The marriage-con- 
tract is now complete. Befo^-® f;!.^!!^^^!?^ ^^ ^"«^« *« conducted in 
fi^ala attire and with great ^^^T^rL^nl^^^**^* ™« P'ocession is 
called 'zeffet el'hammdm\ ^ vl,-«I ^^ ^^ several musicians with 
hautbois and drums of diff^^^'^^/'^fi.L*?^!^ "« ^^^^yred by several 
married friends and relatio^f ™ ; "'J^© in pairs, and after these 

come a number of young g^^^J' giallv II. .^* ^""^^^^ concealed by 

^e clothing she wears, l>el^^^'j,^*^.^^ from head to foot 

fa cashmL shawl, and v^^^^'^^'ve^ ^^^ * ^"*'" ^^ '' ^«>^ 

of pasteboard. The P'oce^^^^Jie reir Zt"^ ^^""^^^^ *''* *^***^^' 

vody of musicians brings xxV Z^^^^^J^^ hideous shrieks of joy 

^Mch women of the lower ^'^^' ^**«; on the occasion of any 

Sensational event are callaa^^^^?*- The bride is afterwards 

conducted with the same ^orj^^^^^^^^.^^e house of her husband. 

The ceremonies observe^ - nirs t? *l *'^ ^<>* ^^^ remarkable 

than those which attend ^^adi^^S^ « t^e death occurs in the mom- 

i^g the funeral takes P^^^e t^e ja^e day but if in the evening 

♦hi funeral is postponed tiH ^,^^L^*^' ^he body is washed and 

!«niimed over by the family »»<! ^'^e Professional mourning-women 

T^dd&hehs) •, the /ilWh, or soli<X>J°^*8*er, reads several sArehs of the 

x^T^n by its side •, the ears »»<^ nostrils of the deceased are filled 

^ith cotton; the body is then enveloped in its white or green 
winding sheet, and is at leng^^J^^d forth in solemn procession. 
The fotem 
and gener 
pace, ohai 

\^\m r The bier, with the head oi tne deceased foremost, eomes next, 

The foremost persons in the corttfge art usually six or more poor, 
t^A generally blind men, v^ho ^f-lk in twos or threes at a slow 
nace chanting the creed—^There is no God but God; Mohammed 
•« +hp ambassador of God; Ooo. be gracious to him and preserve 

beinff borne by three or four of ^^ filends, who are relieved from 
time to time by others. After the bier come the female relatives, 
with dishevelled hair, sobbing alo^id, and frequently acoompanied 
by professional mourning-women whose business it is to extol the 
merits of the deceased. The body is first carried into that mosque 
for whose patron saint the relatives entertain the greatest veixeratioiz, 
and prayers are there ofifered on its behalf. After the bier Has been 
placed in front of the tomb of the saint, and prayers and charts have 
again been recited, the procession is formed anew and moves towards 
the cemetery, where the body is interred in such a position^ that its 
face is ttirned towards Mecca. Another custom peculiar to tlie Iftua- 
lims is that the separation of the sexes is as strict afteT ^esath as 
during life- In family yaults one side is set apart for the r^eu, the 

^^^^0 LANGUAGE. ^^.^ 

"^^oS ^^v^'^U^^v^t^"^^^^^ IB the entrance 

AemikuYie 1^ !!fteTM»in^^ ^^*^® angels Bf unkar and Nekir 
oii\ktortTdgt^***1tf«gl.J^'^*®?»«i*t(«eep^ Ixxxvii) ; for, according 

to«ie\ftMot ***trlfr v^ •^^^^ ®' *^® depaxtewi remains with 

his body ioi » T^l«»* "^^ ''^s banal. — ^The catafalque, executed in 
stone, Mk^L Testing on a pedestal of more or less ornate design, 
bews twoTi\>iiglit columns ^«MAtd^ of marble or otlier stone. On one 
o! these, o^ei ttie head of the body, are in8GTil>ed. texts from the 
Koran and the name and age of the deceased. On the upper 
eitiendty is represented the turban of the deceased, ^v^hich sho^vrg 
his i&nlL. In the case of persons of high position a dome borne l>y 
foQioolumns is erected over the tomb, or thie closed form of the 
tomhs of the shckhs is adopted (^p. xl^. On festival days the cata- 
falque and the hollows of the pedestal are adorned with flowers. 
On such occasions, the female relatives freq.nently remain for da.ys 
together hy the tomb, occupying themselves with prayer and alxK^s- 
gi'ving. As it -was necessary to provide accommodation for tlxese 
monmeis, it became customary to constrnct xnansolea with svLh- 
sidiary apartments, almost as spacious as those of the mo8c|^xieB 
themselves, including apartments for the family, sebtls and scliools, 
stabling for the horses, a residence for the custodian, and ot^t^et 
convenienoes, giving the establishment, velien nnocctipied, so:Kxie- 
what of the appearance of a small deserted town. A mansoX^^ui 
of this larger description is called a hdsh. 

Vn, The Ax»i^^^ » — - 

Throughout Syria, except in a few localities y^^/^^J^^^^^a^;; 

ing in number, the iknguage of the country is *^»*JJ^^^3?J^sli5i. 
conquerors. The golden'^r^of Arahic Uteratnre was ^ev^^^^ ,^e 

gieat national development of the race, ^^;^\^,t^S tx^^ *ne 
introduction of El-IsUm. The P<>«^« ^* J^lt^trtbe o^J^ f^Tl 
somewhat earUer, together with the KLox&n, '^^^^^^^^^^^^?X 
literature of the^Arfbs. Besides the l^^S^**^^^!^^^^^^^ 
is the dialect of Kureish (tl.o ^Jf^^^^^^^^f ^rXf^^ 
dialects were prevalent among the ^f^?^ various parts o:C '«?re»* 
« different dialects of English V^^T^ Withstanding t;>^ J^^V 
Britain; though in the case of Aral>xo, ^^^n — fiom^,^^ to 
tract of country throughout which it x» P -rreater degree o^^^tiv^" 
Mesopotamia, from Bagdad to Morocco "^^ Arabic is stiXX -w^i*^^ 
formity is observable. To this day *^*^*^^^ education of tlx^ ^ri*^* 
with greater or less purity according^ to "* ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ usiix^ _ rj:b^ 
and the colloquial expressions ho i» ^ lias been <50ixsi^^ l,iy 
language of the present day , howev© '^^^^^ as the Tvi.:«rlsLs Yi9>^^ 
?iodiiled by the introduction of forexgrn ^ * * 


_y for centuries , and Turkish is 
_ xnment , and to some extent that 
Bi.xiiaic lang^na^e, which was spoken 
-«;, has also ex^exoised some influence 
±t must be mentioned that a patois 
loosed of a mixture of Arabic with 
foi a considerable time spoken in 

±rt±c group of lan^ua^eSy and no re- 

dL "between it and the lans^^^S^^ ^^ 

sixn-xlarity between Arabic and the lan- 
. ^^ «*\av — — ----- ^ ^oxx<3Lers it so difficult and formidable to 
P ^ ^^ ^ ^-^ Guc , a-xxa. particularly the colloquial dialect, 
'^^^^'^^ ^liJ&s.xacO^lLa.xkcv^ to Hebrew, and a slight knowledge 
"^ ^^*^%^^^^«J^ "^^ fo^xid useful. The Arabic characters 
^C^^o^^^'^^^^^^oxa^ -t\iLO Syriac, which in their turn were 
^^iii*J^^5^e^^^^^^x«rw-^^la.oBxiLiciaii. In old MSS. tbo letters are 
^iT^o^ '^\ox^«*^^^^'*'^^ ^^ xnodem writing, and the present run- 
r«a^v?^^'^'^®V^^^Y,Vsy^'^^^^^^^*> and unpleasing. The vowel signs 
S\^T^e\\ xaxeVj tw^^^^ y so t^»* i* is impossible to read Arabic 
erectly witiioxxt a.\x «.cc\Mca.^e acquaintance with the grammatical 
lies. — TUe laxk^w^^^ oi tla.e peasantry and the inhabitants of the 
^^t"Sl "SJ^lll «^^>^T£.ox«.aimilar to the classical language than that 
^«c«^tia,^^^. ^^_t«^i^6- The MusUms generally speak more 
^^-Vii-^i X>:co^^^>^^s^^^^^^'^«i!J8.**^5^atomed to a more elegant 
^V^ *i"- ^^^^atioii^;^??^ theix daily repetition of passtires 
^2?f-^^^ ^^V.^^^^!Ll\^T^?!..^^^^^ the languag^ 

:»«, --^^^ ,1 • 1 J- 1 --""'•^^u. i,n.e language oi xne 

^«^«^-**«**^^^^ '^^}°^^y^ 1"tl**'* ^^*»^»* » number of tenni- 
-^2- *^*X ^-^^opped m the latter The proper pronunciation 

^:?^ :»^ ^* ^»*^'' *« *"'y *° ^ le«ned b, long and atten- 

ci^^t « fe^ 0/ the most important grammatloal rules 
'^^M>io of Syn». and add a list of some of the oom- 

^^ ^ "^^^ 8*^« *** eorresponding sounds, so far as it is 
^^^^^^^*. ^^'** o',^°l"^^ t^*™. *° *l*e EngUsU reader. It 
^^^^^'^ ^"''^fVuJ^Y.^ foUo^ng ptges we use the 

^ ^^^^l:'aer»:nt>rylr "^Sr t\? aenotediri; 

4^ the forB»» used i,, »«; ' *" ^ ''»*• ^iW *ten 
^^torted to«»it.«h^\^^^?«» S^enolt, and Italian, 

"«"»« pronunoiatton. Thug j 



tn^, is pronounced ^aymeet'; «;^dUk (or sheikh), 'shake* (with a 
guttural k); iuKU^ pronounced 'toolooV; BtiHit (or B*rOt), pronoun- 
ced 'bayroot'; HiUeA, piononneed 'hoolay'; etc. 







aceonnpaaies sd initial rowel, and is not 
prononnced as a eonsonant. 

as in English. 

as ih in Hhing", but pronounced f in the 

towns, and < by the Tnrks. 
as in Engliahf bnt pronounced g in Egypt 

and by the Beduins. 
a peculiar guttural A, pronounced with 

emphasis at the back of the palate. 

like the harsh Swiss Oerman cA. 



(Jll as M in 4he% but pronounced d in the towns, 
and M by the Turks and country-people. 

r pronounced with a vigorous vibration of the 

as in English. 

emphasised s. 

both emphasised by pressing the tongue 
ftnnly against the palate. 

generally pronounced in Syria like No. 15, 
a strong and very peculiar guttural. 










a guttural resembling a strong French or 
Oerman r. 

emphasised guttural k^ pronounced g by the 
Beduins, and replaced by townspeople 
by a kind of hiatus or repression of 
the voice. 

Kaf (k) is often pronounced tch by the Be- 
duins and country-people. 

as in English. 

The nu*«>erous ^^^:*^^^^^,o^^%^io _„ 

honoTU-^, Wia**<* Cy^!i4^*'» ^"'^^a\S'* to J^^b a, /«'8oni,l„^, 

pexson singulax Ql), I'^ '^^er ,j«^a<, of^? ^^n^^- 

poor maii> _ ^^^ ,,- n, ®«ed i. ® ^Se JTZ **e ij^* 

rara.i, my mare ; faras^/ t^^B m^^ K ^^^^^^s of ^,^ ^^^^ 

is feminine); fara^ r^^V ^^?fl' ("^r./^A^^-^a *^ Pe^^*^- Tins 
our mate; firaskum, Y^^^^ ^^^^ite *;^«"n, ^ ?«' m^? *^<i^es%4 

ARTICLE, The^oiT ^t^^^^'^d^^^^ole'^P^^^m^^^ 
stiative ftai is assimila*^^ t^^/^t^re j . ^^^la a^^ ' «nd ^/' ^ 

n and r, as also generaXl^^^^ ^^ida^^y c«4_J^«>iianfa ^® ^^euv^^ 

that. . ^ oxiaitted ^^ ^^^ >* pi. ;i^/>. ^ 

Relative: cWi, wMol^ ij^i^^^^e is *^ ind -Q'^Ulajt 

Beclension. The s^'^^^jT ^^^Ply "I,? ^^cii^^^^^^te ^^^^^ 

of a substantive is fom ^^ . i^a , *he LS ^'^^'^g ii * ^®- Tk ***«nve. 

the substantive to be (itx^^^Jt^f ^on ot th^^ ^^in^ i'^'^ediaf f^^^tSve 
tide: tbus, ibnel-bdsh^, */^jj "^^^s chL^^«iia.^ ?,t^^Ved !fi^ ^ttet 
minations a, c, i are ii^ ^^fx^ ^feoffT^^^i inf/^® Wi^f ^*« -- 
mara, wife ; marat c2.fe$i^»% *i^r« iB in /^ J'odge % eT^i"^ 
Dual. The dual termin^^^^'W^, twn *^- «^n .' ., ' ^-^ 

^t« ar- 

Dual. The dual teriiii»*''^/W», two t^' ^^^n - ., ' •* thus 

Brntttn, two years; yr, foot; ^^ the ter^f^ * ^® 'CficA 

Plubal. In the m&^scul^ ^^g hdreh ^^^^ i ' ^ear- 

peasants); in the feminine ^^ usuallv * *^'*'^, of ^'* fas # » ' 

^drdt). The plural is, howeV^^^ ^^^^^ tot^^ bv *^er, j? ^^*^n, 
vowel sounds of the sinffular, V^^oomes »» ^^R ef/ * cha^^^- > i>i 
forty different ways, so that It 1'''*'^ eve,5«<=««<.ary*^°*e<i !« f^ «<' *fce 
note carefully the plural totat pi. </. ^Ohsta,,,, *" *he !„"*>• or 

spring, pl.'«yfin;fij;<r, meroh»'»7, fcoiajf'^'.- Mer*"- tin^'c®'" *o 
jJMJ,fea6«eA, tribe of Bedulns, :f^ ' ' ' '"ouafcf* ***»» 

verb. Paradf^ ^^*'''''*^»*.er... "' ^'-' 

Perfect : ^ &t/atu5 ^^P^tt^o* 

&a«a6 he wrote yiktu^ &**tu6 T is 

katabet she - tift^^^ -^ btiktuh ^^^ ^^. 

fca«a6« you (a man) - <ifctu& ^ &**«e6t I^^Cjiiu. . ^^^^ 

katabti you(a woman)- tOeteb^ ^^^'^^o^-^ *^^o "" 





katttbu t^e^ ^^>>' ^UuIkS " ^^^^^ they ... 

hMiUl^y^i^^^ - t^^ - dttfc/i^tf you fpluraJ) . .' 

'* V <^^"* ^^^siat !!t^ -nmiktud we . . 

^ -- -lae m»i^ ^^^^ oonRVo?^^*®^ ^«'^» ^^ •'^<1 ^^^ «e akin to 

each otHei. J^^^^eiatl^eT ' ^' * P^'^^^* ^"^^ P"**^"** *»P«'^ 

feet tense, an x^V > a participle, and an inflnitlye. ^ 

Paiadigta. r**o*, ho killed* 

y^"^ ^!JS!r5^*- i-'P"**- Act. p«t. p,«. p.rt. 

in the same 

Causative kdttal 

Bellexive tci&lUU 

Passive ot inkaUU 

Reflexive <ktaAal 


Desiderat. Utdktal 


ye^ttil Mm 

y^kattt jcdtu 

V^W aktU 

y«tekdtta^ tak&ttal 

yeUikcLtil taiedtal 

yinkatU nAaiil 

yfkuaU ikiatu 

'Oct%U, Hktul kdtU 









miatdktU or mustdktU 

yUt&ktil istdkta ».»,♦«»♦» 

Stress. In AraMc stress falls on (i.) the last sylUhle if thi^*^rd 
if this syllable has a long vowel and ends in a consonant- e ft ' 
HaUn, two ; mudin^, Mnslims : (11. )ia other cases on the last syllable 
in the word which either (a) has a long syllable: e.g., teldteh three- 
tdliteh, the third; or (b) is closed by a consonant; e.g., kaidbtu 
you wrote; tfktebuy you are writing: (III.) if there is no such loniJ 
syllable, then on the first: e.g., kdtahUy they wrote. 

Axabio Voeabnlary. 
— J wShidj fern, vtahdeh the first 

iintin the second 


two — Y i^ntn 
three — j** teldteh 
four — f drh(fa 
ft^e —(5 khdmseh - 

8« — ^ snuh 

eight -^^ temdnyeh - 
nine — f iis'a 
ten — / 'dshera - /f« 

— &wwtl, Urn. aid, 









the third — 

the fourth — 

the fifth -- 

the sixth  — 
the seventh^ — 

the eighth — 

the ninth — 

the tenth — 


















f-y<«^'* . «0 — temdntn 

4 nO— •♦n^J'**' "'' '>e'(we noan»,mlt. 



.. cv 

a vwv "p^?^' **<»;■ what o'clock Is it? haddesH ea-ad'a? it ig 
•* •. .Tnlrw^ " 6»«eMteA ; it is kalf-past four , eaa&'a arbd «„„,.. 

•„J*l!w^rj'a.^*^' "<~"> ^''*«'i afternoon C^i 1^'- l>e''ore sunset) 
(Mr; mgtt, IJi; midnight, ntt« «i-J2J. 

t.wL™ma^°? «i-aW; Monday, ydm «Z-«f»8»» ; Tuesday, j,5me<- 
vtx ellmv^«^' J^""i-«rta'<' ; Thursday, ydrrx el-hh^mU ; Friday, 
fdTvlkT ' ^"»^»y. Sabbath, »6m es-»«6t. The word yOm 

Sr,pi.„,wt7'' «*"«'*i^y •"""*«*• T*^« ^***'' ' °"'"*^* 

nl.ft^' ^P" «'-«»«; February, eahbAt; March, <««'' April. 
oSemWti^l'''''^' -'"*'«» «'-^''«« No^emtoer, t.sftr.n «t-W„,j 


.^**i«M,',A^«' »»o?n. fcamar; new «^f°^^'„get, nuKrAreftj star, 

^««. »4er4: West i; . x -Kr^T-tb «ft«mdi; South, K6la. 

, Father, a6«. ^ f*' "^O'^. ""Wft^^ 5 ^°^^' j^„i . daughter, 6*nt, 

Pj- '««J«; grandm^? ®'^' «"»»»»; SO"' ***' ^V ilehvjdn; sister, ufeftt, 

Partentaj Of th . «« cloak. '»i^y'\' ^e^, 

<«<«: felt ,. *°e ]tn.i>. , At- Bed«i" „_- gfceitpdr; jaoltet 

/«™«1 i> **«'«^^ *^yeh, '-i'^iAar-, tro'*^^ silk, ha.^r;boot: 

*«r; K^ ^^G. 

>r':.'.*«ft:x?«; b:!>'*3 ;;.>«^^^^'«?«. ""'• Pro- 



'/i ' ^^ V rcio'ifi "«?' '^>aS • ■no. •'"'a.l. 

».*'?««.'«•«; egg,MA,,.eg^, Md, ^boiled) 62^ 6«rt.»t, 
Z^:S^' /**V«*i Poiwn, «mm; rice, ^» ; sal*. ""»; ««8«. 

B^'k IT ^',*'' ''""««'• ''**«'. "»«»«*; "^i"® ' :!L'** • 

Bridle, kjdm-^r^P'*;"'*'^*'' *<»™^' *^jr*fc, himl; howe- 

»^dle fox inggir.te"'"); '«■■' AC?-^* ' f '*^^'^< ; t«-«Uing- 

fiCiW^^^i, »'«'*•'« '-"l^^)' **nro;^der, ml^; pistol. 

Aie, ia<W<jL.'' .fc«rrt'a**»» ' drinking 

f>«».M%"rfcr^*'f?'™''';<»°dle8*lok. -^* fSniU; pall, 

«»K*Wo,prfa.;'*'*'°?a»«A; string, CO**' *" 

"•*«*(pl.6urZ™.\?*«™' M'; fountain CP***" -> 
, OMuWal, coal It U'P'*''^' '***' **'^ AtA • le«d, r**!?; Ught, 


g (or wild l>oar3 , khanz^r ; porcu- 
_ .'afcdri6; snake, hayyeh, stallion, 

will you take me to land C*o *^® 

I -wriU give yoii nothing. Tdkhudnt 

^^^ '^joSMd hi arha^ 1eur€L8h. 
TXTxls^s^ down to the hoat. NSzzil has- 

^ 'CS®' y^XWe^ii-- jc«.*A t*f.«<«. o#»o. \^vjxabt.uj.i»jr 

^^^a-ieTvo^^^^^^.«^or\,. Jiat et'tSzkereh (pasaaport) 

^oJ*^ * <io?x3»-B C 43f^j^rrtruk). Open the trunk, Iftah es- 
W^eoi.. M:cL'andi 8h^, (^Gratuity, hdkhshish.) 

"ov^e me >jOXVi 

1. "iva-^e TVO 
I axa 

MQ^ f^ t^jcfccrc/i ^andi 

W?r^^S^ ^xoX^^^^oi^ of the English CAmerican) consul. 

**^e^^>feSi^'^V ^"^V, \)T\tvS Txie a cup of coffee. Yd weled, jtb finjdn 
^^«>«^i«^2^j ^^^-aickar, ^ith sugar; minghZr aiOckar , or mUrra, 

^^^^r, soDie 'wat^r. Jtb feursi, m6t/e7». 

^ ^^^\e1i. J^^ nargtleh Qox nc^ca^. 

:^ J^>>e. Marbtsh nadtf, jedtd. 

:^X^^^ of red-hot charcoal. Jt6 basaet ndr. 

^^ (i, e. ^^^S * fresh-filled hbwQ. Ohatfyir en- 

:^J[ril^ham'mdm), Bring the pattens. Jtb ei-kabkdb 

j^*^^?^^ in. Tr<jzfl?^^'»» lajwvoiva. Leave me for a* little. 

^^^^ * -^ J do not perspire yet. Lissa mdni'ark^n, 

^eyyisni melth. Yon need not ruh me. Mush 

:^^ ^asb me with soap. Ghaasilni hindhUn. — That 
^^^^iJke^; ^^^- Bring me cold water. Jtb moy^A 


xnore. Jtb kemdn,. 

We yrill go out. 

Bring a sheet Cslieets"). Jtb fxiia (fuwai) 
l^t^.^ee, » narglleli. ^16 mOyeh, kahwth, narpUe^.— 

^ \^es? ^^^ ht^dnmi-f Bring my shoes. Jtb cl- 

■^ ^e the hath-attendant, the cofifee-sellex'? Wgn cl- 
^i'?— BCereis your fee. IChud bakh^htshak. 

^'s rand el-m^A^cyyir^j , ^^^ ^^ ^^.^ ^^^^ bcIsbots. 


Km iWt faiJ*^^ti<^Mcb is not n^T^;?" « ^^^^'^ ^*^* *'>«*' heads 
«,..ove^V?li^«ant er^P^^^^^^ the patient, b«t 

^Um>^i ^^^ jae ^ell /«^J2^T;^T"-^^' wxtliout soap, '^/^n- 

kail EgKa8«»^ '^'^ ^"O* « w not necessatry. Xd, miMA idzim 

^hffli ihe ^*^^®^.J!*« finished , he holds a mirror before his 
castomeiMid saya- ^^tman (may It be pleasant to you); to which 
reply ! Allah yin'am 'aWc (God make it p leasaTit to thee). 

¥ashihq. Take the clothes to he -washed. Waddi el-hucKlm 
lU-ghatU, (The articles shonld he ootinted in presence of the 
irasherman). — How much does the 'vrashing cost? ^(iclfiish 

Umen el^^hcuU? 

WithaMuletber Cmukdri;. Have yon horses? ^Anddk IchH? 

— I have no heasts. MdfUh dawdbh ^andi. ^What do yon asij, fox 

a hoiee per day? Kaddish idkhud Icira Uul ySm ^ald ddbbeh^ XKirty 
piastres, TeWtln iirah. — - That won't do ; we will give you art^en. 
Md ftwJr; nrftjfc fcAamstd^sft. — We want two horses and two nxnles. 
Bedni husdnM uhaghUn. — For how mnch will you take me tl^eie*? 
Bikem kkhudni ila h^nVc't — A jonmey of three ^*^®- . f ^^'^•' tclatt- 
iydm. — We will try the animals . Menjerrih ed^davfufdbh. — M:ount. 
Irkab. -. This one does not go well ; hring another. aScia m<» 
hh^mhi', jib warn ghh^, — Give me earnest -money. ^^^ttm 

On the Jouhnby. When wUl yon ^^^^^^^^J^Q''^^^ -^ 
WeshaUstaitto-monow at sunrise. ^f^'^^i^^'^lJ^'^^ ^"^t 
m^oBh^shems', an hour before sunrise, aA'a Uabl csh-BherM , two k^ot^^s 

after sunrise, «d'atcn 6a'd esfc-sftcww- ««,*v^^_ ,.9 

Do not c;me too late. Ld tet^&^<^^ wA't^;^^^^? ^^*^X 
Kid «Ag ftadtr? - Have you honght wine? lahtartt nc6icl«3^ ^0, 

not yet. 14, lUsa, ^ Pack, load. ShSyyzl^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ 

How many honrs is it frona ... to - - - know ^V' \ an 

ila . . .? (As, however, few of the ^latives appear toknow^^^t an 
hour is, theii answers kre seldom to he reUed on.)- Se^^^ ^o^t^ 
and a half Seh'a sa^dt unu88. ^^^^ ^^o^nt. Becirf* jrl^ 


ana a nan aeoa 8(fat unuss. T will mount. Becirf* /r" 

Hold the stirrup. Imsik er-relcdb . -— ^^^^^ .^ "^^i^ It 

fpl. Itdnd nerfca6). — Will it laan to-^ay > ^. ^ . ^Z^^t 

-Wait a little. Utmna ah'u>oyyeh. -^j^ountain, valX^^ .^eei 

What is the name of this ^^^^ff ® ' ^7uw>«ajafa, /tat~-^^^ ^ 
spring? 8hxk Urn hdl-heled, jebel, '^^^^.^/.^^u neteghddda, -— __ t *\iet^ 
We will rest, breakfast. Bedder^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^.j, (fid^^^^g *^ ^ 
good water there (on the route) r ^ « ▼' -v^e ^iH dismoun-t. _^£df^^ 

Where is the spring? Wgn el-'aiti^ 7~Zi^^j -— Remain a.-t ». i4ttl« 
nm8«. — Bring the dinner. Jtb el-'Oicev. ^ 1% 


KalU, min shdnak (it is little, but for your Mke) is the expression 
used by the seller when he has decided to accept the price named 
hy the buyer. Or he sometimes says: KhCdu bcUdsh (take it for 

Yield a little. Zid shwoyyeh. — Give me the money. Hdt ci- 
ftUils. — Change me a gold piece. Sdrrif It lira. — For how much 
will you take this gold piece? BUUm tdkhud el'ltral — It does not 
matter. Md bisdiL 

Salutations and Phrases. May your day be happy. Nehdrak 
sa^td. — Your day be blessed. NMrak muhdrek. — Good morning. 
Sabdhkum bil-kherj or el'-khh: — Answer: God grant thee a good 
morning. Alldh yeacibbihkum (yesabbihakj bil^khir. 

Good evening. Meshkum bil-'khiry oi el-khir. — Answer: God 
grant thee a good evening. AlWi yemesstkum (yemessikjbilr-kher, or 
messdkum Alldh biU-khtr, — May your night be happy, blessed. 
LUetak (iHeikum) sa^idehy mubdrekeh. Answer, the same. 

On visiting or meeting a person, the first question after the 
salutations'is : Kefhdlak (hdlkum), or kifk^fakl How is your health? 
The usual answer is : El-hamdu liUdhy tayyib. Well, thanks be to 
God. — The Beduins and peasants sometimes ask the same question 
a dozen times. 

After a person has drunk, it is usual for his friends to raise their 
hands towards their heads and say : Haniyan yd sidi. May it agree 
with you, sir. — Answer: Alldh yehannik (yehannVcum), God grant 
that it may agree with thee also. 

On handing anything to a person: Dunaky or fcftud, take it. 
Answer: Kdttar alldh khtrak. God increase your goods. — Reply: 
Vkhirak. And thy goods also. (This form of expressing thanks 
will not often be heard by the ordinary traveller, as the natives are 
too apt to regard gifts presented to them by Europeans as their right.) 

On leaving: Auda'ndkum; goodbye. Or khdterakj khdtirkum\ 
farewell. To which the host replies: Ft amdn AUdh; under God's 
protection, or Ma'as-saldmeh ; fare ye well; to which the answer 
sometimes given is: Alldh yesellimak; God grant it may go well 
with thee. 

On the route : Ahlan wasdhlany or marhabd, welcome. Answer : 
marhdbtin, twice welcome. 

Come to eat; partake. Tafdddalj pi. tafdddalu. 

Take care. Khalli bdlaky dtr bdiak or simply bdlak. 

To make way for a rider: Take care of your back. Ddhrakl 
Ddhrak ydkhowdja! pdhrak yd bint! — according to the rank and 
sex of the person addressed. 

I am under your protection (aBeduin expression). Ana dakhUak. 

— My house belongs to you. Beti betak (my house is thy house). 

— Be so good, rmil tl-maWOif. — I beg. Ddkhlak. 

MdshdUah (expression of surprise). Literally 'what God will' 

happens', ^'^^^^^Js^^* "' '"'^i «« Go^ 

,.5iir^^' ^S^'-'^Si^rv^- 

i„ to itsell alone ^ -^ ^^ prob'^b*^ beiA "o^C '»«» of ^ 
country vestiges or »» ^.^^ ^otla '^^ n^^^^^flffii.^*^*^ tii.^ ^^eiTfl. 
so widely different aS' *I»^X5 *C * *» b»* *° «oh„>''<'ot «: 
in anY other country ir\^ **T J^' «cm **4ie^ • <'oo„?'""« aod .,* 

WntUepeonllaiaverS^f' i*^ '«*«»a>K^ *l»e 1^"* P«fntt"* »» tie »» 

of an Mni, as .ell ^^ *'t,b,e ^S^Sfo^ -« 

^^'^rC; possesses ^^^^iS^^f ' *tfe o'^^ "^ ^"^o^^^ 
At various points alor»^ ^ l^fl^eace «elb f/ ^s^o^^,^ ^ "^ 

Deen found, united by *^^^«V^*tt»ojl'^e--8i^- J^O) °*fc Cc^..^,^ 

along with the teeth <if, J^a«?°«t «o4 ' ''^•rs k *«to » „* '"ols^; 
of tiler. This remark»t»3f ^^f^eet- 8ha!*'?»e8 ' '»feons*«pabre^*^« 
...„L. to a depth of s.^^^'^7'7 ««>« Ji^P^d ajote I^'" the « * «1>S^ 

. '^ - ^ „_7»dir !». *«» fi. »^o«b an jI Some 

in numbers 

of the dolmens E. of tJ*^ 

is particularly rich in 0*^^ o< *"« WdT, J»>V^»«b'a«^'^* So^ 
that only cairns occur; ''' -***»* only j*^,*er44 ri" ^^oab iT^ G«a.j 
cromlechs, and N. of \yxe> ^VT but tLf^^'^en* ^«*?n r^ « Is ^^^ 
dolmens occur hy hunajr^d^ .^^^^^ ^^ese „^^8. I« tl,a\*- 190)";;^^ 

any doors left, and the SP*"/ tr^nt po« *o short tb T*"** h»i^*^ot th^ 
only have been buried 1«» * ?»»« '^oCt:'!: 8keLt**« fe '«Jdot 
tlon have been discovered '"^^mmentg 1 °^ *l>e nf^^s in *i®* <^oniA 
There are numerous 8toi»e »*^lb»ble tI,.?V*'e tS^'*'»'*inR^* Posi, 
and Tyre (p. 260). - I* is ^fj^d the bnl *">« «e^t?. '>et^^ **'Sio^f 
stone Lonnments also v^itn^^f^d WokJ'i''^*ne oft^^ioh^^'"^ S«f*> 

partly constructed of sa»-t**^,6 Inthe *"^ ftoft,'|« awflei^f^;? **e 
which exist in such large nurO «» ''alley ^tth ** 3o ; " *>illB, 

and on the plain of Jezreel. , abound j * "''•'dan^r * ***«-h ' 

b. The mountalus of Sy«» *l>orIgin*'' C^v^j, "U'- 167)' 

ample evidence to show that ta*^ i» oaveg r^abitaft *»id fi 
try were troglodytes, or dwelleJ*^ , towaMl .Jbe «,„*« of thl^^^ is 
ural effort of art would be direc«^";< new ° *''e extJ!: *'»d n, **«»«» ~ 

ural effort of art would be direc»*=' ^ new g '"« extpJ' *i»d »nT ^' 
caverns, and the next to tonai^x to he fc,'*''«tlon„®*ou of ®* *» 

Remain8>fsuchJdwemngsar6 9**i,J;t»l>eW» ^ttth *"* thn"*** _ 
the caverns in the region ofB«t J'^^ased to v*^*ba g^ ^au,* /oofcs. 

civilisation advanced, the caveg ^^.ajdges vl o^'*^&bit ® cUs. '' 

places of refuge in time of war C-'^^oto, in o,^J; It ^^. e^^^' 
tomary, however, to excavate th.^ ^-.oWeUh nf* to fo,Jj*HiUed* 
for the dead (comp. the cave of 3^ ' "• **1U a^^eptaT^"" 

at««* ^^=***"«'8 »'« elosed with Urge stones. Tliese .ubterr." 
ttt»i «» «2^*^?,, " ^ " ?**«">• (Z*"!*- is- 1 1 ) - Spring, were 

M»4«»i«» -Q^^Tlw K " P'**'"' (^«''''- *'^- * *>- Spring, were 

,tflett oi'^^V* ^7*r^*' by mew. of .quediicta oonstracted In . 

»^ol*e8"«*f**" *'*""''«•' <«*l««« *»»® hlH-8lde8; .nd tie 

in tanks Tv ^"''**> ■• ^«U a., -was often collected 

«^ii4«ieAnw5^^® Mcepfakole., wUch the eliuaeter ot the ooontiy 

■Coa,^ '''' ^^^ ""^ ** » '«'y remote perioa C^eut, ri. H). 

«« tl.« ,oTv r^. ^"^ PwtsSBS which occur bo flce<ittonay In Syria 

ta ir«*k« *^^«nt- These l«it consist of aquare or olronlM hole. 

holelt «w W**^"** ^ **• do'P »«»d up to 13 feet long with . 

Cpha^i^!^^"' *''«»^ which the wlue or oil flowed into a vat. 

Hrt,«« ?^.v"-»'*««» «9 more carefully oonatructed than the 

exveriTnee in A^*"* excT.Uons must ha^e required oonsiderable 

cX'S^h^ * "•* °^ *« ""'el. •Uhough the rook ia not parti- 

difluSltto^«L^'^*'y »» '»" of ancient Book. Tombs, but it Is very 
Afe™,Wl*''*"»»'» «»e periods to which they respectively belong. 
V^^X^l'T^'^ wa. to excavate theae ol»»°»^«"/? AoS^„"fw 

iollowed in "k^\o^«««fled as follows: --^<-*^;^ dosed with i 
«!»'> of stone _°?*'^"ke modem graves, '^'t^^^ consisting of 

*•»/ ta the ^k i°»8 »n«i 1 V« ft. square , ^^«^/[,Ahe floor, into 

i^wlngshelvlLT^*' PMhed. - (3). ^^"^Cz.^Ti^i, »bo»t 2 ft. 

Tomb,, i^y, ° ' *nd generally with ▼^^"^^bout 2V2 »• ^'°°» «ie 

'■ieromicK^ °' the body, and aUow* 1^2 ^j^^^^ .„tich are 
open «nd h»ve ""**<='•« Me of three Wads : — -^ Z^^. Those with a 
'tone bench or «L,'i"''«a tomb in the floor- ,,g%vhioh vraa "sed »8 
»»•"« ton.1,, 'o;*«i/ ''^i round their avails ^^d i„ the walu 
'•"O'eit rieelr«*«««i sK « tomh* ^®'^ /closed ^tb » «^»^ 01 
snuUportUn?,?^**"©©  *^^* *^^ w»s, <"-".ist8 of aggregates 
ofohiC «^«e. -^r\*%t*Sta ^^^'^ or pediment, leading 

"MJ/ieZ i "^Aen^^^lMal, t*'' ^« ope» \ „8 consist oMefly ^f 
'i fi,^- ^i»^''^^m»ll *"**! decor»ti°"^„lded cornice fro_ 


Grfflco-Romaii iiiflaeuce, especially those in which Ionic and Corin- 
thian capitals have been employed. Egyptian influence is also 
apparent in the case of the pyramids which sometimes surmount 
monumental tombs. — For the rock-tombs of the Phosnicians, comp. 
p. 280. 

The sarcophagi, or stone coffins, which were only employed by 
the wealthier members of the community, were borrowed by the 
Hebrews and Phcsnicians from the Egyptians. These sarcophagi 
were frequently arranged In pairs, covered by a single lid. Many 
of the old Syrian sarcophagi are now seen in use as fountain- 

The custom of engraying inscriptions on stone was much less 
common among the ancient Hebrews and Phosnicians, owing to 
their want of taste for history, than among the Assyrians and 
Egyptians ; and it is this which renders it so diffloult for us to de- 
termine the age of their architectural remains. A distinctive pecu- 
liarity of the Syrian, and particularly of the Phoenician architecture, 
consisted in the fact, that, instead of the column, as in Greece, the 
fundamental source of their style was the sculptured rook, of which 
the separate piers afterwards used were merely an imitation. Hence 
it is that the supports of these buildings are so massive in size, 
and that, quite contrary to the principles of classical architecture, 
the plan of the structure is entirely subservient to them. 

c. Jbwishand Phcenician Architbctubb. The Jews and Phoeni- 
cians borrowed their types from Assyrian and Egyptian sources. In 
the Holy Land the great central shrine of Jerusalem absorbed the 
whole of the architectural energy of the people. On probable relics 
of the most ancient buildings, see p. 36. The custom of hewing 
stones of the required form in the quarry itself (1 Kings vi. 7) is 
traceable in buildings both at Jerusalem and Ba'albek. At what 
periods and by what means these gigantic blocks were conveyed to 
their destinations we are now unable to ascertain. Stones with 
drafted margins are found in the oldest Syrian edifices and in those 
of subsequent periods down to mediaeval Arabian times. It is 
possible that the builders of the most ancient period were not 
acquainted with drafting, while, on the other hand, the mediaeval 
stone-masons frequently used drafting. The drafting is formed by 
slightly sinking the face of the stone round its outer margin to a 
width of 2-4 inches, thus giving the wall a kind of fluted ap- 
pearance. The surface of the blocks was either left rough (*rusti- 
cated'), or slightly hewn, or completely planed. The stones, though 
fitted together without mortar, are jointed with marvellous accuracy. 

d. Greek and Roman Architecture. It is probable that Greek 
influence had begun to make itself felt in Syria, or at least in Phoe- 
nicia, even before the time of Alexander. It has frequently been 
asserted that a number of Ionic forms and the art of overlaying cer- 
tain parts of buildings with metal were imported by the Greeks from 


the ne«ei regions of the East. This may ^^^^ ^^^^^ *^p,,^1kn? 
U is certain that the Orientals, and P^^f^^^I^l^^^rms of Greek 
Teceiyedin return from Greece the fully ®**'*^ ^J^--l» ^*« Inferior 
sculptme, although the hard limestone used ii* ^^Is and figures. 
totheGieek marble as a material foi Corinthian 5^^^^ ^l^e Diadoohi 
HmeroTiB though the monuments of the P®^*^*^,i^^«^^ in Syria, hut 

must have been, hardly one of them is no-vr ^r^ ^^ extended their 
those of the Soman r^me are still abundant- *- ^^^ ^i^e milestones 
militaiy loads even to the most remote dl«triot«, ,^^^^ a ▼lev to in- 
of some of them are still in existence. I* "wa* ^^^ ^^unptuous edi- 
gratiate himself with the Romans that Herod *^^^^ ^li© towns of Pa- 
flces in the Roman style to he erected in ^^^^'^.i^^^ieej »™^ ^^^^ *^® 
lestine, and even of Syria, although theatres, «"** J^tt&r ^o destrno- 
Roman eagles were an abomination to the •'^^^^^It^ely extended, and 
tion of Jerasalem, the Roman colonisation was •^''^^^ernors, or at the 
new towns sprang up nnder the auspices of *»® » Xl»e characteristic 
expense of the emperors, particularly of "^"^^^^^^ed l>y * colonnade 
featme of these towns was that they were ^^^^'^^ -tlio colonnade was 
leading from a triple gate. At the point "'^^^^^T^rs to have been a 
ciossed hy another of smaller size, there *^^^o lay the temples, 
*tetrapylon'. On each side of the chief ^^^^^Z^^^Tved examples of 
hatha, theatres, and naumachia. The ^®**^^ :E!a8t of the Jordan, 
these Roman structures are in the country to *P^ ]tf uslfms, has been 
which, since the conquest of the country "by ^^ to whom the use 
almost exclusively occupied by dwellers in *^^^' which have been 
of hnilding-materials is unknown. Those ^^ ^j^^t Is *fO"^ *^® 2nd 
preserved date from the later Roman period, ^^^ severe and dig- 
centuiy downwards, when a falling-off ^^^^^^.^s. in superabundant 
nifled taste of the classical period is manif^st^^^^^^ l,y broken 
deooration. In the adornment of niches su^^ design. Palmyra, 
pediments , and in the absence of harmony^ ^ style, and likewise 
Ba'alhek, and Jerash afford examples of tl»i» fashion, are exter- 
Petra, where the tombs, excavated in the nati^ ^^ ^^^^ in a style 
nally adorned with huge facades chiselled i» esp««^*^^^ where the 
somewhat resembling the later rococo period y ^^^ jinmeions small 
cornices have been constructed in curves- g^attered throughout 
temples (perhaps tombs), relics of which *^®,^ turned towards the 
Lebanon, date from the same period, though a.u_ ^j^^isN ^^^ Ionic 
East in the Greek fashion, and are generally i^ ^ .^^ and the celu 
capitals; the stylobate has a cornice running ro ^^^g throng tlie 
is entered from its raised W. end by a door ^ ^^^ ^^^ *^^^y?*»- 
stylohate. — A peculiar style of architecture i» ^^^^^^ A.v. 150-. 
go^es erected in Galilee, six in number, <i»^ fnterior is ^^^^Jded 
200, They are quadrangular in form, and tlie ^j^mns. ihese 
into Ave aisles by means of four rows of massif ^©od, *"°.*«e 
columns bore an architrave of stone, thereof '«^«« ^jctretiyeiy ^<itx. 
ornamentation, especially that of the cornices, ^ ^* 

eexi'natxia and K^^^ 
dcas and dome-co^^^ 

apse 18 geneially ro^^»-^ 
. uumeious ■windo'*'^^' 
the alBles and upTP^* 
amns sometimes ap'P^^ ^ 
the shape of a calV^ 
hitects after a fas"**^^^ 
adows and portals » ^ 
aainating in tn^tB -- 


111.,. *^®se synagagues towards the N. 
SJ .^f J^^^**^^^ «ff towards the interior. 
of animals ^ere frequently carved 


^ze. consist, of fo^*^ 


"t ft** «»:* 

-toy mejms of /"'*"« *''® *<«"« ^«» *!>« 
^ sktme time a^ P^ndentiyea' or buckets 

^„^Md8 by 'colnlSif **•««*«" Bnpported by 
-r*onp of tl.1 V ^', ^®'® »1«> frequently 
,^, 1« e«U mo^'^^*^*" of th4tleriod, 
^tractuies ofto«- *'»*«'«•*"»«• Columnar 

»« facade conTuL^*/" **••»' '»"* »"»yi«" 
^rfttarnaLUy a„j „ J- ""^ open colonnade; 
lA as a ruXe .ihI j '*"«ol«r externally : 
,*xt Of the natt'^'^f *^«' «« i»««rted 
-3. tie acanthug t«i i. ""P****!* of the 
a.loli has been S^' . * *^ oooaslonally 
f their o^ %tr**<»P«d by the native 

audomed ^^^ dtlf ^!*1' »» "w*" «» the 

-tjling volutes Tifr * string -oouiBes 

«roit, grapes ana ^K*""******®" of *l^e 

ol>jeots also^o^ '"^the ~*nth«s; but 

, the chief towM '; P.^'^t, "'»««« "« in- 
^o«8 resort, the Greek it!^*' •«* P"*^- 
^xeat erected a number n?*"*"" ***«' *!«« 
,»», in P»Wicular «^ **' spaclous &<wi- 
'^l^e *>Solomo^^' ^^oy" * Wgk repntatton 

, »«oribed. The^rCtTb ^^'^^^^^^W^" 
l^y Jusunian-) h^hf ^^^'nstian b««iUca 

a *<'»»>«Udlag_**J'ot only availed thom- 
y, but they fC^tT.; '''*^ M8<»oUW 
l^ence the strone .*«« f^ employed 0^5 

>«.lofete served a« r*"«Tod that the rotan^. 
cl>ra); the do^,*«i»»f «! 'or thaH^h: 

J fflSTOBY Oy J%.»T- oxvu 

^ !l:i»i ^WrH wa» n©eo»»«V for the purpose of the 

^^r^^^^^^^^lT'J^vTZ^^ oi»«» colonnide with a ceiUng, 

M.U.T. ti*^,^> ^«?f. » ^'f ^-«^ or ^Mch 1» occupied by the 

«mlV.t^ of ^^^,^^i^^??' *>® "i\^ ^•fl constructed a .paciou* 

mw(i\i<i', Mi<iTie« the Klbla ip. ^^ -roliltectural worki chiefly 

iome. -N?U\e *^« ^^^\^^J^Z±st^A in Syria, they never- 

Moiieil ttife ftT^« ^Woa alreaay " ^^^ th^neelves. At a later 

tklesB developed various forms P®®^"* capriciously to gije their 

iwiiod tute deg^awated. They «>®«r" ^a^e' *J»eir vaulting inter- 

^/>i»M» pointed, hulhous form, aiw"- . ^^^tiire aroadlng, reminding 

nally mth a Bupetftdal BtmctuXB ^ J^ i» the so-called 'staUctite 

tii» spwtoioi ol a honeycomb. Tli*» Boli<i**y properly conveyed 

waiting', In which the Impiessiott ^ ^^lised. The Arabs also 

hy a TMlted Btiuotuie ii entirely 5»© ^^^j^ al>o^e the capitals of 

ftequently stilted the rides of the «®^?^ «eriod C** ^^'^X *« ***« 9*h 

the supporting pillars, and at an ^•'^^^lie poinied arch and the 

cent, in Egypt) they also hegan to l^*ll j- ^n invention of their 

horse-shoe aioh, the Utter being ®*®r?fL4ure is i*« ▼an* ©^ strict 

own. The great fault of Arabian ***^**^^^j^ to *^o general effect 

orgaaie coherence; instead of ba'vlnK ^^^^e meant to serve, the 

of their huildings, or the purposes *^®^ ^_^ to ornamentation and 

minds of the architects were eniiiely devo organic signifhsance 

other details; and to this want of tinifonnw*^ ^y these edifices, 

is due the unsatisfactory inip»«»s***'^-.?^f -rabesqnes. One often 
notwithstanding all their showy vrealtti ^^^^^ beautiful capitals 
obsenes, for example, ancient ^^^^^^'^l..,. columns or clumsy 
placed immediately beside modern -7"^^*^ which was probably 
piers. The coloured arabesques, the idea o ^j^^^jiy designed, 
borrowed from woven tapestries, »'« often 

but they soon weary the eye of the ^^^^^^T^^^ings in the Arabian 
Syria cannot boast of many original />^^^^ Ji^d abundance of 
style, the reason being that the Arabs here * j^ for the sake of 
ancient edifices which they could either disin» ^^es. Taking 
the materials, or easily adapt for their ^^^.^ions of antiquity, 
advantage of the wonderfully substantial fou»»* ^^ tbeit own, they 
and using either ancient materials or inferior ones ^^^^ towers, and 

erected on these foundations their town-wall«> ^eos-V- "^^^^ ^'^P" 

t&eir castles, aU of which speedily again fell ^ tbeir walls by 

posed that additional strength was imp»r*^ / ii^y »<5cordingly 

building fragments of columns into them ; »^ ^y tametncal order, 

not only inserted such iiagments in their wftU>^ ^^^^JteSi<^ artificially. 

but often endeavdnred to produce a similat'^Pjf ^loiui*y of ancient 

This was also done by the Crusaders Tftiis iJ* *^tt>s©*^®* numerous 

barboui-fortiflcations in partioul.r* nftc^ o^^ incoiporated 

scamied pitflions of columns m ' ^°®. h ^^^ ^Imfie ^ now left. 

with the badly buiirlaT;^?: ?^^^^^^ c^« '^ °^*^^ ^' 

g. Frank Castlbs and cLZ'^''^ ""^^ tTi^-^termine whether 

the medieval castles of Syria it^^^,^,^^^^^^ to ^^* 

oxvili fflSTOBY OP ABT. 

they were erected by the Saracens or by the Crusaders ; bat they 
may be distingmshed from each other by the fact that diagonal or 
sometimes almost horizontal lines generally appear on the face of 
the blocks used by the Crusaders. The churches erected by Euro- 
peans on the soil of the Holy Laud, however, are easily distin- 
guishable from the Arabian buildings. These churches are of two 
classes. The first embraces all the churches built by the Franks 
between 1099 and 1187. These are all in one style. They possess 
a nave and aisles of equal length, a transept, and three apses ad- 
joining each other. The vaulting is smooth and without a trace of 
groining, and rests on simply constructed piers. Above the inter- 
section of the nave and the transept rises a dome, springing from 
pendentives. The rest of the building is covered with a flat 
roof. On the outside of the walls are imperfectly developed flying 
buttresses, and in every case the arches are of a pointed character. 
— The second class of these churches embraces those of the 13th 
century. They are all situated on the sea-coast, and they closely 
resemble French churches of the same period, but have flat roofs. 
— The pointed arch, which prevails in these buildings, is not the 
early Muslim arch, but that which was afterwards perfected by 
western architects, so that this European architecture may properly 
be termed an early development of the pointed style on Arabian soil. 

h. Antiquitibs. Lastly, we must notice some of the ancient 
relics which are still to be found in Syria, and at the same time 
caution the inexperienced traveller against purchasing any of the 
imitations which are now largely manufactured in that country and 
in Egypt. Old Hebrew coins (shekelB, very seldom genuine) are par- 
ticularly valuable ; and next to them Phoenician coins and gems, 
Grseco-Roman coins of various towns, and Arabian coins of very 
various periods. The tombs often contain tear-vases, small statues 
and reliefs, and (on the Phosnician coast) scarabssi, etc. In the 
case of such antiquities being offered for sale, enquiry should always 
be made as to the place where they were found, and unless this 
can be ascertained with certainty, they possess no scientific value. 
All stones bearing inscriptions are valuable, especially when freshly 
discovered, and such relics are still frequently turned up by the 
plough. Inscriptions are found in Syria bearing the following cha- 
racters : — (1) Phoenician , ancient Hebrew, and Samaritan ; (2) 
Aramaic (or ^Nabatsan'; the Nabatsans were Arabs who wrote 
Aramaic), in the Haur&n and at Palmyra ; (3) Greek (very nume- 
rous) ; (4) Latin ; (5) Arabic, which in the earlier periods (Cufie) 
more nearlyapproaches the Aramaic character, but in later times often 
became very involved ; (6) Medisval Frank writing. 

With regard to the method of obtaining impressions of in- 
scriptions, see p. xxvi. 


IX. Works descriptiYe of Paleitiiie and Syria. 

The literature , of Palestine especially, is enormouf : we give here 
merely a few important works, which travellers may be recommended to 
study before starting on their trip. The literature on certain •pecial 
topics is briefly enumerated at various places in the Handbook. Pio- 
feisional scholars may be referred to R. Eohricht^s BihUoiheca Oeogrc^hiea 
Paldttino! (Berlin , 18i90). Since 1867 the Palestine Exploration Fund ha« 
taken a foremost place in the exploration of Palestine. The results of its 
work will be found in its UuarterUf JStatemmU. The German Palestine 
Exploration Society (Vareinzur£r/or$chttngPald»tin(u)hlsoiBaviea a scientific 

It is scarcely necessary to remark that the traveller is assumed to 
hsve his Bible with him. 


The Survey of Western Paleatine : 3 yoU. Memoirs ; 1 vol. Name 
List ; 1 vol. Special Papers ; 1 yoI. Jerusalem. London 1884 
(Pnbl. for the Pal. Explor. Fund). 

The Survey of Eastern Palestine: Memoirs, vol. I. London 1889 
(Pnbl. for the Pal. Explor. Fund). 

Robinson, Biblical researches in Palestine etc. London 1841. 

Robinson, Later biblical researches etc. London 1856. 

Conder, Palestine (with maps). London 1889. 

Conder, Tent work in Palestine. London 1889. 

Conder, Heth and Moab. London 1889. 


Names and places in the Old and New Testament with their modern 

identiflcation. London 1889. 
(EusebiusJ Onomastica sacra, ed. P. de Lagarde. Gottingen 1887. 
Itinera Latine (Publications de la Socia<^ de I'Orient Latin). 1879. 
Palettine Pilgrims^ Text Society, established for the translation and 

publication of the medlffiyal literature (annual subscription one 

Neubauer, La g^ographie du Talmud. Paris 1868. 
Ouy le Strange, Palestine under the Moslem. London 1890. 


Great map of Western Palestine, in 26 sheets. 

Beduced map of Western Palestine, modem names only, in 6 sheets. 

The same map, water basins in colour and sections. 

Old and New Testament map of Palestine in 21 sheets. 

Modem map of Palestine in 21 sheets. 

Old and New Testament map of Palestine in 12 sheets. 


J. WeUhausen, History of Israel. Translatedby W.Robertson Smith, 
Edinburgb 1889. 

, Pale*"." Pftlestii'*' \iO 

nisi. £onrfu/i *i3;V5^^^ i^^^» * ^-f- ,a,i** r V 

W^!*' •t>'»'"  ■"•■""i.l.i- 

_». ..!„«•.;. - .  . . ; ^ 


. - ; at l-wft'ius f.1.  . 1 

lilioith of tl"' 8epolchre. Ea^ii^" „f 

■;^. !«i *''■ 

Dar Ishak Beg. Abyssinian Monastery. Monastery of 

the' Copts. Cistern of St. Helena T4 

Walks within the City 74 

1. TheMiiristan 74 

2. From the Gate of St. Stephen through the Via Dolorosa 77 

Charch of St. Anne 77 

Chapel of the Scourging. Via Dolorosa T8 

Convent of the Sisters of Zion. Ecce Homo Arch. Au- 
strian Pilgrims^ Hospice. House of the Poor Man. 

House of Dives, ist-oth Station 79 

House of St. Veronica. Porta Judiciaria. 6th-14th Station 80 

3.- Christian Street. Old Bazaar. Jewish Quarter ... 80 

Greek Monastery 80 

Patriarch's Pond. Monastery of St. John. David Street. 

Old Bazaar. Jewish Quarter. Synagogues .... 81 

4. Castle of Goliath, Citadel, etc 81 

ISew Bazaar 81 

Latin Patriarchate. Castle of Goliath. Citadel .... 82 

Christ Church. Armenian Monastery .-.-...... 83 

5. The Y&fa Suburb 83 

' Space in front of the YS^fa Gate. ' Mamilla Pool. Hospital 

of St. Louis 83 

' St. Paul's Church. Russian Buildings. Talitha Kumi. 

Syrian Orphanage. British Consulate 84 

6. The So-called Zion Suburb, , 85 

Bp. Gobat's School. Ccenaculum 85 

Monastery of Mt. Zion. Habs el-Mesih. Gate of Zion . 86 

5. Environs of Jerusalem 87 

1. The Mount of Olives 87 

Bath of Our Lady Mary. Tomb of the Virgin .... 87 

Garden of Gethsemane J . . .' 89 

Mount of Olives. Chapel of the Ascension 90 

Vault of St. Pelagia 91 

Russian Buildings ." 92 

' Latin Buildings (Church of the Creed, Church of the Lord's 

Prayer). Tombs of the Prophets 93 

Viri Galilffii (Karem es-Sayyad). Burj Laklak .... 95 

2. TheValleyoftheKidicon ...... " 96 

Tomb of Absalom 96 

Tomb of ^ehoshaphat. ' Grotto of St. James 97 

Pyramid of Zacharias. Siloah 98 

Mountain of Oflfence. St. Mary's Well 99 

Pool of Siloah 100 

JoVs Well. Bet Sahar el-^Atika. 101 

3. The Valley of Hiiinom . .* 101 

. Mount of.Evil Counsel 101 

Necropolis 102 

Building of the Field of Blood 108 

German Colony of the Temple. Lepers' Hospital . . . 104 

Birket es-.Sultan 106 

4. N. Side of the City. • Tombs of the Kings , Tombs of 

the Judges, etc 105 

Damascus Gate ; 105 

Cotton Grotto 106 

Grotto of Jeremiah. Church of St.Stephen. Tombs of theKings 107 

Tombs of the Judges IO9 

6 Boute2, yIfA. 

Judaea) in the distance, a yellow shore, then a view of the town of 
Yafa , rising in terraces like a fortress on the slope of a hill , an- 
nounce that we are approaching the Holy Land. 

As Yfcfa (see below) possesses no good harbour, steamers are 
obliged to anchor in the roads about ^2 ^* ^^^^ land. When the 
weather is stormy this is impossible, and the steamers then proceed 
to Haifa or to Beiri]lt. 

From Yafa to Bbibut, the steamers usually leave Yafa in the 
evening. The visit to the Custom House (export duties , p. xxxi) 
may be avoided by a bakhshish of 2-3 fr. 

The steamer keeps close to the shore, which generally remains 
within view. (For the shore, see p. 235.) The greater part of the 
voyage is done by night. The plain of the shore is gradually hem- 
med in more and more by Mount Oarmel, which finally terminates 
in a promontory rising out of the sea (on its summit are a monastery 
and lighthouse, visible from the steamer). At Haifa (p. 228), 

7 hrs. from Yafa, the Austrian steamers stop some hours, while the 
steamers of the other lines proceed direct to Beiriit. We also pass, 
without stoppage, Tyre and Sidon, the latter being served by the 
steamers of the Turkish Mahrusa Company at irregular intervals. 

During the continuation of the voyage, which lasts another 9 hrs. 
(after leaving Haifa) , the steamer doubles the promontory of Rds 
BeirHty with a lighthouse , to cast anchor shortly afterwards in the 
roads of BeirtLt (p. 283). The view is magnificent : in front, the 
large and beautiful town , surrounded by a broad belt of large gar- 
dens enclosed by cactus hedges ; in the background , Lebanon with 
the peaks of Sannin (N.) and Keneiseh (S.) , which remain covered 
with snow till the beginning of summer. 

2. Tafa. 

Arrival. The debarcation at Yafa, as every^^here else in the East, is 
invariably conducted with the least possible order and the greatest pos- 
sible noise. The best plan is to make up a party of three or four before 
arriving, and to engage a boat for them. Messrs. Cook and Son and Gaze 
and Sons send well equipped boats to the steamer (preferable in rough 
weather; 5 fr. each person including carriage to the hotel), and an 
agent of the Jerusalem Hotel also comes on board. Travellers should 
energetically protest against any attempt at overloading. Care should also 
be taken that the luggage is placed in the proper boat, and that none of 
it falls overboard owing to the confusion and rocking of the boats. No 
attention should be paid to the dragomans who importune the traveller 
with offers of service. — Fares : boat for 1 pers. (not always obtainable), 
when the sea is calm , 5 fr. ; if the sea is rough, 20 fr. •, for a party, 1 fr. 
each (with a minimum of 6 fr.). The boatmen are never content with 
their fees, and on the passage they frequently endeavour to alarm their 
passengers as to the dangers of the landing with a view to extort an ad- 
ditional gratuity. No attention, however, should be paid to their noisy 
representations and violent gestures. ^Mnth Idztni* means 4t is unneces- 

'enough'. — The harbour of Tafa is a small basin formed by natural rocks, 
partly under water, on which the remains of an ancient port are said to 


toPolertii^- A^onfe. 5 

pottof EgYpt ^^IbL-e Place Mtfhemet-^i, f *« ^•"tre of t/e ^VrZ^^^^ 
lialfada^.^toi^ :^ampeys Colurnr^ . ^J^^/^^/J *ie commencement 
rf'i.v''I^* -A^-^-Tt^yaRoman prefect of that n^me. n u the 
of tlie 4tti f ^-"^^j^ent in a c-ood «***« o/ presemtlon in the town. 
^t^J^tte pi^^^ ^^i^metrAii and proceed to the Palace of the 

Khedive on tlie K^^^*-^». ^^rf^. — i. By Sba. Steamers of 

Fkom ALBXAisri>:^iA to Port »^ steamers of the ^tt^^ro-atm- 
the Mc8«ageric5 llifa.^rztim€8, see p- ^^^ at noon from Alexandria to 
ganan Lloi;d sail every MertiAto^ ^ternoon), and Beirut (Mon. 
Port Sa'id (Sat. aft^eraoon), Y^fa C^"":, ^^ yi^a direct and only call 
afternoon). The Egyptian steamers sai 
at Port Sa'id on tlie retain journey- ^ju te observed that near 

The voyage is devoid of interest. -* ^^^mnd of the Nile, which 
the coast the water Is rendered turbid .\^^ce of the current carries 
gives it a yellowisli-green tint. The '^ jjich threaten to block up 
the mud hither in considerable masses 9 ^gtru^ted at the E. of the 
the harbour. The great brealtwaters , ^^pos®^ ^^ artificial blocks 
harbour , are interesting. They are ^^^^^^^ixally stay some hours 
weighing 20 tons each. — The steam ere ^^j^^^ 1 f, 
at Port Sa'id. Boat to the land, 60c. ; * Va^antage of a delay of 2 or 

2. Via Caieo. Most travellers take ^r^j^o (express in 32/3 hw., 
3 days at Alexandria to pay a visit to ^ ^j^ 30 fr. 60, 2nd cl., 
ordinary train , 6 hrs. Pares : exproS®' ^ -pTon^ Cairo to Port Sa'id 
20fr.26; ordinary, 25 fr. 60 and 17 fr-J- r^;fc^ iTimaah (about 5 hrs. 
the shortest route is l>y Jsma'iliya across ^j^^ small Suez Canal 

from Cairo: express twice daily), ^^^'^^^ateamers can only accom- 
steamer to Port Sa ia in 41/2 ^rs. Tbes^ ® g^^d large parties during 
modate a limited nixmber of passeng©'^' -^pli. 
the season had better secure places by *®^®f,, -^Commerce, Hotel du 

Port Said {Hot^l Ca^iLmtal, R^t./ cl*^*' "?!." *?\^"\^,?e^ 
Louvre ^ de France, R^ie du Port, both ^»^^ ^t^ ^^^^"^ ^ *^® ^ 
is a tovm of 21,000 ixxhabitants and o^res 
Canal; the transit traffic is considerable. 

_- — - ^ ^eir<*t* 

n. Irom ^ott Ba'ia to Yfcf» ^»f *e>^^Vi" SMa^^Jeli 

and are most comfortably ^criUme$i^A) »/« A^ O* * J^^ Rus»ian steamers 
leaa recommended. Tlie^ ^*ted up -, **^« ^? ter**^^i *i®igbt of the season 
also preferable to the .A^^P^^^^ steamers *^^^ ftme^^^a will do well to 
(p. xix) leaves a good d«r:!?V^"*°» the cleanU**'*^ ** 0131 French steamers 
(Easter), travellers who ^* *® ^® desired. -^ t i^\^ ^? YMa- 

Early in the morning, ^^^ ^^^' *^® voyag^ ^ ^^^ (y\^^ "* 
with the naked eye. >v ,® weather is U\^\^\%<^ 

-^^ Jine of bluish b^'^ 



-yellow shore, tlien a vie^w of tlie to^wn of 
1 tbe distance , ^^^It^ » fortress on. tbe slope of a bill, an- 
ing in tenaced ^3^3 ing the Holy Land. 

lat wo are appT^^'^_^^^ssesses no good liarboiir, steamers are 
fcfa (seebelo^vj J^ads about 1/2 M. from. land. ^V^lien the 
anchor in tb^ --^^3. possible, and tlie steamers tlien proceed 
Ls stonny this i* ^ 

or to Beiriit. £j -x- ^ *^® steamers nsnally leave Y&fa in the 

►M Yapa to B»^^ 4^tMtom Hotise (export duties , p. xxxi) 

The visit to *^^^lxish of 2-3 fr. 
ivoidedby a ^^^o3^ *^ *^® shore, wliicli generally remains 
steamer keeps ^^^^p^^j see p. 235.) Xlie greater part of the 
dew. (Fortl^e » rj7 he plain of til e sliore is gradnally hem- 
is done by ^^S^ 'y^ jVfonnt Oarmel , vv^liicli finally terminates 
more and ^^^^^^^t^ of *^e ^ea (on its summit are a monastery 
montory rising *^ ^^ona t^® steamer). At Saifa. (p. 228), 
hthonse, visile ^ ^^j-ian steamers stop sonae hours, while the 
rom Yafa, the ..^^eB proceed direct to Beiriit. We also pass, 
8 of the other ^^^ ^^a ^«^on, the latter l>elng served by the 

stoppage, ^yr%^ jir^?m^a Company a.t irregular intervals. 
J of the Tu5l^^\^^iorx of the voyage^l^teK laste another 9 hrs. 
ng the contxi^^^l^^ ^*^'T«^^lf^^^l *^^ promontory of Rds 
raying Haif^) » , ^JL^^ZY'' slxoxtly afterwards in the 

with a ligb^^SS). ^^"^ t\ ^^ ^^Siilftcent : in front, the 

Beirftt (p, ^^^ gurronnded by a. broad belt of laree firar- 
d beauti^u^ ^^r^ea^es; m the baoUg.ound T Leban^^'^Tth 
losed by ca.o*^^ ^ ^^^^f^xfe/^*^ ' ^l^icb remain covered 
^s of Sannf^f^ ^-V^Viin.^ ^ summer. 

^tiii-thei>^g^^^ 0. y4fa. 

.1 m. ^^^oa.tio^'^jeaat possible 6^^^''^ ^^^® ^^ the East, is 

*1. The deT^^ftl* .*^to xnake up a. paA^^^/^?? *^«^ greatest pos- 

conducted ^je^rx »l^*?or them. M:^"«^ ^^ «»ree or foixr before 

nd to enga^^ .^ped .^cltiding cari-iago^^f^ Cpreferahle in rougli 
■end well ed^^o^^^jV* »160 cornea o^ fe*^ ^*^^ hotel), and In 

h/'-T^*^^ e^ ^i'^fir ****^.°'^*V''* ^^^>aS^S^- TravelleVs should 
he Jerusal^3^i:0^* ^a^ced in the Propex?^^'^?- ^*^« should also 
ly protest 9-^^^ 4^ Ke confusion aixa^^l^^?**, and that none of 
hat the iM^^f^^ *^ *Sxe dragomans wi^o ?^^»*g of the boats. No 

honld be £»^i^:0'^''tf *^^ tL V^^^^U, ^"^J always obtainable), 
of serviced ^-^^,r- 5 J^Vr.>- ^J® ^^at^^' ^ ^^\ foT a party, 1 fr 

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^^^' 2. Route. 7 

be still traceable. The at«« 

by aandbankfl, while th*t from"S/v'£ S* ?^* *• ^~** > lt»xit endangered 
place IS near the Custom Ho^«« ^v^'^' ** 7®"^ x^m^nrow. The landing- 
M m Alexandria, p. 4; avoi^S ?* *^* ®* "«^^ ^^ ***« I»«>«^ — /*«"POf5 
same means will serve to T.vl£!^*"^.v* ^P ^^ oflfei-ing a. I>&l£h8his]i. The 
with the CnstomB officiS- 7*^?*® J*« difficaltie* wt^icla £>>equently arise 

Accommodatioii. JuBca* ^pT *^*^^" *'** cigarettes, see p. xxxi. 
the German colony, KoSttd?^-^- ^■'%^*™^^<*"'^' MardL^ff9 ^ Cook'a hotel), in 
»fter the season, 8 fr . dn,?«T*K "' *^ /» ^^ <^^^ •• p«>lox»ged stay, 10 ft.^ 
advance. - Palkstii™ w^ *^J?^® *®*«®n» "»• advl8«kl>le to secure rooms in 
Hotel DB Prance (pi 14. ^!f5i^'?**^*»'^» ^amm*««>, ia tlie Oerman colony i 
H?^ (pl. 13 i landlord 1?^'l' ^*"<>» <>" ***« Je«-txa«i.lem road, Howahd'^s 
jylony. These' are alc!^«!i ^*^*?» *»» Arab) , on tlae »^«d to the German 
he landlord advig^bif,;?i«? ^o*«J« and a 'little cbe»per; bargain with 
^»»Xo«ntw,,Arab n^.r,r .^'^''^^•oNASTMix o^ tlxe B'l-anciscans (^oj«-. 

«°i»", but W /;vm!J«**''"^ *^''»^«« ^*^ » ^*«^ *^^*' the sea, rooms 
colonyj flfa^-j, *?/??^*' "^e p. xxxiv. — RKS-r^ua^irrs : Frank, in the 

iWlwav aSS' ^ iJl® '®»d to the colonv. 
1° ^« N.E.: outeidfth?^! '****°'^ «^ *l»« "^e ^«^™ ^*£* «o Jerusalem is 
<P- 9j see the i^p of tL ^"^VS" *^« sea-ahore, «e»r tHe Oerman colony 
, Steamboat Of5«S. . '*®^**^0'>'liood). 

So°« the quay. TiStJiL *lj^® •*'«•* which leada to the Jerusalem gate, 
^P«M, Preach Rn«£ *""'***« C*"tom Horase tlie order is as follows 

Lloyd's office fno tl^r^* ^^l" *>' ^^ the same street 5 JL^trian (pl. 2) 

P««t office ii.?)P %l J*«P« to the right)7 a little fa-rtHer up is the h^ 

courier on'&;;^;rty?l a'?'?^*"' and back TurKiah eonner daily, Anstrian 

'Telegraph rtSt« * .f?*^ departure of the Lloyd steamera. 
, Vice CoJ»X*T«l''?°**^' *«» *J>« Serai Cpl- §>- w =r ^ 

Jj"»8alemHoSVBri«.Tn°' ^^^^ dischSged by Mr. ^or^W of the 
;f-^a»a,inheIi„;L^'''^^*>'^e«'»t. ^^'^ ^™r«to*.- French V. c, 
^«'»*i», 5»iwo»J?.i-!^''^c™^^^'»'^5»«Mi^^ ^^r^r^^rj Austrian, i»a*ca;; 

^n^^erpe?^r^^'%^«^^^^^«k^ the landlord of the 

^ Bwopean lirm-' ».' *o Jerusalem, see p. ^^^^^ , 

^o«»e in PalesSr^n/?*'^^ *^ ^^m on the q«»y i*J»f ^•W* import 

{e Jemalem gate fnn t^'^'^^L "^ *h« street which leads *«.i55,8. from 
*^»« German co!onv^S®?«^*> 5 and at ScH^nsf ^^^^'^J^$^^^b, m 
r ^*'« oVcei "irtT; o* ^"'•^'W^ correspondent of the Credit LyonnaisT 
^^/e^rii^i/Jefp.^x'^^''*^^^^^ opposite the Jerusalem Hotel.T." 

If, iWw,'^^J^*<^^';^J^^ Dr.2,.«w4^ ^^••^'''^* 7" to'SJ:^ ^««*'- 
the Jerusalm eat! *'' '^^''^^^y (P- 9) and on the road to the S. f,o^ 

«*««AjJS^r«"/?*^-^*J*'''*= ^««»» Jron«<ery »nd Mospiee, see above. 
^gliflbbotS^fh'!;K''^«'^ ^ith ahSa^l »»d two schools for boyg' 
''Mhe Sisters^? St w I' ^^'i' ^P^' 12)i French Mospital C^-^. conducted 
»»« School, see p!* \^^^^^' ^^^ *^so engage in education ; GBrman Sospif^j 

PhilistiS^?' T>/» waa anciently » Phoenician colony in the land of tj^ 

•aentionedin 2 pJ *^^.'.* }^^ l>eantifur. Japhq, or JoPgtU ^^'S PUce 

S »«nd to Slomnn'^''- '>.^®' *« ^l^i*^!^ Hiram, ^i«g f/ ^/'fi'dT/^'took 
Temple.^*S??5>^ wood from Lebanon 4n flotes' for the Imildjng of ^^^ 

'l^eperiod of sir* ^^^«^«'> <^arxie8 us mnch f»^*J?^'.^^*r^ *^S^ ^Ve^ 
•laughter of Cp!?^"'^'*- According to an ancient my th , Andromeda , ^^^ 
*»med to t&^T J'^d Joppa (diughter of .Eolns>, is s»';f ^Jb^^ ^^en 
sei^monster buf^* ^^'®' *^ «'^«' that she might be ^^Jf^^t^^'^i^nll 
8a'd to have i«oJ ^^^ released by Perseus. The propbet ^P^^^^^^o^, f | 
?«iU) TVrontr^^^^^ w^«^ l^e was swallowed hy J^^ Tnd '^^..CJof 

^fi^h cent., the nfiP""' **»^ ^«"^'*'» P^'iod, and even dov^'lf^lr wherV 1^^ 
' ^'^^ P**ce was shown on the rocks of the barhour wuere ^^ 

10 Route 2, yAfA. 

A'bout V2 ^'' *o the N.E. of the first group, on the road to N&bulns, 
is Sarona (see map, p. 9), another colony of the German Temple. 
The plain of Sharon , which extends along the sea-board between 
Joppa and Cfpsarea (p. 239), was famed in ancient times for its 
luxuriant fi'rtility and pastures (Is. Ixt. 10). Excellent soil is found 
at a depth of I72 or 2 ft. beneath the surface of the sand, and water 
is found everywhere without having to dig deep for it. Vines thrive 
admirably ; sesame and wheat are cultivated in the fields and api- 
culture is pursued with success. — The colony is exclusively devoted 
to the cultivation of grain and wine ; it numbers 270 souls and has 
a German school. 

A beautiful excursion of 2-8 hrs. may be made along tbe N&bulns road 
aa far as the Ifahr tWAvjth. This river, next to the Jordan, the largest in 
Palestine, rises near Rd» tWAiny about 10 M. to the 17.E. of Yafa, and 
although its fall is very trifling drives a number of mills. Near MuUtibiSn^ 
close by, is a Jewish colony (Puah Tikwtih), Return on horseback along 
the coast (see Hap). 

From Yafa to Nabdlus, a carriage road is in process of constmction. 
The road leads from Yafa to Sarona (see above), thence to Multhbi* and 
the Ndhr eWAiijeh (see above) which it crosses by a bridge^ it then runs 
along the E. edge of the plain by the villages of Sfr ^Adas^ K^ Sdba, 
Kilkitiveh, et-Tayyibeh, T^l Karm and Datmdbeh. Here it turns to the £. 
and ascends' the Wddy Zimir (called Wddy ah-SOufir in its upper course) 
to Nabulus (p. 216) by 'Andheta and Dir Sherdf. 

Fbom Yafa to Haifa, carriage road, see p. 235. 

3. From T&fa to Jerusalem. 

A. By Bailway. 

54 M. One train daily to Lydda in 36 min., for 16 pi. 10 (2nd cl. 6 pi.) ; 
to RamUh in 45 min. for 18 pi. 30 (2nd cl. 7 pi.) } to S^ed in 1 hr. 19 min., 
for 32 pi. 20 (2nd cl, 12 pi.)r to D4r Ahdn in 1 hr. 47 min., for 41 pi. 20 
(2nd c). 15 pi.); to BiUir in 2 hrs. 4 min., for 60 pi. 30 (2nd cl. 22 pi.); to 
Jertualem in 3 hrs. 35 min., for 70 pi. 20 (2nd cl., 25 pi.). — Betum tickets 
from Yafa to Jerusalem 95 pi. (The above fares are in mejidi piastres, 
20 piastres to the mejidi.) 

Travellers are recommended to drive in the morning to Bamleh (and 
Lydda) in order to see these spots. Dine at Ramleh (p. 11) and continue 
the journey by train. 

The line describes a great cnrve towards the N. and skirts the 

luxuriant plantations (oranges, lemons) of the immediate environs 

(about 11/2 M.) of Yafa. Sarona remains on the left. At the N.E. 

extremity of the plantations , the line tarns to the S.E. and crosses 

the plain of Sharcn, following the depression of the Wddy Misetara. 

In front, fields alternate with meadows; towards the E., the bluish 

mountains of Judaea come gradually into view. On the right, close 

by, are the villages of (41/3 M.) Yazi^r and Bet Dtjan ; on the left, 

Sdkiyeh (water-wheel) . The line passes Sdfifiyeh (perhaps Sariphaea, 

which was an episcopal see in 536). To the^left, on the N. side of the 

plain , we observe the villages of Kefr *Ana (the ancient Ono, Ne- 

hem.xi.35) hnAH-Yehudiyeh; farther £., KefrJenis kiid. El-KtnUeh 

(church) ; then on the spurs of the hills, towards the N., Et^Tirehy 

Der Tarif and BH NehiUa. Next, on the left, the little town of — 

xrt«A ^, Boute. 9 

German CoUmy. YAFA. 

opportunity of obseiving the puie Semitic type of tla.e natives of this 

^^^^^- « ^^v- ^"1-^ 'to-W¥i,niakeamore 

The new quarters to the E.,N., and S. of the oX4XJo^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

favomWe impiession. Proceeding along *^^ Ve»-t»«aZ«m C^af* (now 
thermal tiU we reaoh its end, we arrive at tn.e a^x^vvays presents a 

pulled down). The open space outside tbe ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^iejl )iere ; 
lively seene ; here are the stahles of mnleteexB ; -^^^^j^^ cafes have con- 
caravans arrive and depart, and a numbei of ^^^^^^p^ixig point of three 
pegatedhere in consequence. This spot is tlx& ^ , 14); on the right 
greatroads : in front (E.) is the road to JerusaXeEa i^^ -^^^ ^^ el-Jcdid 
(S.) that to Gaza, which skirts the tovm-^aAl 'P^^^ road, on the left, 
and passes through the southern suhurb. tw -j^^gy^ "boarding school 
are the English Protestant cemetery and *^®^^^cli liospltalj farther 
forgitls (p. 7); opposite^ on the right, the ^^^ ^.emeteries, and the 
on, heyond the town, the Jewish and ArmeiJi* fj^±m road is the tomb 
English church and hospital. To the W- ^^^ ^^le tovrn. — To the 
of the 8Ukh Brmm, with a beautiful ^^®^- ^I^asses by some small 
left (N.), the carriage road to NlLbultis first ^^^g of the beautiful 
caWs and orange-sellers' booths, where large ^ ^^ ^iie left. Urge 

frnit are seen in the spring (about 8 for 1 ^'^^nedan Cemetery; on 
varehonses and shops; behind these the ^^^^^ road passes between 
the right, Howard's Hot6ltp. 7). Farther ^^' -VTie. ^ ^^^^ *^ ***® ^®^* 
cactus hedges ; magnificent orchards are ^^^?'zi^ liuts of an Egyptian 
leads to the railway station and to the ^^^^l^^ituting the German 
colony. On the other hand , the houses ©o ^^ ^^^ jeft ^ ^ foun- 
Colony present a very agreeable appearance. a^fterwardp, on the 

tain with an Arabic inscription; iminedia^^> ^^j^m Hotel (p. 7). 
right, at the entrance to the colony, the ^^-^^js of the ^German 
This colony , founded in 1868 by the ^^^ ^^ chiefly engaged in 
Temple' sect, numbers about 320 souls, ^^^ school and a hospital, 
trade and commerce; it possesses a German ^^ ^^^ 'Temple^ or 

The constitution of the free religious ootxxr^^^J^igiouB 21?3«°*/nt in 
'Fricnda of Jemalem' in 1860 was the. result of ^oJr^^^:^.^^Tr^SJP'^. 
WiirtembeTg, mainly stimulated by W. and Oh^' ^^\>o^7 *J?hri1^t^n «?.-°( 
the principli that the ta»k of Christianity if *<> treaU/^bristian social 
God on earth, they came to the conclusion ^^^*ide»s of *^®^^iiSi*^» ^\ 
life was impoSsihle on the basis of the current ij^^^ **>^*^^fmftv si ^ 
Divinity of Chritt, etc. On the contrary, "^^y jitistian *=^?ff?r t^k fi ^®. 
social programme for the construction of tlxe CHr* ^^ *^? of Promf'*,* 

O.T. prophecies. They accordingly considered i* ^^ ^tn^^-ocial i?^^^^ L 
of all t7 erect the ideal Christian community ^^^^rcb t^^lyfe fiunda?- ""^ 
and from this spot to begin regenerating tli« ^.^ 1868 ^^^ere hL^l'''' 
Europe. The realization of this plan was begnn i^* .^3,. J^ers some i^ 
of a colony in Haifa and almost simultaneoualy ^JJu jt '^^^^HoTJoi^ 
no lack of Bchiima in the new community, ^^* ^.e very ^'^'^^ P'^iJaote 
•oulB in 4 colonies and has unquestionably a" 

the colonisation of the country. ^ .x-e Jerujaiem ^^^^^^ soon 

A second road to the colony diverges f^om i^n ^onS«l»*l- encampe'^f 
after its commencement, and passes by the <^^ernaan j^apoleon .^ r^f?^ 
garden belonging to the iice-consul (on the epo.* ^ilf* i»tere«* ^^ ^^^ 

with beautiful orange plantations, is not witnou" 
shown to visitors. 

10 Bo«fe2. yAFA-. 

A.l)out i/jhi, to theN.E. of fhe ft'st gro«P' <*»» thero.dfoN«biilns, 
is Saiona (see map, p. 9), another colony "'the German Temple. 
The plain of Sftoron, wMch extends »lo»«„**« 'e*"*"*"* *«,'»«f, 
Joppa and Ciesarea (p. 239), was f^'^^A-. e^^T * '"^.tni^ 
luxuriant fertility and pastures (Is- l^v- ^P^^ *?<'«"«'"/'"" S,^r 
at a depth of IV2 or 2ft. beneath the ««5^X«^i*' r"^fn.", t^ri*e 
is found everywhere without having to dig deep to.t. Tmesthn* 

admirably; sesame and ^heat are c«W^f *^^'" **! *?"1T,S 
culture is pursued with success. - The "Ol^^^ « *^^"";* J K»* 
to the cultivation of grain and wine ; W numbers 270 souls and ^ 

a German school. _ ... «»v„i.., ro.d 

as far 

Palestine ^ _ _ 

although its" fall i7very"trifli^g"drives a ^^^^S" ^^^J^^}!^\^r^hBSr^ni 
close by, is a Jewish colony (Pesah Tiktceh). Return on horsebacK 
the coast (see Map). 

^^ FkomYafa ToNiBULUs, a carriage road i5 in V^^^J^^^^^^^^^i 
The road leads from Yafa 'to Sarona Csee above) thence to Mul^ 
the Nahr eU^Af^eh (see above) whicb it ^^?,fZ^\^i^^Ada^K€fr Sdba, 
along the E. edge of the plain by the villages ^^fjj^.f^/^^the E. 
Kilkiliveh, et-T^yibeh, TUl Karm »^d^«»~^*.*V?r fn its^per c 
and ascends- the Vddy Zimir (called W^ddy €»h-BMir m its upper 
to Nabulus (p. 216) by 'An&heia and J)^ Sherdf, 
Fkom YIfa to Haifa, carriage road, see p. 235. 

3. From Y&fa to Jerusalem. 

A. ByBailway. 

to 7?5* ?^ ^°« train daily to ^V^*^^^^ 
L 2?*^ ^^ 45min. for 18 pi. 3^ g"^ 

(2nd''cl.^'l5^if ?,<^y 2 ^;^^ 'b ^^^l -in., for 60 .i. 80 (2nd cl '^PW. ^ 
/"^afew in^3 hrs 3fi ™ ^ f or 70 pi. 20 (2nd cl., fepi.); - R^Jj^it^f^e^ 
^om YSfa to Je^ffem 95 pi- ^"^^ *^ove fares are in mejidi piastre^ 

, tellers 'iL'^f'^^-L^^il^^ to drive in tHe morning to B«nleh M 
l^e^^^l^£ora^^^^^ I>-e at Ramleh (p. U) and conhnue 

ThTlTneVe/J!I^V «. great curve towards tlie N. and skirts tbe 

J"xuriant plantaT^^^^^ixges, lemons) of the immediate environs 

(about 1i/m)*^*^^^^s C^^^rona remains on the left. AttheN-E. 

extremity of iLl^^^^V^ OTIS, the line turns to the S.E. and crosses 

i^e plain of ^C.^^'«t^*^^i^g the depression of the mdy Misfra^ 

^" ^'ont, fle&^ foJ^^X^ith meadows; towards the E., the Dluuh 

mountains of Ji,^^^'^«'*^ -^ gradually into view. On the right, close 

^y' are the viiu^ ^^^^/^ ^0 ^^^iflr and B^tDejan; on the left, 

-^^^eAfwater tf ^ ^^ ^T^-fce line passes Sd^rtt/cA (perhaps 5afipha€a, 

^Mch wannTn^^el). ^^Ixi536). To the^left, on the N. side of the 

P'^in, weoW^^^^M ^^Taa^ges of J^c/V ^ Ana (the ancient On^, ^«- 

^^nj.xi.asr'/'S *^e ^t^^t/^^^ farther E., .^e/VJcn^ andEi-iTentw^ 

(chiirchl . itn^^-^c/i.^^-^'^s of the hills, \o wards the N., Ei^^^f^ 


LIDDA. 3, Route, 11 

113/4 M. Lydda. — The Station is about 25 min. to the S. of the 
town, near St. George's church, on the road from Lydda to Ramleh. 

HiSTOBY. L6d was occupied by the Benjamites after the captivity. 
It was also the place where St. Peter healed the paralytic man (Acts ix. 
32-35). It was burned by Cestius Gallus in the time of Nero, but soon 
re-appears as the capital of a district of Judeea. It was afterwards famed 
for its learned rabbinical school. Under the Roman dominion it was 
called JHospolis, retaining, however, its old name, as we learn from the 
list of its bishops. In 445 an ecclesiastical council was held at Lydda, at 
which Pelagius defended himself. Lydda lost its importance after the foun- 
dation of Ramleh, but the Crusaders again erected a bishopric there. In 
1191 Lydda was destroyed by Saladin. In 1271, after its re-erection, it was 
sacked by the Mongols, and since that period it has never recovered its 
former importance, although situated on the principal caravan route be- 
tween Egypt and Syria. 

The only attraction at Lydda is the Church of St. Qtorgt, on 
the S. side of the village. Lydda is mentioned at a very early period 
in connection with St. George. According to tradition, Mohammed 
declared that at the Last Day Christ would slay Antichrist at the 
gate of Lydda. This is doubtless a distorted version of the story of 
St. George and the dragon. Over the tomb of St. George at Lydda 
a church stood at a very early period. The Crusaders are said to 
haTe found a 'magnificent monument' here, though the church had 
been destroyed. A church is again spoken of here in the middle of 
the 14th cent., but was in ruins at the beginning of the 15th. Two 
centuries later, another church is said to have been erected at Lydda 
by a king of England. The existing church is now in possession of 
the Greeks, who restored it a few years ago. The church closely 
resembles that of Sebas^iyeh (p. 224) , possessing a nave , aisles 
lower than the nave, and three apses. Of the older church , which 
was probably built about the middle of the 12th cent. , the apses 
and a fev?- arches and pilasters on the W. side are still extant. The 
square buttresses of the nave are adorned with small columns. The 
ceiling has been restored with little taste , while the modern pil- 
asters are distinguishable from the ancient at a glance. Below the 
altar is the crypt, which has been restored, and which is said to have 
contained the Tomb of St. George. In the loth cent, the building 
was converted into a mosque. The church is shown by the sacri- 
stan of the Greek monastery (fee, 6 pi.). 

From Lydda the train proceeds S.W. and in 7 min. reaches the 
station of — 

131/2 M. Bamleh. — The Station is about 1/4 hr. to the E. of the 
town, near the Jerusalem road, ^om the station to the 'Tower of Ram- 
Ieh% past Beinhardt^s hotel, SO min. — Accommodation: ReinhardVs Hotels 
good, pens. 10 fr.; -> Franciscan Mona»itry^ a large building with beauti* 
ful gardens. 

HisTOBT. The tradition that Ramleh occupies the site of the Arima- 
thea of the New Testament is a fabrication of the 13th cent. The town 
was founded in 716 by the Omayyad khalif Suleim&n, the son of 'Abd el- 
Melik. The truth of this statement is confirmed by the facts that the 
name of the town is of purely Arabic origin (ramleh signifying 'sand'), 
and that we find the name 'Ramnla"" applied to the place for the. first time 
in the year 870. The place soon became prosperous , and was perhaps 

_ Prom '«! 


it WM W*"*"* ¥'*j ^h! 

At one ""'l/„.Bira.lelii"'^V? r^ 

^flo ;"* a-*-*-^ ''f the Greek faith. ^ '^^°il w,n U "ToWhed 
S V'Sdo **-^*- the Bisters "f Joseph. Th«*« l„«.Unl; 
^^^«0« -^ Th« orchards "«»"* ^,"^*t\e»T fruit. The 

^'jiiibeeii divided by two ""> "' „a ,e,Eii 

•^ Jow toM seven arcades , a pl"" ""^P'tJ 

J^ ™ind<iw-H iD tbe aisle» are also P"7b™j5i oi 

"f-^,,!. «„mer.t is the • TowfiT of Bo^=»' " 

.que' CtO the S.W. of *^ "'"JWut 

. -J the vaults Is no-w aijout 40 pwee to the S-E. of 
-:io-w«; the whole of tlie crouiia heW w" ""fr 
ohsmbeta. (_Gare should te taken -when """"B 
 id-e of the great quadrangle formed hy thehBiid- 

si**"'!^'*^,*^ leceeaea, and tlie;e-»^ay by which weM"«"f 
9>r^^^,-^W,-e. oounareceniains of a fountain InthamMnt, 

to Jerusalem. BITTIR. S, BouU, 13 

tapers, and here we enter & kind of gallery. Tlie ascent is recom- 
mended for the sake of the admirable •Vib'W from the top. 

Towards the 8. is a large olive-plantation 5 to-virards the E. are iomba 
and the town of Bamleli. Fartlier distant, toiBva.r'tis tl^ e If. and S., stretches 
a beaatiful fertile plains in tlie distance to ttx& vv . is the silvery band 
of the Mediterranean; to the E. the blue moun«^ of Jndsea. The most 
tconspicuous of the neighbouring towns and vill»ge»^»s liydda, totheN.B.: 
to the right of it is the large village of BSt iTetoaa* , and adjoining it, 
o the left beyond Lydda, is DSr Tarif. Tovrarcis t^ Ji-. lies Jimzu, to 
the right of which are Y&lo, Kubab,* and Latriin. In *!»? extreme distance, 
to the E.8.E., the mountain Keby Samwil. — OTlie vie^wr is finest by evening 
light, when the niountains are gilded by the aettxng ??°\ „ , 

Abont 7min. to the K.W^. of Ramleh is eitciatea the so-called Cistern 
of 8t. Helena (p. cxvi) , consisting of six vaults, «»f -S^J^ P*?«» long, and 
borne by eleven pUlars. It was probably cona*rmo*«d l>y feiUeimin (p. 11). 

Immediately after leaving Ramleh , tlio line crosses the road 
from Yafa to Jerusalem and turns to the S.JE. , *^®]?. 5? "*« S. across 
the marshy plain, past the small Arab village <>^i>?M. J ^4'an«A. 
On a group of hills to the left is the wely of ^&«* ^^^'^ 

Near Abu ShAsheh, the ruins of Oeaer, t^e -^^^^f^^^^V^^^fX 
ders, now Tell el-Jezei-, have been discovered. ^^^ Y ^ but w^."fV*** 
city on the frontier of the tribe of Ephraim CJ^^- Solomon, hTs son fn" 
wards captared by Pharaoh and presented by Jmm t^ »o on,^ia son-in- 

law, as his daughter's dowry (1 Kings *J- l^->- rpiie xuins are extensive 
some importance in the time of the Maccaoees. env-irons. -- 3»/i M w' 

and there are rock-tombs and basalt quarries in i»« gc^rceJy any antiouities 
ofAbuShilshehis '^fr, the ancient ^ifcron, wliear© fl^» ' ^ nuquities 

ate now to be foundJ . ^ 4tioo1.,v • 

241/2 M. Sejed; the station is -t«-*-^ "\„" yIITSZ 
fertileplam one of the ^^^-^^\:^f^taT^^ wMcWUS 

':^\^''^::Cl^l^^^^ p.ssing...,(on the 

left) we reach — . -^ ,* 3 M- aistant from each of 

31 M. D^r Abfcn; the station is a^^^%f^c^ (the ancient Zoreah 
the three Tillages />grAfti3n, f!r*"< ^'^T^^U are served by it. Close 
Josh. XV. 33, xix. 14; Judg. xiii. 2;), ^^^^^^^ e^rxo^ent Beth Sheme^h 
to Der Aban, on the W., is 'Ain Shems ^ -^g :aow begin; the line 
1 Sam. vi. 9; 1 Kings iv. 9). The ^J'"^ ^.i^ag along precipitous 
makes some steep ascents. It P^^^^^o^^^^^, tlie win<5ing8 of which 
walls of rock dnd ascends the Wddy ^?^'^ ±0 yds. span. We pass 
it follows , crossing it twice by bridges ^ 

(38V2 M.) Dgr eih'Sh^kh and reach ^^ ^^^ ^.j,age, where there 

471/4 M. Bittlr. - The Station is cl«^^ 
iB a copious spring. _ ^^ Joal»«?: ^ „' .? ' ^^ *^e Sep- 

^ HiSTOHT. Bittlr is possibly the .5^^«^^2 Veer. J^^^if tfV/ rf' 
twgint, and is sometimes supposed to ,^* iriatiirrectio'i of Bap Cochba 

which 'played an important part in *^^s «»ly».l'i however T*""""^ 
againat the^Romans, and which the Romar^s ^ ^5*ilt,tes ^Slt the' blooTo? 
f/ter a aiege of ai/^ years (A. I>. 136>. i^^ixixxxd «*»J^^e». ^^''^^ °^ 

ijkely to have been near Crosarea- T**%»^rice to tne 
the Jews who were slain i3owed down »** iVtixslii^'^ ' ^*^ * terrace 

Bittir, which is now inhabited ^^_^-^ady Bitttr and a smaller 
in the midst oi gardens , between tn 

14 Bouted, YAZ6r. From Ydfa 

valley , and possesses good spring watei iu abundance. Proceed- 
ing to the W. from the spring, and then turning towards the 
N.W., we ascend a steep and stony path to a second terrace. 
Traces of walls show that a castle once stood here, but the scanty 
ruins are now overgrown. The place is called Khirbet el-Yehild, or 
ruin of the Jews. On the E. side are chambers in the rook and old 
cisterns, with some remarkable niches between them. Bittir has 
become a popular place for excursions from Jerusalem since the 
opening of the line. 

From Bitttr the line ascends the Wddy el- Werd (valley of roses, 
p. 115) at a pretty steep gradient. El-WeUdjeh is on the left; 
farther on, the fountain of Philip (^Ain d-Hantyeh, p. 115) and the 
villages of 'AinYdlo hnd Esh-Sherdfdt are seen on the right; then, on 
the left, the large village of El-Mdliha. BU Sufdfa and the monas- 
tery of Mdr Elyds (j>. 120) are visible on the right. After Bet Sufafa, 
the line enters the plateau of Bekd'a (probably the ancient valley of 
Kephaim, p. 120), which it crosses diagonally In a straight line to 
the N.E., till it reaches the station of — 

54 M. Jerusalem, to the S. of the town. Close by, in the Tem- 
ple colony, are the Restaurants mentioned at p. 19. 

B. By Scad. 

41 M. Good road, 8 hrs. to drive and 11-12 hrs. to ride. The route 
by carriage or on horseback from Yafa to Jenualem by Rennleh^ Amwds 
and KulOniyeh is interesting and should be taken at least once, either going 
or returning. — Carriages^ which may be procured through the landlord 
of the .Ternsalem hotel (p. 7) : during the season, 50-60 fr. (a single seat, 
10-15 fr.); Cook's landau, 125 fr. and 5 fr. to the driver. — Horses: for 
riding, 10-15 fr., for luggage, 8-10 fr.; a mukar (p. xx) accompanies the 
animals. — Start early, so as to reach Jerusalem before night. Two or 
three stoppages are made on the road: at Ramleh (3V4 hrs. ride); at Bab 
el- Wddy (1 hr. 5 min. farther; breakfast, p. 16); and again at Kuldniyeh 
(5 hrs. 10 min. farther). — Provisions should be taken, as they are not 
always obtainable at Bab el-Wady. 

From the Jerusalem Gate (p. 9) the road proceeds to the S.E., 
through the new suburbs, then between lofty cactus-hedges, behind 
which are extensive orchards. Water-wheels are seen in operation in 
every direction. After 12min. we reach a handsome SebU or fountain, 
founded by Abu NebHtj a former pasha, who is buried here. A little 
to the N. is the site of the house of Tabitha and , farther on , the 
spot where tradition places her tomb (Acts ix. 36) ; magnificent 
sycamores. After 15 min. we enter the plain of Sharon (p. 10). 
On the right is a farm called Mikweh Israel , established by the 
Alliance Israelite, where Jews are taught agriculture. 

After a ride of 3/^ hr. from Yafa, a watch-tower is seen rising 
on the right. It is the first of 17 which were built in 1860 , at 
intervals of 1-1 V4 ^-i ^ guard the route to Jerusalem. They are 
now without garrisons. 1/4 hr. later we reach TdzHr (beautiful 
retrospect), and farther on the Wely Imdm ^Ali with its nu- 
m'^rous domes; adjoining it is a well of excellent water CAin Dilb), 

I^J^T^trN. 3. Route. 15 

i^^^ C^ ±±~^ ^±^^^S^^ ^ere to the left. After V2 hr. 

,oI.y^a.^ ^^"*« soeix on the right. To the left we soon 

^e!0»^*,5^ic\i-^o-^^J ^f SAtctt/^y^ *"^ -^^^ '^^•^'"'* CP- ^^)- ^^^ V2 lir., 

U"^^^ V ^\\1.«w^^r^ ^^-, ^nV of Rishon le-Sion. Near the 3rd watch- 

flef<J^J'e\\xe J&^«r^®^ *^rr" if -plantations , chiefly of olives. After 

\o<\^eK vj^UvO ^^^^^tiv spot called the JlfofctaieA , or place of 

\fi^eti:^e -pass * -^ %7^e ±0 liave been a haunt of rohhers. We 

'l^mift' ^iclcL -i-S ^*^r- ?^«.^r ^virlieiice the tower of Ramleh becomes 

tU^Vttg, \^ Xx\^ ^* roo T«t« 1, ***« ^*11*S« <>' i^crZ-cnd peeps from 

ueit^»»* ^axtYi-e.^ oti V.^-^ ^^11 to the right. After 12 min., on the 

Ni^^,,c^s-Axoage8 oil a nx^ ^^ ^i^. more we reach - 

ff t\ieti^^ ^^^oTa-w^e^- trance to the town we keep to the 

^'^' 1\.\^ Ct>. ^^^- ^* ?^ A^^o the tower. 

^tJ^^O *^- ^S^* ^^*1^J^^ , A h-. - AB far as the fountain 

\6ll-,^^®^!;.^^ «.o BAHLita ^'^ ^Jr±Ai hence to the S.E. In 15 min., on 

?»***^?^^*. fTom Tafa, »f ® Ji* r^ater-wheel); 17 min., on the right, 

n6»T YA^^l^e^^ tlxe tillage of ;9r^y^*^X^ p. 10). Several villages lie 

tt^« ^^*'«r 5& -«^^^- SA/lHye»/on tii Te^iidfyeA,. further E., JTe/r 

i» ^^ S^t El-Keniseh (church) ^ on »" juin., cactus-hedges; 20 min. later, 
jent* nir Ta/rif and Bi% J^«*»'^\- ^ left). We then pass tombstones and, 
!r«rrij , f *^4^^oid the patb to the l^i J 

»*^^\xxi»-i arrive at iydda (p. HJ- ,^e take the first road to the left. 

»** -Ravond tlie clmrch and tlxe mosq"*;- ^ S., '^nnd6«A. 18 min. the Wely 
5ie lieig^t tlie village of Jimzu; y^JL ^^jSebak); to the left, a venerable 
^ ^fc 'AJbd er-RaJtmdn and a fountain C -''*v ^ small dilapidated mosque, and 
^'^^Ve-tree. After 23 min. the road paa»^*» Tlie minarets of Ramleh or of 
^•^^^yeacli iUe main road to Jerusalei**- 

J^ydda arc excellent landmarks. to^^ ards the S.E., crossing the 

rjlie dixeetion of the route is ^^^ ^itx. a large pond (Birfcet ci- 

xaU^*'^ ^®*^ *^® station. After ' ^jxe 6th watch-tower , on the 

jdm'O^^ ^^ *biifFalo weir). 22 min- ' ^^q plantations of trees soon 

left. 'TTi® land is richly cultivated, ^^l^^ex; on a hill to the N.E., 

aisa-ppeaT. 29 min., the 7th ^a**'^" I^ Bet Nuba (p. 18) j to the 

■p3t 'fJ^^^^«A; to the left, the road ^^^^ or 'outwork of RamleV. 

xig^* ^s *he hamlet of Berriyet er-B^^^ dting used as fuel. 30 min., 

^ve-rV village possesses its heaps of ^^^-. CT^b, the ancient Kafartoba 

■to tUe left, the insignificant ruin of ^^'-gfi ^ar, with the wely of 

^j^eTi-tioned in the history of the J^^ tlie wely of Abu Shiisheh 

iShi^^ S^ldrndn; on the right, to the ^' ^3). 50 min., to the right, 

and. ^y ^ts side, the ruins of Gezer CV'^^f^ (Cobe of the Talmud). 

qxi a- ^ttle hill , the village of 'El''^'^^\. aescend to the bed of a 

4. oxin., the 8th watch-tower- we i^^ -*, In front of us, we see 

vaWey, where there is a bridge (^ ^^^^^^^'the hill, the two BH'tJr. 

t^airUn, 'Amwda, mo. BH mba and, ^er; 1^ "^i^^- (5V2^rs. from 


9,0 min., on the right, the 9th watob- 
Yafa), on the left — *-ived from toron , hill , 

latrtn. - This name, which may ^fa 1^?^ .J^^'if IJobbts? Hence 
rStirtS? tu\'' *8^» *« ^« deriV^^^^ ijS^epI^y of Se penitent 
fZ ili Jiii Vi'^^^^'ict may have ^tJ»^ /^called Dismas), or of both 

»'ef (bom latroms , who is said to liaV© 

16 Route 3. 'AMWAS. From Ydfa 

thieves. The ruins probably belong to the ancient fortreas of IRcopolis and 
the partly preserved walls date from several different periods. The choir 
of a church is also said to be traceable. 

The road skirts the hill, leaving the village of Latritn and the 
10th watch-tower on the left. — At a little distance to the N. is — 

'Amw&B. — The Emmaut of the Old Testament is mentioned as early 
as the time of the Maccabees (e. g. 1 Mace. iii. 40). In the 3rd cent: A.D. 
it received the name of NicopoUs^ in commemoration of the victories of 
Titus, and during the Christian period it was an episcopal see. In the early 
days of El-Islam several fierce skirmishes, in which some of Mohammed^s 
adherents fell, took place here. The Crusaders called it Fontenoide. — The 
Emmaui of the N.T. can only be identified with 'Amw&s (about 170 stadia 
from Jerusalem) if we accept the reading 160 stadia, found in some MSS., of 
Luke xxiv. 3. Kuldniyeh (p. 17), on the other hand, is only 34 stadia from 
Jerusalem. The most probable site is El-Kvbibeh (p. 117), about 64 stadia 
from Jerusalem. The tradition of the middle ages placed Emmaus here. 

A little to the S. of the village is a famous spring to which sana- 
tory properties were once attributed. There are numerous luins 
(with Greek inscriptions), and the remains of a church, consecrated to 
the Maccabees, partly of the times of the Crusaders, partly Byzantine. 

We now descend into the Wady el-Khaltl, which runs towards the 
S.W. After 25 min. the 11th watch-tower rises on the left, and 
after 16 min. more the 12th. A well here, on the right, is called 
Bir EyyiU) (Job's well). On a height to the left, at some distance, 
rises the dilapidated house of Der EyyUb (Job's monastery). In 16 min. 
from the well we reach the narrow entrance to the Wddy 'Ali, called 
Bab el-Wddy, or gate of the valley, on the left of which is the 13th 
watch-tower and on the right the hotel Bab el -Wddy, kept by 
Zacharia, a Syrian (exorbitant prices ; bargain necessary ; 6 beds in 
case of need). 

The road now enters the WS,dy 'All and leads in 1/4 ^r* to the 
ruins of a mosque situated at a spot called Ma'sara , the narrowest 
part of the valley. After V4hr. more, at the junction of the valleys, 
we come to the *Trees of the Imam 'Ali'j close by is a ruined 
mosque shaded by large trees. The hills are overgrown with under- 
wood; among the wild olives the carob-tree is frequently observed. 
The route then reaches (25 min.) a plateau with numerous olive- 
trees ; on the right is the village of Sdrts. The path then winds up 
the side of another valley, ascending the hill on which lie the 
ruins of the ancient Sdris. At the top (12 min.) is discovered a 
beautiful view of the plain and the sea beyond. After 12 min. we 
perceive below us 86ba (p. 17) to the E., while to the S. opens 
the bleak Wddy Sdris. None of these valleys contain water except 
after heavy rain. After 28 min. the top of a hill is reached where 
we take leave of our view towards the W. On the opposite hill 
lies the ruin of Kastal (p. 17). A little further on, we reach El- 
Karya or — 

Abu 0dflh. — The village is so named after a powerful village shSkh 
of that name. For many years at the beginning of this century this chief 
with his 6 brothers and descendants was the terror of the whole district. 

toJerusalm. ^^^ , 

.^I-'^^ad, *'- ^oute. 17 

m,.. vf ilaee wM formerly called Xajjf .^ tb© l5tli ^^*" <i!i- - 
?name wWch occurs for the arst tistt«ri Sam. VS*^^^.?^^*''^- o/«^ra„«, 

*^"'^^Thr Church, at present in po88e86^ent5 ^hl^^M^i^^ll'T doubt faT 
^mikable for the small spiral ^n"*^", them fro^f*^ «-l«o n?^ '"T""^^* 'b 
"l^^t^res whose architects l>orrowed i" ^e "^3^ C^hnjf'''^ ^^ ^rabls^ 
'i^he 6th-7Th century. The three apses^ ee^^^^^r/j^^ai, aioiiu^ei./^ 
of the Din •* is loftier and wider tj»" «ie ^.i^./J^^^J^ coaceaied tr 

rSTrTe pTlaSt^rY'on each side; it« ^'^^a^eJet^ ^n^^l ^^/°Pi-'*e/ 
foCwhiJii betray Arabian influence. The arc^^ &e'^nao'JTlbo" 

them, as well as the windows of t^^ sai^T^^ * Bligbfly pointed 
character. The ^^ol^ h^ildmg is on ^ ^.j^urch^i^^ei, and therS ia no 
transept. U»der the whole length of the a ^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^o 

now partly filled np. The entrance to i ^^^y a amaiJ door in the 8. 
wall. The walls of the church, P^'^^^Yh frescSS-®.*'^ *^« apse, and fhose 
of the crypt likewise, were »domed witn ir ^es ^^ the Byzantine style, 
and partiy covered with mosaics, of whicn " "'ittct traces stiil exist. The 
interior, which seems to have been often usea as a stable, is 32 paces 
long and 20 paces wide. — The church is ™r°*\oned for the first time in 
1519 under the name of the church of St. "Jf^miah, and the name of that 
prophet is also applied to the spring below the church. The name, however, 
has been used in consequence of a mistaKen identification of Karyet el- 
'Enab with Anathoth,' the birthplace of the prophet (p. 118). In an open 
space to the N. of the church , near the path , ig the monoment of the 
ahekh Abu 06sh^ with a «e&{; (fountain). 

The route skirts the outside of the village. We observe on a hill 
to the right (S.) the village of Sola. 

S6ba was once supposed to be* Modtnt the native place of thfe Macca- 
baean family (1 Mace. ii. 1 ^5 70) This conjecture, however, was proved 
erroneous by the discovery of Modin in El-Mediyeh, to the N.B. of Lydda. 
Soba is perhaps Ramathaim Zophim the native place of Samuel (1 Sam. 1. i). 
After 27 min. , we reach a spring called 'Ain Dilh (a favourite spot 
for excTirsions from Jerusaleml beyond which, to the right, is an Ara- 
bian caf^. On the hill to the left lies Bet NakUba To the nght 
(5 min.) are some ruins farther S^ in t^« ^^* "^*^^ ^^^fl' T 
Us of mdla (onc^ ySTmon^^^^^ The route skirts the 

S. Side of a roui hill, »:h%tre are ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

more we attain the top of the hill on which *^^^.^7*|^ V •.^; ^^^ 

above us to the right. The name is doul)tless of Roman 0^^^^^ g 

derived from ea.«eWum. Neby Samivm''^'''^}^^Zl^^^^^ CP.^^3> 
V4 hr. farther, ^Ain Kdrim in the distance ^^^f^lX^Kum^^^^ or 
w'n^T''^ l>y great windings i^*!,i*eT r9i/2^t8. from T aia") 
Wady Bet Hanina (p. lU).. 20 min. ^^^^^o^d, to t^e left, is tlve 
IS a bridge; close by are several caf^s C*^.^ f-^ a name derived \>y 
best). On the hill to the lefrUerKul^^^y^^J Koulon p^ i^ ^^^^ 
some scholars from ^colonia' b J a P^^ce «f ^^fftcation ofW6^^^^ 
m the Septaagint (Jos. xv. 59) Fo? tl^e ^^^f^Tis BU Mizzeh. pex- 
wii\iEnmau8, comp. p. 16 fLlae farther ou^ ^oadnov. ascer^As 
fi^ps the ancient M^l. j ^^ ^^*SS \ The ^®^,a crosses a liill oiv 

Imh it il^^'T '"^ ^"'^g windings^O^^^eeds ^^^^fl^t ma. In 
v^ e^ 14th watch-tower stands ^^^ ^n to the ^^^%fZ witlx a 
! l^f '' "^" T ^^4 on'tba ^^n^:ft , 1^- Ji^aTngs at tl.o 
a small valley nearer the road \uo to t^e ^ client ou 
large spring and the stones of some ^^''^ 

Palestine and Syria. 2nd ed. —^ 

18 Routed. EL-jIb. 

E. entrance to the village. This place corresponds perhaps with 
Nephtoah on the confines of Judah (Josh. xv. 9). The road tra- 
verses a stony region of increasing dreariness. After 45 min, , we 
pass, on our right, the new road to 'Ain Karim (p. 112); immedi- 
ately beyond it, on the left, the 15th watch-tower (the 3rd from Je- 
rusalem) with the wely of Shekh Bedr; on the right are the Greek 
Monastery of the Cross (p. 112), MarElylLs, and Bethlehem. In front 
of us is the glittering dome of the mosque of 'Omar and behind it 
the tower of the Mount of Olives, but the city itself is still hidden. 
Passing between the houses of the Jewish colony, which begin soon 
afterwards, we arrive in 11 min. at the Town Hospital j opposite it 
is the 16th watch-tower. Ascending the hill , we first perceive the 
extensive pile of buildings belonging to the Russians , with its 
church of five domes, beyond which are the chapels on the Mt. of 
Olives. The domes of the church of the Sepulchre , etc. , are also 
visible. A little farther on, the walls come in view, and in 18 min. 
more, we reach the Yafa Gate. 

Fbou Bahleh to Jebusaleh by Kefb TIb and B£t Ndba, 8^/2 hrs. 
The road diverges from the carriage road close by the 7th watch-tower 
(p. 15). After 10 min., we follow the Boman road coming from Lydda, 
leaving Bit 'Enndbeh (p. 15) on the left. 35 min. , K^r Tab (p. 15). 
25 min., on a hill to the right, SiVbU and Der Nakhleh (i. e. Michael). 
55 min. , the large village of Bet Niiba. This can scarcely he the ancient 
Nob (1 Sam. xxi. 1). Ruins of a Crusaders' church; a holy-water stonp of 
the 12th century. To the right, on a hill, is Ydlo (AJalon, Jos. x. 12). 
18 min. , a hill with ruins (Sutodn). 35 min. , the ruin of El-Bwej (i. e. 
small castle); 35 min., another ruin, JEl-Muska (an old Khan). 50 min., 
El-Kubebeh (see p. 117). Hence to Neby Samwil and Jerusalem (2V2 hrs.), 
see "p. 117. 

Fbom Lydda to Jebusaleh by Jiuzu and El-Kdb£:b£H, 8 hrs. From 
Lydda S.E. to Jimzu (Gimzo, 2 Chron. xxviii. 18), visible, after 50 min., 
on a height. The road proceeds to the right beyond the village; 45 min., 
Berfilya (on a hill to the right); 55 min., Birel-MaHn; 1 hr., BHLekyeh; 
lV4hr., Bit 'Bndn; 35 min., El-Kubebeh (p. 117). 

Fbom Lydda to Jebusaleh by Bj&t ^Ub and El-J!b, 8*/4 hrs. As far 
as Jimzu, see above. Beyond the village the path turns to the left; 2 hrs. 
10 min., the ruins of Umm RUth. 1 hr., Bet ^Ur et-Tahta^ half-way up the 
mountain , on a low hill. 1 hr. , Bet ^ Ur el-F6ka , admirably situated on 
the top of a mountain-spur between the two valleys. The 'lower^ and the 
*upper' BSt ^Ur occupy the site of the Beth-Horons of antiquity. Solomon 
fortified the lower town (1 Kings ix. 17). In 1 hr. 40 min. we reach the 
top of the pass and see El-Jtb and Neby Samwil. 23 min., El-Jib. The 
small village is built among old ruins. A large building seems to have 
been a castle. On the E. slope of the hill is a large reservoir with a 
spring, and. a second farther down, perhaps the pool mentioned in 2 Sam. 
ii. 13. To the S. the view embraces Neby Samtoil and Biddu; to the N.E., 
Jedireh and Kalandia; to the right of these, the hill of Rdmailah; to the 
E., below us, Btr Nebdla. El- Jib is the ancient Oibeon, which appears to 
have been the chief of a confederacy of towns; the inhabitants saved 
themselves from the Israelites by a ruse (Joeh. ix, x). It is also mentioned 
in the history of the kings (1 Kings, iii). — From El-Jib to Jerusalem direct, 
by Bit IlaninOj see the map of Judsea; Neby Samwil is Vahr. to the S.; 
hence to Jerusalem, p. 116. 

FlaiL of Jerusalem 

l,J^t^-M0*fue &.S. 

Z.S^Jbme, OacrA of •^.2. 

S.-^dUsit' Trvt. AiovA/ ... . . . B. 1. 

^.EerBwuuMT C.lf. 

S..^ e^-iOKkirdB/ Zi*. 

6. " ^'Kkoam^St E.lf. 

7. » es'^aha^lwif ( A-Ehj9wStr ) . . 1. 1*. 

S. - edi-ift«cinaABi/ I.i>. 

f. •• M-iemfani fXhoMtem-EetJ. . X.S. 

10.JtevMdk* rOcm&T^y T.3. 

11. • (AAnbj^J . . . .F.2.3.AC.D.S, 

IS.llmXcft^r&tJadatVlbjpiee^ D.3. 

ti. CcgmaaUkm/ - • B.C. 

Co>.siLl&tea : 






^.Greek^ K.k. 

VI.JtuMMeat/ B.2. 


jn.SptadAf D.3. 

TS.^aiHd'^nmd B.C.6. 

im.Ctmuni^JBfjvitml. 9.4.5. 

tt.Mttfnee'a/'SFJblbv (tm-A.) 1.3. 

tL.Germ4atfTiainaiui0e' B.I. 

23. - Oatrdv f-prarumyJ Tiii. 

Vi. ' Sdutot A.1. 

7&.MmMh43wrau D.S. 

2t. 9 Maigp'9 Rtndmt» BJ. 

27. ^ Jbqrital C.&«B.S. 

n. • JParwna^ . . ' B.S. 

29. > SehoaV B.6. 

3D.XWMw«^A»iK0dk <Jlift»ce «y-^UUkraE<; . ^.^r. 

Vi.CkaiMiUcflkB Semr^mg T.2. 

32.aufl*0^ ^liMflb'^JpqFr JSUbl'A . . . 1.3. 

33. fl tag i cft'rt'ft# J<yiiteto^ B.3. 

3*. gamuubw OrBait^ fHaintBrch'* PcmlJ. B. t. 
35. *' " egky-MfAfFoolafSeUhmdUvJ. 7.*. 

IB.ldb Or-MbAb fr.2. 

37. " 4^0' (^.2, 

3i. ' ^.^tNit' ^.2.3. 

♦1. " ob-JUbir P.3. 

12. - A-Jixdiilr F.3. 

fi. - «t-|faad(di/ r.«. 

ft. ' OrJta^xrou 1.4. 

4S. - ef-SOseUk^ f.«. 

«€. • drJta^karibtky P. 5. 

in .M0tptibah,$reA. C.4. 

tt. « JUreuehSUiW P.S.6. 

lii. S^ James, Ckurdi, of (OlA) D.g. 

SO.iHmie 0f Ae Ao^ ft.f. 

Sl.BSaZD^llate dfO^ Jems F.l>. 


52. Jlrjrffoinm' D.3. 

Sl.JmuKUav (erra^jf D.5.6. 

Sfr. - " JiooMarT- JfS* tM-XetAC 

(JSouse of Jbuuts i . . . . II.6: 
SS. " Mmastay efJt' XimL 

fSeuse of JUjojaplvas ) . . B.C.5. 



Armemem, CathoUcr 



firtdt (BrtatJ 



- (Wetr) . 



" tfJtrahBBn^ . . . 

. B.a.f. 


« S*tajil 



 CandmHt^t . . 



- l>emeiHuM 

. C*. 


" Stfieatye^ (I) . 





- - GeButaumm 



" S^Jolmf .lfti<V»iftii . 



" S^JOan, Aett^idtt 



• SfCtUkarms^. . 



' sf'mautA 



" - ^MekaiUu . 

. . r.3. 


- " Fcmagia, . . 



" ' Pnii:<fffin' ^**^^^'Pfl- 



• SfTkeodore-. . . 



' CafMic (XtSLddttMl 

. . c*. 


SiMttrt of 5^ Joseph/ 



CtpHc ( S^ ^ecrge^ J 


77.£atBt' tfSdbmtor . . 



- Stlewu . . 

. D.4. 


MKsHm> DerrUheo 




. B.1.2. 



. D.S. 


Sitters of Zion 

. T.2. 

82 . MrMb'mufiibfek,, Auu/ ffrmertf S^Marj 


A . F.l. 

%*.K^ktmA^(E8use>fffJudgfmmt) . 

. P.*. 

Xotfuea : 


JwkL* lir Omea^ 




. . !.♦. 


- A'Mi^ahidAi^ 



drMaahSriMt^. . . . 


89.Ai(riardkaf0> .^jbnuRMDC' .... 



, 6teeh 


91. - 





93. - 

" , Jbatriam/ 

. . B.5. 

9t . SeriBi,Ftt*€Ht ( Pother Jtetidmnt») 

. . B.3. 

V^.SertDi.OUHState.fHsm.J . . . . 

. T.3. 

BlotelB vs^A. flJDspices : 

^.TbtelMinmrd/ B.4r. 

y* . Mota/f^eH B.3. 

QrunAlTewSbtBli in-du-Jfcm-Beuuutr (se«JIT k.) 
Jenunisai/Xiftd/. se^Map ofJlaHroiu 

c .CeutvJKnrw of^U-Prannscans . . . . C.3. 

i..Epspiee ofS*Jo1ao K.3. 

e. * , jKJft^tUf . . . E.2. 

f. 7 , Jewish (MoKteflore^ J .... A.6. 
J. " > Sentuoi/ Jewish/ . .... £.6. 

b. " , Sptadsh, JewisK Z.'B. 

i . , Jrmadtai/ B.5. 

k . C^rtib JDkOR/ B. 1>. 

B ankrer  : 

\ .FntHgerACTfSaitque'OttoTnaBMi.J . C.4-. 

. . B.*. 


8. Sjnago^ue* r SI/ 7eirs' Quarter y B 

4. Jemsalem. 

„ Wwil TVxe e^^^-^oii ia to tlie S. of the town, 16 min. from the Yfif* 
J»te,\ft^\,ft^.oit^e OerzA&n temple colony. Carriage to the Tftfe Gate 

. ^\%\ *6TiiLHD Ksiw XIotb:i- CI*1- C, 4; landlord MoreoM: CooV. hnt i 
a tt^e Mw ^MW, — H:owa^i>'s Hotel (PI. B, 3), in the Yftfa road • — 
tosAUK HoTRL (see m&p of enviroM; landlord ^am«n«#) in thp ^a#w 
fiburV, - H6T11L Txo- (PI. T>, B, 3; landlord a German, Stangen^s hotel) 
in llie Yifa load-, pBuaioTi., eacol. wine, in the season 12-15 fr Heaa fnT . 
^olojged stay), at Dllicr times 6-8 fr. - Hoapice.: J\tuHanSc>p!^ of 
«• Joftft (PI. d-, E, 8-, superantendent 2Jfly«r), recommended for a prolonged 
"»y (secure TOomB in advamce during the aeaaon) ; cuiaine plain but ennA 
pension, incl. wine, 5 fr. — Oervnan Catholic Bospice (»ee map of the >nii 
^om), in the Y&fa aulaurTa. — j±ustr4cmHoipice (PI. e: E, 2), in the Via Dnln 
Tosa. - casa Jfttora of tlie T-ranciscana (PI. cj C, 3). — All these hosnicpji 
aw plainly but well fitted up 5 clean beds and good food. Travellers of 
laeans are charged 5 fr. a day or at any rate are expected to pay that sum. 
Beer-honaes and Oafiea. I^cm^, JSToiv, both just outside the Y4fa Gat« 
and in the Temple colony, .near tbe railway station; A. Lendhold in Uie 
Temple colony (has a l>r€WCTy of his own). Bavarian beer (also to he 
had of 5»fcara Fata^ see p. 20) about 6 pi. a bottle. — Wmg. 5al«; i® 
the hospice of St. John (see above) 5 /wiW^sf , Bemer. in the colonv *J«v 
malem wine, 1-2 fr. a bottle. *.u*uny. je- 

Arabiaa Ooffee-houaea are numerous, but are not frequented bv 
foreigners-, one of tbe best is close by Ftur» (see above), another ia in 
the A*ii« Oardm (p. 84) •, a tbird is mentioned on p. 81. 

Oonaniates. Permission to visit the Harftm esh-Sherif can only be ob- 
tained through the consulate. — American (Pi. U), Dr. Merrill; Austrian 
(see map of environs), v. Kwi€Uk<nMki, consul-general; British (Pi 16) 
^itoni French, Ledoulx^ consul-general; German (see map of environs) 
?•. V, TUchend&rf; Greek (PI. 16), Pkilomon; Italian (see map of environal 
iiina; Eussian (PI. 17), Ar»9nief; Spanish (PL 18), ifirsuds. ^' 

Psst Office: Tvrkith (PI. 92), just outside the YEfa Gate on the rieht- 
^ttt/rfaa (PI. 98). Letters may be addressed *po9te restante', but it is safer 
to have them addressed to the hotel or consulate. — International Tele- 
graph, in the Turkish post office. 

Bankers: Frutiger Jh Co., in the new bazaar (PI. 4; C, 4); branch of the 
mdit Lyonnais, close by the Turkish post office, just outside the Yafa 
Gate; Valero A Co, — The traveller should always be well supplied with 
small change, which may be obtained at the bazaar, but he should be on 
his gaard against imposition. 

Ffaysieians : nr, Arhella^ pbys. in the Rothschild hospital ; J)r Cant 
Phys. of the English eye-hospital; I>r. Ximeiery phys. of the Leproserie- 
Dr. EUiewich, phys. of theEnglirii mission-, jDr, EucUdee, municipal phys • 
Or. Feuchiwanffer,' Uwish phys.; FraPietro, M. D., phys. of the Franciscim 
monastery ; Dr. Fries, phys. in the French hospital of St. Louis : Dr. J7i«vj><. 

phys. in the Spanish jewo uuepiiAi ; jjt. aemareetJtff, phys. in the German 
hospital ^Marienstifr ; Dr. Savignoni, phys. of the Greek hospital : Dr Se- 
«er*», phys. of the Bussian hospital ; Dr. Wallach, Jewish phys. ; Dr Whea»r 
Pbya. of the BttgKah mission. *- ^ » -^ nf»nvr, 

Ohemiats : Paulue , German chemist, Yafa road ; Dr. Sandreeskv • Da- 
miani^ in the new Baaaar ; also in the Franciscan monastery. * 

Divine Service. Church of England: (a) in Christ Church (PI. 25) 10 a m 
"^ ??^S"«"^A ®-^ P™.- i** <*erman ; 7.80 p.m. in English. - (b) in St. Paiv's 
Jp. 84), 9.30 a.m. and 7 p.m. m Arabic. — German Protestant., 9 a.m. in the 
temporary chapel in the Miiristdn. — Meetings of the Temple community, 
jn the newly erected hall in the colony. — The masses of the Roman Ca- 
ihoUe church are variable. The beautiful masses in the Russian church 
are at 4 p.m. 

»re ineiperiencei '^Sc. i^m- fl""** "'?r'£i 

1.1.1 •/i..„i«.- 'a';.SSii«"j "»•"','"«« ii 

:,;':s,'x":!:i "•^" • 

Jwiuolmi, to „„,» «";'JS' l' •ilT'""m°'"»i,iS»«'i 
but, 8t first sight, r»»^T.t6d and badly pa^ed lanM; » , j^^^ pd 
modern town, trtthlts ^^^^eie lo" ot the atioient til) " j, .nt, 

M".b, a, f„.,.„'^d- "S,,,.*!, ti. «.oa=m ™J" ,S».»- 

by patiently penetrati***^ « the saeted placee ttom tie", j^jtB 

•lie. trfli at Inm^&O-^i be He «"'• l-rtd 1" «•£' l.!"" 
" anllsnity, a;f,„; ■^^"lied l.l.l«rt»l >"d 'lf*tl * 
■»..« ot piertoi-,;!. «■"*£ bilni, t. beat «po. »" """J ,rfll « 
■nation , hi,], ,,.°5;'^„>«» "Joienti.. InJ.™..!.., •l"g?».lll 

'toriil ana «:*»*^ 

iigei and the „tt«„- ' 
he interest with whf*! 
>e Obliged to conC - 
"li Its mitoriil and ,:*» 


nation to the stupendous scenes one ^^ , 

Mnation of wild superstition ^^^^J^^ anrt^<^ fo^ ^^^ com^ 
everywhere forces itself on onx i»^*^^^' *^^. tli^ r"^'>ai which 
jealous exclusiveness of the numerous ^^'t^^Xotig '^^^ticism and 
Jerusalem form the chief modern characteristic^ ^J^^oiunities of 
Holy City, once the fountain-head from wnich tj^^ ' ^^e city,—thi 
true God was wont to he vouchsafed ^ mx^^^ '^'^owledge of the 
exercised the supremest influence on religion^ ^, ' ^nd which has 
the world. Jerusalem is, therefore, not at all a toxxnf **'o««*ont 
for everything in it has a religious tinge, ana froniV^',*™"^™*"^' 
of view, the impressions the traveUer receives ,•„ r^*^?^ ^'''"* 
anything but pleasant. The native Christians of all 1^^/"^ k """^ 
means equal to their Usk, the bitter wa^ which rages amonrthem^r 
earned on with very foiU weapons, and ttie contempt, with which the 
orthodox Jews and Mol^ammedans look down on the Christians is 
only too well deserved. 

For the division of tinie, especially if one^s stay is short, see p. xi. 

History of Jemsalexn. 

When they conquered the country, the Israelites found the 
tribe of the Jebusites settled among the mountains of this dis- 
trict, Jebu8, afterwards the site of Jerusalem, being their capital. 
From the natural strength of its position the town was believed to 
be impregnable. We are informed very briefly that this Jehus was 
at length captured by King David (2 Sam. v. 6-10). The in- 
habitants, trusting to the strength of their city, derided the Is- 
raelites, but David took the oitv and estabUshed himself in the 
'stronghold of Zion'. ^ 

What then was the precise situation of this holy Aft. Zion? In 
order to answer this question we m^ist first examine the Topo- 
ORAPHioAL Chakactee OF THE Crrv The city was surrounded by deep 
valleys. Towards the E u^ *i J^oilev of the Kidron (afterwards 
called the valley of Jehthi?. ?.' iJ on the W. and S. sides, the 
vaUeyofflinnom. Th^^^^^^^ ^""fl valleys enclosed a plateau, 

the N. side of which w ^' ^™^'^f VeieV^, or 'pi^e of olives' , 
and oUve groves are «?ni ^ ""^"^^ ''^. ^fthTt locaUty: On the S. 
halfofthisplaLa?i!v J'^^ ^^^^^ Jl^m, which was divided 
into different^uarter V^ ^' "^^^ ^^ -^^^""f ons oi the soil. The <M.iet 
of these natural w/^ ''**^^*1 depressions o ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^ 

mnning at feet IT^^""^' ^*« * ^mM ^^^^^l separating two MUs, 
0/ which that to A -w' '"^ ^^'^ due S-, ^^^^ve the P^ecipitons ^. 
bill. TMsvalleV^^-r^ rises 105 f*' *?eJeese-maW valley, 

'' trf'^^^^^^^^^ ''- ^"^" to the B.K Of t.e 

to the Mr-. of^TyopcBon ' ^^^^^I'tb^ ancient J-J^^o^on ^^ 
a^tl^ehrintoffeaeT'xl^;-^^^^^^ otosso^ 

22 Route 4. JERUSAJLEM. History. 

its mouth far below. On the S. side of the W. hill (where there 
are now no houses) there was as early as David's time that pait of 
the town which Josephus calls the Upper City. N. E. of this quarter, 
opposite the hill of the Temple, probably lay the bastion MUlo ('Fill- 
ing up'). 

Such are the undisputed facts. The questions which now arise 
are — ^what were the names of these hills, and what was the site 
of the ancient buildings ? In the first place, the site of the ancient 
Temple must certainly have been on the E. hill. The name Moriah 
for this Hill of the Temple occurs exceptionally in Gen. xxii. 2t 
and then in 2 Chron. iii. 1, as a specifically religious appellation. 
There are numerous passages in the Bible which prove that down 
to a late period the hill of the temple was included in the more 
popular name of Zion. This accounts for the frequent mention of 
the glory of Zion in the poetical books , for it was there that the 
Temple stood. On the other hand, 'Zion' is frequently used as syn- 
onymous with the 'city of David' (2 Sam. v. 7; 1 Kings viii. 1++), 
and is even poetically applied to Jerusalem itself ('daughter of 

We cannot , with the tradition of the middle ages , place this 
'City op Dated' on the W. hill , for 'going up' to the Temple, even 
from the city of David (2 Sam. xxiv. 18), is usually spoken of; Ifttt 
the W. hill is higher than the hill of the Temple. The site of the 
city of David can, therefore, only be sought on the S. area of the E. 
hill, that is on the hiU of the temple. Solomon began to beautify the 
city in a magnificent style, and above all, he erected on mount Zion 
a magnificent palace and sanctuary. In order, however, to procure 
a level surface for the foundation of such an edifice, it was necessary 
to lay massive substructions. The Temple of Solomon occupied the 
N. part, the site of the upper terrace of the present day, on which 
the Dome of the Rock now stands (p. 41). The work begun by 
Solomon was continued by his successors , who constructed a more 
spacious precinct around the Temple on ground which must have 
been artificially levelled for the purpose. (For farther details as to 
the history and site of the ancient Temple , see p. 36.) The royal 
palace rose immediately (Ezek. xliii. 7, 8) to the S. of the Temple, 
nearly on the site of the present mosque of Aksa , and extended 
thence to the E. , where the rock forms a broad plateau. It conse- 
quently lay rather lower than the Temple , but higher than the city 
of David (see above). With this agrees the fact that Pharaoh's 
daughter 'came up* to it from the city of David (1 Kings ix. 24). 
This new palace was erected from Assyrian and Egyptian models, 

+ *Take now thy son, and get thee into the land of Moriah \ and offer 
him there upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of."' 

+f 'Then Solomon assembled the elders of Israel, unto king Solomon 
in .Jerusalem, that they might bring up the ark of the covenant of the 
Lord out of the city of David, which is Zion." 



fliatorv. -^^^^SALEM:. 

and STimptxLOTiBly ^^oorated. — . g , 

mentioned \)a8^0Ti of Millo. He ««« T^'* ^^^^ extended the already 
to tlie opposite t^ixx of the Temiw 5'?*^^'* *" embankment thence 
leign, Jexusalem ti:rst l>ecanie th« i.® \ -Kin^-s xi. 27). During his 
it was pxoUMy tli^eii that thia L^*f?°"*S" ^f *^« ^^^^lites, and 
he surrounded >vitK fortiflcatinl ^^*^ ^" **® ''^' ^P""*"^ "P which 

The gloiy of Jerusalem 
empire was, however of h • ** *^® central point of the nnited 
became the capital oV A, '^^^ dura tion, and it shortly afterwards 
early as Rehoboam's re* southern ltins<iom <^^ Judah only, go 

the Egyptian king Shi^fc"* *^® *^^*^ "was compelled to surrender to 
palace were despoiled ^^*^» ^n whichi occasion the Temple and 
one hundred years lat^ ^*^ ^^ their golden ornaments. About 
again plundered, the if-^' ^nder king: Jelioram , the Temple was 
Philistine tribes (2 ok ^*^*®'® on this occasion being Arabian and 

the king of the northern '*" ^^^' ^'^)- Si:a:ty years later, Jehoash, 
Judah, effected a wide K ^''^P^^e, having defeated Amaziah, King of 
the city in triumpji (2 ^^^^^^ in the wall of Jerusalem and entered 
ziah, re-established the ^^^® ^^^' ^^' l^T). Uzziah, the son of Ama- 
however, Jerusalem wa -^^^^Perity of Jenisalem. I>nring this period, 

On the approach of %i'^^'^^*®<i ^Y » gr&s.t earthquake. 
hy Hezekiah (2 Chron '^^^^'herib *^® fortifications were repaired 

merit of providing Jep* ^^^ii.<61, to wlioin also was due the great 
stone on which the ci* ^^^^ ^itli water. Tbe solid chalky lime- 
spring at Jernsalem x*. stands contains little water. The only 
the Temple hill, hy ^ *Jie fountain of Gihon on the E. slope of 
could be drawn up to ♦^^'^s of a shaft tlie water from this spring 
ducted the water of tK ^^^ top of tlie plateau. Hezekiah con- 

lying Siloam. This si>r^ ®Pring in tlie otlier direction to the lower 
the whole city, cistern^ '^^ ^^ing quite inadequate for the supply of 
were also constructed rJ?"^^ reservoirs for the storage of rain-water 
probably formed befor*:.^^^ ponds on the ^SV. side of the city were 
large reseryoir which L^*^^ period of i^l^e captivity, as was also the 
Temple plateau, and i^ ii* excites our admiration to the N. of the 
of a small valley, whoc ^® formation of which advantage was taken 
protect the site of thtx^^ ^^^pth was at the same time destined to 
outside the city-walls "^^^ple on the I^- side. A besieging army 
as the issues of the ^^^^^ally suffered severely from want of water 
while the city alwav^^^^^^s towards the country could be closed,' 
of Kidion and Hinnr^L ^^®^®8sed water in abundance. The valleys 
at a very early period ^^^* ^*^e ceased to be watered by streams 

his suceeswre goon^^?^® leigned prosperously, but the po^^ j 

cbadnezzai. A«ab?!i *1 *° surrender at discretion to K^g n^^^. 

and a great nulw ^/J^'"I'1« ""* *^« '°y*^ ^f-^'^M!.? I'*"««ed, 
nobles, ToKr^ *''^ o***^*""' including King Jehoxachi„ %he 
, «uuu house o-wners, 1000 craftsmen and the,, f '„, 



^4 ^ouie4 JERUSALEM. ^story. 

rallied awav ^^V^^^''^'' *^^ E»st (2 Kings xxiv. 16 f.). Those 

^^^^-^PTrwt hJ^J-^^ """^^ * hopeless attempt under Zedekiah to 

^^""T.Z^l^X tiT-.^^ oonquerors Jerusalem now had to susUin a 

te^«^* Tte^hl« ^i^^^® ^^ ^®^^' ^ months, and 7 days). Pestilence 

long /^i,»p^^i^^ Jjil® '^f^*^®^ **^e city. The besiegers approached 

ati^ ^tCi W^a t^***^""^"'^""' t^^°^ *« *'« represented in the 

vri^^/ frL N^nt^e^i^^' ^""^ *^® ^^^^'^^ ^^8 » desperate one, and 

reli^^^.^I J*WrfOiJ^* ^»s keenly contested, eTen after Zedekiah 

every ^^''^^^Ij^'f, ?^ rj^yropoeon to the yalley of the Jordan. The 

l^ad ^^\:^7l^^^eSti^^ «ff *11 **^« treasures that still remained, 

BaDyl^^^^r^^^Ti^^on ^as burned to the ground, and Jemsalem 

the "^^ft,^: ^^}^^ bU^ °^ tnmiliation so beautifully described 

reduced ^.^^^V"^^^ j^^amentations, particularly in chap. ii. 

^y the atitaor 01 tne^j^i^g catastrophe, however, Jerusalem was 

^^ATJ7.Z^to some extent when the Jews returned from 
permitted to recover ^^^ ^.^ the time of Nehemiah, the favoured 

captivity » of thl^^rsian king Artaxerxes Longimanus, that the 
cupbearer 01 tne ^^ .^^ Nehemiah re-fortifled the city, retaining 
city ^»» ^\^^^t\r*^f, former^aUs, although these now enclosed a far 
the foundations of tlie^^^^^^^yfojtj^g reduced population. Nehe- 

^^^8^^ ^t^^^^^^tlerefore, presents to us an accurate picture of the 
Diiah's ^^.^f"^*'^'^' *^fore the captivUy. 
Tncient city -en before ^ ^^^ 

the !>»• ' ;~ *c.nt the Jiorif^ «^«*c, an enirance oi tue xempie 

also intended to P^o*ect t'le ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^.^ ^^^ precincts of 

towards the U.. ^®"/?; ,,.„gs of the priests. On this E. side it 

the Temple, ^^'^ *^^/7^\\'\^^^^ was a second gate, called the 

is commonly «nppo^«d th^ fortifications at the N.' end of the 

Waier Gate, There werej^lso ^^^ ^ ^^^^^ 

Temple terrace the 'nost irnpo^ ^^^ ^f^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

restored by Nehemiah, f^^^l^-^^ to^^x of Hananael ; there was 
farther ^efendedon the N. side oy ^^ ^^^ g ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

also a tower of Mea, about ou y ^^^^ ^^.^^ ^^^^^ approximately 
site of both seems to us to be ^^^^^^ ^s well as the sheep-gate, 
ascertained. Both were perhaps » ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^.^^ ^^ ^^^ 

on the E. wall ; or Hananael mig ^^^ gheep-gate must have been on 
Fish Gate, in which case Mea ^^V^ts. From St. John , t. 2, the 
the W. side of the Temple p^®^ ^^^^ ^ear the pool of Bethesda 
8he^ Goie would appear to na> 

(see p. 55). ^jity ran towards the W., and 

The wall which enclosed the nPP ^hioh led from one part of 
had two gates: the Qait of *'*^ tJ^ ©xtreme W., the Valley Gate, 
the city to the other; and to tne ^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ present 
afterwards called Oennat , sitnaten ^ tower of defence. In the 
Y&fa Gate, where TJzziah once erect ^^ g^^^^ which was probably 
suburb situated to theN. was the ^^f. g also the Qait of Ephraim, 
the same as the 'Old Gate', and pern y 

H« •TERUSALEM. ^. Route. 25 

thesUftoi^VV^Yx, ^^^T^^^> *8 <l^ite uncertain. From tlie upper part 
oitliet^;^^^^.^ X^^J^. orS. towards the valley of Hinnom, called 
tkD#g!^«»^t, ^ssr\^e(^\^ rock-staircase has been discovered. To the 
S, aN»^VTMi^OTOS6 ^lie TyropcBon, at the outlet of which lay the 
Spring G^t, ^t t.Yxe galley between the two walls'. The sitnation 
oft^ePolUn Qa*e, leading to the valley of HinTioin , is uncertain 
From & ^eiy i&mote period the snake, or M amllla , pond (p 831 
lay in tlie u^^^er -part of the vaUey of Hinnom . 

ne coimi\8ioi\s of the following centuries affected Jerusalem 

biitsUgUlT. The city opened its gates to Alexander, and after his 

deat^ passed into the hands of the Ptolemies in the year 320. it 

was not till the lime of Antiochus Epiphanes tliat it again became 

a tiieatie of hloodshed. On his return from Egypt, Antiochus 

plimdeted the Temple. Two years afterwards, he sent thither a 

chief collector of tribnte, who destroyed Jerusalem, slew many of 

the InhabiUnts , and estabUshed himself in a stronghold in the 

centre of the city. This was the Akra, the site of which is placed 

by most authorities in the region to the N. W. of the Temple, bnt 

by several to the S. of the Temple. This question can only be decl- 

ded by the results of the requisite excavations. 

Judas MaccabsBus (p. xii) caused the ancient sacrificial rites in the 
Temple to be resumed; he purged the sacred precincts, enclosed 
them within a lofty wall with strong towers, and instituted a service 
of watchmen. Many struggles had to be undergone before this na- 
tional restoration was consolidated. Antiochus Eupator besieged Jg. 
rusalem with warlike engines, but the Jews were compelled to capi^ 
ulate by hunger alone. Contrary to the treaty into which he had en ' 
tered, he caused the walls of 'Zion' to be taken down (1 Maco. vi. 52^ 
Jonathan, the Maccabaean, however, caused a stronger wall than ever 
tobeeTected(lMacc.x. 11). Heconstructed anotherwall between the 
Am, which was still occupied by a Syrian garrison, and the other 
parts of the city, whereby, at a later period, under Simon (B.C. 14:^^ 
tne dtizens were enabled to reduce the garrison by famine. XhJ 
T!k ^* ^^"lolished, Simon took up his residence on the Barig 
f i!/j^* comer of the Temple precincts , and the town ^^^ 
reiortifled. The descendants of Simon Maooabseus erected the 
spacious Asmonean palace to the W. of Millo, whence a fine vie^ 
01 the Temple was obtained. Another siege by the Syrians had 
to be sustained in 134 by John Hyrcanus. Again Jerusalem ^^^ 
eompeUed to capitulate by hunger alone , but on tolerable con^ 
aitions. Internal dissensions among the Maccabees at length led to 
tiie intervention of the Romans. Pompey besieged the city, ^^. 
agam the attacks were concentrated against the Temple preciuets 
Which, however, were defended on the N. side by large towers and a 
deep moat. Traces of this moat have been discovered. The only 
level approach by which the Temple platfonn could be reachej 
was a bridge towards the W., for on this side at that penod i^ 

"m Eoute ^. JERUSALEM. Bisiory. 

t^e T^TO^o^on, a valley of consideratle depth. This ^^dge, which 
^as litexv^atds destroyed, i^as probably situated near Wilsons 
XxftVi C^. 57> The qnartei to the N. of the Temple, as well 
as the Gate of St. Stephen, do not appear to have existed at «iat 
peiiod, and this is conflimed by Capt. Warren's excayations. ine 
moat on the N. side was filled np by the Romans on a Sabbath ; they 
then entered the city by the embankment they had throwmip, and, 
exasperated by the obstinate resistance they had encountered, com- 
mitted fearful ravages within the Temple precincts. In this struggle, 
no fewer than 12,000 Jews are said to have perished. To the great 
sorrow of the Jews, Pompey penetrated into their inmost sa^^^^tuary, 
but he left their treasures untouched. These were carried off by 
Crassus a few years later. Internal discord at Jerusalem next gave 
rise to the intervention of the Parthians, B.C. 40. 

In 37, Herod with the aid of the Romans captured the city after 
a gallant defence. The Jews had obstinately defended every point 
to the uttermost, and so infuriated were the victors that they gave 
orders for a general massacre. The part which had held out longest 
was the Baris, at the N.W. corner of the Temple precincts. Herod, 
who now obtained the supreme power, embellished and fortified 
the city, and above all, he rebuilt the Temple , an event to which 
we shall hereafter revert (p. 37). He then refortifled the Bans 
also, as it commanded the Temple. This castle was flanked with 
turrets externally, and was internally very spacious. Herod named 
it Antonia, in honour of his Roman patron. He also built himself a 
palace on the N.W. side of the upper city. This building is said to 
have contained a number of halls, peristyles, inner courts with lavish 
enrichments, and richly decorated columns, and must have been of a 
very sumptuous character. On the N. side of the royal palace stood three 
large towers of defence, named the -ffippicua, Phasael, and Mariamne 
respectively. According to Roman custom, Herod also built a theatre at 
Jerusalem, and at the same time a town-hall (nearly on the site of the 
Mehkemeb, p. 57), and theXystus, a space for gymnastic games sur- 
rounded "by colonnades. At this period, Jerusalem with its numerous 
palaces and handsome edifices, the sumptuous Temple fnth its colon- 
nades, a»^ *^® l°^*y *^**y ''^^^^^ ^^^^ *^®ir bastions, must have pres- 
ented a ^^^ striking appearance. The wall of the old town had sixty 
towers, »"^<^ *^** °^ *^® ^™*^^ suburb to the N. of it fourteen ; but the 
populous city must have extended much farther to the N., and we 
must picture to ourselves in this direction numerous villas standing 
in wardens, some of which were probably very handsome buildings. 
Such ^*® *^® character of the city in the time of Our Lord, but in 
the interior the streets, though paved, were somewhat narrow and 
crooked. "^^ population must have been very crowded, especially, 
as we learn from the New Testament, on the occasion of festivals. 
The Koi»»\sovernor is said on one occasion to have caused the 
paschal 1*«^^« *« ^^ *^*^"^*^^' »«* to have found that they amounted 

) ^^J|. JERUSALEM. ^. Route, 27 

tothemUuK^"^^^ ^^ ^70,000, whence we may infer that the 
mmtttfihiTiaVe^%^*s not less than 2,700, OOa. Although these 
H^ie8,^VeTaany ^* *^® other statements of Joseplms, are probahly 
m^<&\ei»^^aateA, *^^y> at least, tend to show that tlie great national 
fe^\w4\Tiiuttend.ed by vast crowds. 

AlteukdeatH o^ Christ, Agrippa I., at length, erected a wall 
w^MchendoseaLthe whole of the N. suburb within the precincts of 
t~becity.T\L\s ^all, which must have been of great extent, and very 
sinongly W\\t to protect this most exposed quarter of Jerusalem, 
wag composed of htige blocks of stone, and is said to have been 
defended \)7 ninety towers. The strongest of these J^js the 
l^JiepMnustovei&ttlieN.W. angle, which was '^'P^^^^^J;^^^ ^^' 
in height, and stood on the highest ground in the cityl^OiZft.Ahoye 
the sea-leveY). ¥iom fear of incurring the displeasure of the 
EmpeiOT Claudius, the wall was left unfinished, and it was after- 
wards completed in a less substantial style. ^«.^"® or tne cniei 
points of controveisy among the learned explorers of J ^^^^^^J^^^l^ll^ 
direction taken by the three walls, we may here g^^e » ^^^o^ account 
ofthe subject. ^ ^^^ t^^^. 

The /ir8t wall is that which enclosed the old P*" "'^ ^ g ^^^^^ 
Beginning at the tower of Hippicus on the W. , ^* J*" ^ed to* the E. 
tie pinnacle of the hill, and, enclosing Siloam, ^"\ coached the 
J*ll of the Temple precincts. Towards the N. , as i ^^/^^^^ I^. 
Aemple, it formed the boundary of the old P*'^^ of Herod, the 
mediately to the S. of this N. wall stood the P*^*^ ^^ the Temple. 
Xystus, and the bridge which crossed the^ Tyrop ^^ ^^^^^ lan down 
In order to defend the upper part of the city, anot 
on the W. margin of the TyropcBon. -v^hich enclosed the 

On the direction assigned to the second wall, ^^^gg of the 'Holy 
N. suburb, depends the question of the^ ^^^-^^-vv^all diverge from 
Sepulchre'. The question is : where did ^r^^ .^^ ^alls was the 
the first towards the N.? At the union of * .^. g i>elieve that the 
Gennat Gate (p. 24). A number of a^*^^^ gent town-wall (see 
wall took much the same direction as the P^^^ is now called the 
below), in which case it would have included ^ ^^xxir^^- The latest 
'Holy Sepulchre', which, therefore, could not be g^^ ^^^oat ran round 
Russian excavations tend to show that the v^*l* * 
the E. and S. sides of Golgotha. ,-. -topographers like- 

With regard to the situation of the third ^fz^^yi corresponded to 
wise disagree. Those who hold that the ^'^^for the 3rd wall far 
the present town-wall (see above) , must ^^^^^^ed is *^** *^^^ ^^^ 
to the N. of it. The opinion now generally ^^'^^ to^i*'^^^^ ^^ ^^"^^^^ 
occupied nearly the same site as the present J>» • ^^^nd the present 
salem; there are stiU clear traces of an old ^^*T>y t^® statement of 
N. waU, and this view appears to be confli^® ^^e ^oyal tombs , 7 
the distances given by Josephus (4 stadia- *^ ^v^ays accurate. But 
stadiato the Scopus), who, however, is ^°* 

28 Bo^^^ ^' JERUSALEM. Hiiixyt^. 

., ^ nnestion as to the situation of the second and third walls is \)y 

no means setUed. 

Ever since the land had hecome a Roman province, a storm had 
begun *o ttood in the political atmosphere. At this time, there 
were t^o a^t^^gonistic parties at Jerusalem : the fanatical Zealots 
nder Bil®*^*'» ^^^ advocated, a desperate revolt against the Romans, 
nd a more moderate party under the high priest Ananias. Florus, 
\j^Q0ian governor, in his undiscriminating rage, having caused 
unoffending Jews to l>e put to death, a fearful insunectiou 
broke out in the city. Herod Agrippa II. and his sister Berenice 
TideavOtiTed to pacify the insurgents and to act as mediators, hut 
were ot>lig®^ to seek refuge in flight. The Zealots had already 
ff ained possession of the Temple precincts, and the castle of Antonia 
was now also occupied by them. After a terrible struggle, the stronger 
faction of the Zealots succeeded in wresting the upper part of the 
citv froiu their opponents, and even in capturing the castle of Herod 
which was garrisoned by 3000 men. The victors treated the captive 
Romans and their own country-men with equal barbarity. Cestius 
Gallus, an incompetent Roman general, now besieged the city, 
but when he had almost achieved success he gave up the siege, 
and withdrew towards the N, to Gibeon. His camp was there 
attacked by the Jews, and his army dispersed. This victory so 
elated the Jews, that they imagined they could now entirely shake 
off the Roman yoke. The newly constituted council at Jerusalem, 
composed of Zealots, accordingly proceeded to organise an insurrec- 
tion throughout the whole of Palestine. The Romans despatched 
their able general Vespasian with 60,000 men to Palestine. This 
army first quelled the insurrection in Galilee (A. D. 67). Within 
Jerusalem itself? l)ands of robbers took possession of the Temple, 
and, when hesi^S^^ ^y the high-priest Ananus, summoned to their 
aid the Idumseans (Edomites), the ancient hereditary enejnies of the 
Jews. To these auxiliaries the gates were thrown open, and with 
their aid the moderate party with Ananus, its leader, annihilated. 
The adherents ot the party were proscribed, and no fewer than 12,000 
persons of noble family are said to have perished on this occasion. 
It was not till Vespasian had conquered a great part of Palestine 
that he advanced with his army against Jerusalem ; but events at 
Rome compelled him to entrust the continuation of the campaign 
to his son Titus. When the latter approached Jerusalem, there were 
no fewer than four parties within its walls. The Zealots under John 
of Giscala occupied the castle of Antonia and the court of the Gen- 
tiles, while the robber party under Simon of Gerasa held the upper 
part of the city; Eleazar's party was in possession of the inner 
Temple and the court of the Jews; and, lastly, the moderate paity 
was also estahlished in the upper part of the city. At the begin- 
ning of April, A. D. 70, Titus had assembled six legions (each of 
about 6000 men) in the environs of Jerusalem. He posted the main 

fl«t«V. JERUSALEM. ^_ j^^^^ g, 

Wjot^iigiotces to the N. and N.W. of the tity, ».i,„^ „„^ ,^^ 
«tl^tUMt. ofOUves. The Jews m ^*fn .tJ^^JfJa . ^fj^v 
JS^B^tU Utter. Within the city, John of OlsoaTa "CLde^ / 

«Z?,®^''"\ f V^* *«"»«' precincts ot the Temple, b«t Jie 

wu stin oipposea hy the lobber party under Simon. On 23rd April. 

ke tesieging engines -srere brought np to the W. wall ot the new 

MWi [lien the present Yftfa Gate); on 7th May, the Romans effected 

rm J . "® ^^^ *® ^^^ ^O'^- *"*▼« days afterwards, Titus endeav- 
omea to storm the second wall, hut was repulsed; but three days 
nfrt '"'^^** In taking it, and he then caused the whole N.'slde 
01 tttewaiito he demolished. HenowsentJosephus, who waspresent 
«1„ '!??''' *° »^™non'the Jews to surrender, but In vain. A famine 
BOOH set in, and those of the besieged who endeaTOured to escape from 
Ro^ Z^^ """«« barbarities of Simon, were crucified by the 
OTwns. The besiegers now began to erect walls of attack, but the 
tCritv ?1?*^o" ^'"^"^ly destroying them. Titus thereupon caused 
swltV 'i^ t**^'" «" length, to be surrounded by a wall of 39 
i^^^.tT^; ^"^ *'•** *•»««% was completely surrounded, the 
dSr^thif ^*'"1°'''^'« greatly 'aggravated, and the bodies of the 
nm^ir.^ °'"»'*'*''e^»n»l>ythebe8leged. Again thebattenng- 
Ky tw"**.* *"*<' 'ei'l^Ition, and, af length, on the night of 
the eS„?!.'^,i'« '»» stormed. A fierce content took place around 
then Bvl!i* "y^"' ''^t the Jews still retained possesion of 
yet eV-J lT?V*« colonnades of the Temple were burned down; 
lO^h St "p**"* ^'"''"^ ^^ desperately contested At last on 
tie tIS ' ' ^"'"' 'oW'e' i" "Id to have flung a fl;;e*"nd into 
whnu T -.a'. """trary to the exnress commands of Titus. The 
sw !„ '"v""'* "« then buwed ta thr^ound , and the soldiers 
^ ril who came within tWlTrLh A body of Zealots, however, 
^tnved to force their passaiHo the upper P«t of the city. 
Wegociahons again took pl^e wMll th^^lower part of the town was 
in flames; but still the nrmi * * . T w rpslsted, and it was 

»«« tfll 7th September tha?r/ 1"* f'**"f down Jerusalem was 
•""' » heap of wins- thosif n/lJ'** ''•"™** ^^T^As who had fought 
"Sainst the Romans 'were L'*^/'^^'*"'^ "'f* sold « ^l*'*"- 

At length, in 130 tL eT*^' *"* *^^ 'f^ 17-138), who was 
noted for his love of'bniMT I'*'^<" Hadrian C^^^^* the site of the 

Holy «ty, which he namedZ'- «'««*«* » **'T8lmply ^««''- Had- 
n«n also rebuilt the wX f "* Capitolina, ^T* course of the old 

"all. m the mam, but wire n'^''*'"^ foUo^^* *Jif« S " «<"« *» «^- 
JlMe the greater part of thn W*°^ei towards *»« once more the 

foty of the Jews bUzed forth^' *»*" «nd »' ^£ *«* »'*«' t^^^'P^- 
nod the history of the city w« ?"'*^' ^« Coobt>»' "j^ profound ob- 
wnty and the Jews werr^lK--*'^"*""** """Ivtre penalties from 
s*ag foot within Its walls ^'°''^»>ited under e^^^' 

"Kh the recognition nf ni. . ,.„ion of the state, 

'»-* era begins L the hUtS;"^«*nity as tbe ^f^^ntine permitted 

' ^^ the city. ^^ 

30 I^oute 4, JERUSALEM. History. 

the J 6^8 to return to Jerusalem , and once more they made an 

attempt to take up arms against the Romans (339). The Emperor 

JuliaB^ the Apostate favoured them in preference to the Christians, 

and even permitted them to rebuild their Temple, but they made 

a feehle attempt only to avail themselves of this permission. At a 

later period, they were again excluded from the city. 

As an episcopal see, Jerusalem was subordinate to Cffisarea, ana 
it was only after numerous disputes that an independent patriarchate 
for Palestine was established at Jerusalem hy the Council of Ohai- 
cedon in 451. Pilgrimages to Jerusalem soon became very frequent, 
and the Emperor Justinian is said to have erected a hospice tor 
strangers, as well as several churches and ten or eleven monastenes 
in and around Jerusalem. In 670, there were in Jerusalem hospices 
with 3000 beds. Pope Gregory the Great and several of the western 
states likewise erected buildings for the accommodation of pilgnms, 
and, at the same time, a thriving trade in relics of every descnption 
began to be carried on at Jerusalem. 

In 614, Jerusalem was taken by the Persians, and the churches 
destroyed, but it was soon afterwards restored, chiefly with the aia 
of the Egyptians. In 628, the Byzantine emperor Heraolius again 
conquered Syria, A few years later an Arabian army ^»^®^^^ 
'Ubeida marched against Jerusalem, which was garrisoned by ^^^^^ 
Greeks. The besieged defended themselves gallantly, but the Khalii 
'Omar himself came to the aid of his general and captured *lje^ity lu 
637. The inhabitants, who are said to have numbered 50,000, were 
treated with clemency, and permitted to remain in the city on 
payment of a poll-tax. The Khaltf Hartln er-Rash!d is even said to 
have sent the keys of the Holy Sepulchre to Charlemagne, xhe 
Roman-Grerman emperors sent regular contributions for the support 
of the pilgrims bound for Jerusalem, and it was only at a later 
period that the Christians began to be oppressed by the Muslims. 
The town was named by the Arabs Bgt el-Makdis (^house of the 
sanctuary'), or simply El-Kuds f'the sanctuary'^. 

In 969, Jerusalem fell into possession of the Egyptian Fatimites , 
in the 2nd half of the Uth cent, it was involved in the conflicts of 
the Taroomans. Under their rule the Christians were sorely oppres- 
sed. Money was extorted from the pilgrims, and savage ^>and8 oi 
Ortokides , or Turkish robbers sometimes penetrated into the 
churches of Jerusalem and maltreated the ^f f ^;\«,^^^^^^ 
These oppressions, with other canses, brought about the First Crusaae 
The city was in the hands 0?^^^ ed-Dauleh a dependent o 
Egypt ^1^^^ *\" *'^y Of the cS^ders advanced to the walls of 
Jerii« lem on 7th June, 109Q ^kc besiegers suffered much from 
hi ^ ^d thirst, and at fl \ ^ fild effect nothing , as they were 
&^ the necessary 'enli^''*' 'V 2^^^^^ The two Roberts wore 
poi" on the N. side^ on fir^^'G^oCy and Tancred ; on the W 
too hut more especially on thel. ,^as Raymond of Toulouse. When 

* engines at i.- 

'*''*'». M hefc""" <=»«Med most „; ij^^e^or, Sviltan Men1, ^ 
«* eotablisi th "* *« the PMnt' °^. *?'«se works to be d„ "l' 
'" ««nende«^\'"'l«l^e8 there ,^'^'»'«^' *«**»» capture tw""-.^" 

,'"""'»n?eofr*'"'«' ■^ilch is °! 'J" watered and somewhat stert, 
^««&'»««ntai„«„f'p;7'>iected towards the N. w,th^^^^« 
?"^ neatly f„„ *" ^- throuffh th« , ^^i^e ; and it also lies on the ro«l 

n'»«'«'^o5^^'E-Ct,f>'*- The city lies in 31" 47' ^^ 
^l^^tTlt' *"'' i^Jillf^ Of (Jreenwicli, 32 EngUsh mii;! 
^^"•- « d^l *5f '"■" to tte V ^'«n> the Dead Sea. The Tenxpt^ 
t'''"« t °^-f- "n^Jeof^;. ^f it 2527 ft., the old upper o?i^ 
t'l "• '•» ^^''"^"•'"'ean ^^ present city wall 2589 ft. abov^ 
n,'"'«'«»fabf .'o.'^th thSl ^^^8 to^" *« enclosed by a ^^^^ 
""• «»J ftom .^ /2 miles ^''-fo^r towers , formiTig an '"eex^i^^ 
^""'»' He! '^« Scopns r 'Circumference. Seen from the jvi^*^ 

^'"-.o.e^/V/^-uJ.em P--»*«/«rerar f,^- 

^iDeii spaces J tii« « ^ H^ 



^oute 4. JERUSALEM. Topography. 

ed and CTooked, many of them being blind alleys, and are ex- 
^si^^^V ^irty after rain. Some of the bazaar streets are vauit^a 
,eT. The chief streets also form the boundaries of the V^^^]^^ 
ax)L»xteT8 of the town. The Damascus and Bazaar streets, coming nom 
tlie ^o *^st separate the Muslim quarter on the E. from the Chnstia 
quarter on the W., while the S. prolongation of the street separaws 
the Jewish quarter on the E. from the Armenian on the W. A 
main street running from the Yafa Gate to the Haram, towards tne 
E., at first separates the Christian quarter (N.) from the Armenian 
(S0> ^^^ afterwards the Muslim (N.) from the Jewish (S.J- 

In the wall there are eight Qatea, but one has been walled up • 
_ (1). The Ydfa Gate (p. 83), the only one on the W. side of tne 
town, called Bdb el- Khaltl, or Gate of Hebron , by the A^^abs, irom 
the road to the left leading to Hebron. On the N. side: (2). The new 
gate Bdb 'Abdu'l Hamtd (p. 84), opened in ihe N.W. angle of tne 
wall in 1889; (3). The Damascus Gate (Bdb eWAmUd, or ^^^^^ 
the Columns, p. 107); (4). Herod's Gate (Bdb es-Sdhirt, p. ^^h 
On the E side: (5). St. Stephen's Gate ^ so called from the place 
where St. Stephen was stoned (p. 77), in Arabic Bdb Sitti Maryarn, 
or Gate of Our Lady Mary, from the road leading hence to the vir- 

gin's Tomb ; (6). The Golden Gate (p. 53), which has long since 
beftn called up. On the S. sldp- n\ The Moahrebins Gate (ifou 

at the S.W. angle of the town. ^ r ACm 

As Jerusalem possesses no springs except 'Ain SUwdn (JP- ^""^ 
and Airh es-Shifd, the bath of heaUng (p. 66), the inhabitants obtain 
their supply of water from cisterns, the roofs of the houses *J* ^J®,^ 
availal>l© open space being made to contribute the rain that laus 
upon them. Owing to the scarcity of wood, the houses are buiw 
entirely ^^ stone. The court with its cistern forms the central poini 
of eaoh gro^P ^^ rooms. A genuine Jerusalem dwelUngWhouse con- 
sists of » number of separate apartments, each with an entrance 
and a dome-shaped roof of its own. These vaulted chambers are 
pleasantly ^^^ ^^ summer. The rooms are of different heights, ana 
very irregularly grouped. Between them run staircases and passages 
iu the opon air, a very uncomfortable arrangement in rainy vreatner, 
in conseau^^^® ^^ ^^^^^ ^* ^*s become the custom with the women 
to provide tbeHiselves with pattens. Some houses have flat roots, 
but under these is always concealed a cupola. The cupolas do noi 
spring f-om *J^® *^P* ^^ *Jie walls, but a little within them, so that 
it is possil>l® *o walk round the outsides of the cupolas. The roots 
are freQ«ently Provided with parapets of earthen pipes, ^nstrnctec^ 
in a ti-^nfi:^^^^ ^^^^' ^<^*8 and. troughs for flowers a-xe built mw 
the roof^ancl courts by the architects. In the walls of Oie lOomB ate 
niches ««rviwS ^^ cupboards. In some of the houses there ate uo 
w* ido^^ ; nor are chimneys by any means ui^i^e^sa^i ^^® 

ahnate, JERUSALEM. 4, Route. 33 

charcoal smoke being in their absence allowed to escape by the doors 
and windows. The rooms are usually warmed with charcoal braziers 
(mankalj, a few houses only being furnished with stoves in European 
fashion. The floors are composed of very hard cement. 

GovBBNMBNT. Jerusalem is the residence of a Mulefarrif of the 
first class (see p. viii). The organs of government are the Mejlia 
iddra (executive council ; president , the Governor) and the M^'lia 
hdedtyeh (town council : president, the mayor) ; in both these coun- 
cils the fully-qualifled confessions (Greeks, Latins, Protestants, 
Armenians and Jews) have representatives. — The garrison consists 
of a battalion of infantry. 

The elimate, on the whole, is healthy. The firesh sea breeze 
tempers the heat even during the hot months ; in the night there is 
frequently a considerable fall of temperature. The dsteru water, 
too, is good and not in the least unhealthy when the cisterns are kept 
clean. The water in the cisterns certainly gets very low towards 
autumn and the poorer classes then have recourse to water from the 
pools. This, combined with the miasma from the heaps of rubbish, 
frequently causes fever, dysentery, etc. 

The mean temperature of Jerusalem in degrees of Fahrenheit 
is as follows I ~^~' 

January 48. 8<»; April 58. 1«; July 74. 5^; October 69. 4**; 

February 47. 3^; May 69. 8^,- August 76. 1**; November 57. 7<>; 
March 55°} June 73. 4°; September 73. 4<»; December 51. 3^ 

Mean annual temperature 63°. 

Snow and frost are not uncommon at Jerusalem. The average 
rainfall is 23 in. on 52 days, divided as follows: Oct. IV2 5 Nov. 5^/2 ^ 
Dec. 9; Jan. 10; Feb. IOV2; March 8V2; April b^L-, May IV2 days. 
The wind was: N., 36; N.E., 33; E., 40; S.E., 29; S., 12; S.W., 
*46; W., 55 and N.W., 114 days. 

According to the usual estimate, the population numbers about 
40,000 souls (according to Lievin in 1887, about 43,000). Of these 
about 7560 are Muslims , 28,000 Jews , 2000 Latins , 150 United 
Greeks, 60 United Armenians, 4000 Orthodox Greeks, 610 Arme- 
nians, lOOOopts, 75 Ethiopians, 15 Syrians, 300 Protestants. Among 
the Muslim Arabs is also included a colony of Africans (Moghrebius). 
The different ' nationalities are distinguished by their costume 
(comp. p. Ixxxt). 

The number of Jews has greatly risen of late years in conse- 
quence of the persecutions in Roumania and Russia. The immigra- 
tion steadily increases, both of those who desire to be buried in the 
Holy City and of those who intend to subsist on the charity of their 
European brethren, from whom they receive their regular khaluka, 
or allowance, and for whom thoy pray at the holy places. Sir M. 
Monteflore, Baron Rothschild, and others, together with the Alliance 
Isra^ite, have done much to ameliorate the condition of their poor 
brethren at Jerusalem by their munificent benefactions. — The Jews 

Paleatiae and Syria. 2nd ed. 3 

34 Route 4. JERUSA.LEM. Population. 

have ovei 70 synagogues-, in addi-tion to the numerous places of 
shelter for pilgrims and the poor, "tlie Sephardim (p. Ixxxv) have a 
hospital, the Ashkenazim a large scliool with a school for handicraft 
maintained hy the Alliance Isiaflite , a girls' school and the new 
Rothschild hospital j a hospital, a good school, an orphanage for hoys 
and one for girls, supported hy Germans. Many Ashkenazim aie 
under Austrian protection. 

The orthodox Oreek Church, whose patriarch Gerasimus resides 

at Jerusalem , is now the most powerful in the city. The Greeks 

possess the following monasteries and foundations : — Monastery of 

St. Helena and Constantine, Monastery of Abraham, Monastery of 

Gethsemane , Convents of St. Basil, St. Theodore, St. George, St. 

Michael, St. Catharine, Euthymius, Seetnagia, Spiridon, Caralom- 

hos, John the Baptist, Nativity of Mary , St. George (a second ot 

that name), Demetrius, Nicholas (containing a printing office), Spi- 

rito (near the Damascus Gate). — They also possess a girls' school, 

a hoys' school, a hospital, which, however, is temporarily closed for 

want of means, etc. — The Greek priests wear round black caps. 

Tolerably independent of the Patriarchate are the Russian Afw- 
sions who have political, that is to say, national Russian, as ^^11 as 
religious aims To them belong the greatRussian buildings (p. o4 ; 
church, house for pilgrims, hospital), and the Russian buildings on 
the Mount of Olives (tower, church, houses for pilgrims). The Rus- 
sian Palestine Society has also erected a large house for pilgrims. 
A large Russian scliool with six classes is in course of erection. 

The Old Armenian Church is well represented at Jerusalem, 
although it was not till the middle of the last century tbat Armenians 
began to settle here in any considerable number. The members of 
this community are said to be noted for equanimity of temper. 
Both Greeks and Armenians are better disposed towards the Pro- 
testants than towards their chief opponents, the Roman Catholics. 
The Armenian patriarch resides in the large monastery near the 
Gate of Zion fp 83"), vrhich is said to be capable of accommodating 
upwards of 1000 pilgrims. The monastery embraces a printing- 
office, a seminary, and a small museum. Near it is the ^^re^-^^^J"^. 
(PI. 54), or Armenian nunnery, which is said to oconpy the site of 
the house of Annas, the father-in-law of Caiaphas — Near the 
Ccenaculum is situated the Armenian Mop^erj/ of Mt. Zion (p. 86). 

~" It tZT^eZfc^ZZ^^^^ -ntUy repressed. The Cop- 
« nr ^Z*. y rrA^ 4a the residence of a bishop, besides which 
: "e^^SMavS Konitery o* ^^ George. J.e Sy^an>J^^ 

Ahy>,vman, a monastery »" .„,^ „e Baid to n^mter 150(5 bouIb. 

The Soman Catholics, o ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ Ciusaders, al- 

lZ,^'^rZ ::«irXe -»-°''^ ^">^ m^^WA,.s. m 1483 

it ^as not utitil ttife <iOin^Kt^^^ consisted of tut f^ 
Fraatf/y^aiis to pioiaxxVg^^ tV. "^'^ly recent »nd zet^j^^^^^^^ers, and 
pieseiit impottance. ixi ^^^^i:P faitli, tliatitbeg^„,^^'''^oftbe 
theomoeliaymg\)ft^^^ ^alerea was appointed r.l^ assame ite 

Beiiftt (p. «0J- The InsK* ***^» -wlio is also ipostoUeai d«i«».^ 
Franciscan Monasterv „« _^'*»Xal r-^^t^^e^rtnti with a ).,»^ -i. i. .^ 

Osmes de SioQ' **88ion, the Convents of the Carmelite Sisters, 
„„~ ; a new moaag? ''^^ Sisters of St. Joseph, the 'Sceurs du Ro- 
lelvem street. __ 2 ^''V of the Clarisses Is heing built in the Beth- 
pbiBige for boys ati^'^o^- *^® Seminary of the Patriarchate, ot- 
for handicraft in ^^'*'i gj^jg j^ ji^e monastery of St. Salvator, school 
in the W. of the clT ^*»ne building, another large handicraft school 
oftheSchoolBreth,^ ffounded t>y P- Ratlsbonne), the boys school 
by the Sisters of s^®^, the <tirls' school of the Franciscans, managed 
/private girls' si** Josephftl^e school of the 'Dames de Sion' and 

the institution o^^n, f^^a^ Fries ; nurses, ^l^l S^*«^°5,^*-feh) , 
CasaNuoya; (j'*^e .yjueg ae Charit^'. — *• X^os^ice^^' 
Fteneh house fo^J^n Catholic Hospice ; Austrian Hospice, i^^^ 

The Oriental „, Slims. • Latins are those of ♦.. 

Greek Catholio v^^^^'ches afailated !f, JL^^t^^ife Amara Cclm^*u ^ 
the house of the^^^' the Archimandrite Basile A ^^^ ^^^^ch^n 
5^r priestsfS-hate^chapey^^^^ with a .....^Z 

theElas'^'oJBt'*''-* ^''-r m^nral"s^oS X^^ 
The Church Mu^"^ "»'J^*' " *^ ?fo«t 140 souls) has a ch„,;^^ 

founded by fiishoD 0„^.'""'f ^ if^of for boys and gWs and a saali 
printing office %t?^; * ^''VJ^^iu^s has a handsome ch«,4' 
(Chrittaureh, PI Ofif ""T. Wltloital Mount Zlon; nea, jt 
hospital, a school &;?/'' *^* •^:^ and a large industrial school* 
on fhe Mil W ofthe to^a^new^Irge « chool for girls ; a second ^^^ 
^owttal in the V It ^ t • fn course of erection. Both mig, 

uospiTOiin me w. of the town is m c" „ner(ry »«<! nion«x, 

swns work with a considerable expenditure of energy^^ Engu/,' 

but without a corresponding result Cc°y"P- P-„^J> I^em street. ^^^ 
XniflUs ofSt. John have an eye hospital in the Bethleh^^ ^^ 

The German Evangelical Commtt^^^V numbers ^^ 

36 fiou,e4. JERUSALEM. p,«ssl». 

The joint Protestant MsHoptic , ^^f^^^l-^Joi Prussia, .^^^Jexxaetx* 
an arrangement dne to F^^^^^'^^'^Hv has 6it^<^« ^^^^'^ If a Oerm*^ 
ed in 1887, and the German ^<>^X?f or t^« '^^^'^'' W ^^^^'^ 
in religious matters. The negotiattons lor ^oBclusio". ^ ^^ pro- 

bishopric have not yet heen l>ro;ig*^* ^^ ^Mch has long ^ ^^^^aft 
German churcli in the M^t^t^^ (p. ^J^h ^^^ present tae ^^ ^^e 
jected , has also not heen hegun ^«*- ^^tapel in *^ Vchool. ^^ J 
community makes shift with a tejaporaxy ^ g^od «^^^^^^ an^ 

Mfiristan, a pastor, an assistant preacher^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

community also possesses the following i^P^. ,^e ^^^iected for 
missionary institutions: the Hospital of o'-- ^^ ^een PJ^^ j^arU^^ 
I>eaconesses of Kaiserswerth (a new huua Hoffmann:) itn^ ^^^^ 

the hospital outside the city; P^Vslcia^. ^^^^^^ Indefatiga^^^^^^^erfo ^ 
stift, a hospital for children erected ny jvieckle»^^^^' of :0:©TTn- 
dreczky at tlie expense of the Grand DuKe ^^^ Brethren u ^^ 

the X^era' HospUd (p. 104), D^^V^^J^^f^' orphanage TaW a ^^^^^^'s 
hut, physician Dr. Einszler; the f^'' .^ ^aisexswerth , ^ Isolds a 
Cp. 84), conducted hy the I>eacones8ejJ)i^^^ German ^^^*^%j,e Oer- 
Syrian OrphcL'nage for hoys (p. »*)• ^^«nd-floor ^oonttS " , ^ed ^y 
meeUng every other Friday in the ^g^^^^^';^^ can he iBtarodti 
man school Cp- 84) ; visitors are welcome ^^^ ^ ^^ 

amemher. .^arable colony i^ ^^q q,i\s. 

^ Th^ Terr^plc.'Ts (p. 9) have a ^^^^^li^^""^^^^ 

Jerasalem near tl^e r^adtoBethleheUM tj^^^^^ J^^ ^""^Is in tb^ 
ohiofLy tradesmen and workmen. The^r€C ^ ^^ meetings 
;*eini>Iars Clntrod notion through a J^®??^®^^ .^.^^ ' *i^ 

si-ge Iiall of tlie oolony (comp. p. ^P^J'^^^ ate Barclay^' ^ | 
JUterAta^re. Tiie best works on Jerusalem » S>la_dxtx , ^ 

reat Bliog', i^*«^% Pa^ner^* 'City of K|J?- ^-^^^ 

f.o^ JenisaleMi aji.iid its environs, a^i-^'^JS; Palestine Survey 
ti^Ation tliLC» Jox-^salem voL of the BngUsH irt* 

^:.«a.o:^^. Wo now stand on one of tUe most ^^^iJi^er^^, 
>po*a iix tlxe ^orld. It was aUout this SP«* T^ selected M So" 
tar Ct2 Sa.m. ^xiy.25). This was »lso tto.esUe8 j^, thw ^( 
for 1:lx^ e»xeotlon of Ws palace and tlie ^empw. ^^ ^^^ tiUl, 

I* ^»s xxecessarytolaysuDstruotioiis on ttes P^jgi^^om> 
i«.21y o,x *lxe E.CvaUey of Jet08li»plLa£,S^(^^J^^ level 8UI 

-- C^«-lloy of T^poeon) sides, ^^ o'^f^tl™ atas of the !>««»'?* 
I* i« '^o* absolutely impossible tliatremaiMO^^^pjesw't 

3«xoxi still aotuall/exi^t in the S-E. ooinex » ^.^^e m«^» 
aar toesXow the sutfaoe of the gtonad. T^^„\*T^„»6e, t^^^'j 
tooci »i^ tlie centre of the area, oix a ^^^""^^"J'aVftoe •«»*** 
pro-t»a.T>ay enclosed within tlxe pieoinots. lae ^^^^ 

'bus -«^ written by AraMan author., i8 now generally pronoo»ee . 

JERUSALEM. ^- *^*«- ^"^ 

5,.^«^^^Vol.V ?^^^^^«^f'^Jit*i^^^^^^ approached 

^^,.U.m-^oxxxt, in front of which, »^dl^»^^^^„\^^sea' (a large 
^,to,*^^^ \\xe altar of burnt offerings, the '^^t^from the great 
^H. «v^«^^^«^^er8. These again were W^o*^*^^^. ^yal palace, 
ifttenoi cowit, wliicli at the same time enolosea ^"^ ^i^ued by his 
¥otmMi77ew8 attex Solomon's death the work was oo* 

suoce&BOis. ,*»Aer vexy adverse 

The second Temple, .which the Jews erected J^^^j^f^yioi in mag- 
ciTOumstanoes aitex their return from exile, was ^*' j^^ins. AH the 
mftcetvce to its predecessor, and no trace of it ^^J^ Jj^yod , of which 
more magniftcent was the t«rd Temple, that ^^.^^^-^as begun in 
much has been preseryed. The erection of this ® .^^ ^^^ style orLgi- 
B.C.^0, but it was never completely carried out ^^t^^^^pXe by Jose- 
nally projected. We possess an account of *^^ \ ^ later period, 
phus, but as his work was written at Rome, and * ^jgion. 
his description is often deficient in clearness and I^ g^|,stniotions 
To this period belong in the first place the i^P^^i"^ was at that 
on the S. side, in which direction the Temple ^^ J^^ged it towards 
time much extended, while the Asmoneans had ®^ j^^ b.ugo stones, 
the N. The still visible enclosing walls, witb tu^^ edifice, were 
which had perhaps partly belonged to the eaiH 58). Around 

doubtless also the work of Herod (further details see -P'^j^gigting of a 
the margin of the grand platform ran colonnades , ^^^_ The porch 
double series of monoliths, and enclosing the whole , ^^^^es on the 
of Solomon (St. John x. !23) is placed by some *^^^ ^, side. On 
S. side, but by others with greater probability on '^ ,^^^^ of 162 co- 
the S. side the colonnade was quadruple , and cons ^^^^ ^^q gates, 
lumns. On the W. side there were four, on the fc>- ^^^ough oorri- 
and the vestibules were approached by stairs l®*^^r^e ^* ®^^®- "^^^ 
dors. It is uncertain whether there was a gate on * ^iiich always 
colonnades enclosed the great court of the Gentil® ' ^ court, lying 
presented a busy scene. A balustrade enclosed a ^®^^ Israelites from 
higher, where notices were placed prohibiting all ^ ^ ^ jj^tad in Greek, 
entering this inner entrance-court. (A notice of *^y Josephus, was 
closely conesponding with the description given ^^^g specially set 
found.) A section of the fore-court of the Israelite^ ^^^ priests with 
apart for the women, beyond which lay the conit o ^. ^y^xy decorated 
the great sacrificial altar of unhewn stones. -^ ^f ^^Ijotna-iV'' ^^ *^^^^ 
corridor now ascended by twelve steps to *^®, .^^^gt ground on the 
place' strictly so called, which occupied the hig» thxee sides (S., 
Temple area. The sanctuary was surrounded ^' g 3 stories ,^ the 
W., N.) by a buUding 20 ells in height, co'^^VHe '1*^^^ ^i**"^ ' ^"^ 
npper story rising to 10 ells beneath the top ^% ^^^^rior ^^ *??^ ^*''*'" 
that space remained for windows to lig^^* f^^-.V^itliin ^^^^^ '*^^^ 
tuary. Beyond the gate was the curtain or *vei » 

38 Routed, JERUSALEM, The Hardm 


the altar of incense, the table with the shew-biead, and the golden 
candlestick. In the background of the 'holy place' a door led into 
the small and dark 'holy of holies', a cube of 20 ells. —The Temple 
was bnilt of magnificent materials, and many parts of it were lavishly 
decorated with plates of gold. The chief facade of the edifice looked 
towards the E. , while on the N. side two passages led from the co- 
lonnades of the Temple to the castle by which the sacred edifice 
was protected. It was thence that Titus witnessed the burning of 
the beautiful building in the year A. D. 70. The colonnades had 
already been burned down by the Jews themselves , but the huge 
substructions of massive stone which supported the Temple could 
not be destroyed. 

On the site of the ancient Temple, Hadrian erected a large temple 
of Jupiter, containing a statue of that god and one also of himself 
(or of Castor and Pollux?). It was adorned with twelve columns. 
The earliest pilgrim found the temple and the equestrian statue of 
the emperor still standing, near a 'rock pierced with holes'. There 
is a great controversy as to what buildings were afterwards erected 
on this site. We are informed by Arabian authors that 'Omar 
requested the Christian patriarch to conduct him to this spot, where 
the ancient Temple of Solomon had once stood, and that he found 
it covered with heaps of rubbish which the Christians had thrown 
there in derision of the Jews. 

The present dome is a structure of the Arabian period. In the 
interior of the building there is an inscription in the oldest Arabic 
character (Cufic), recording that — 'Abdallah el-Imam el-Mam<in, 
prince of the faithful , erected this dome in the year 72'. But as 
Mamtin was not born till the year 170 after the Hegira, it must be 
assumed that the words 'el-Mlm<in', as moreover the different 
colour of this part of the inscription tends to show, were erroneously 
substituted at a later period for 'el-Melik', a splendour-loving 
Omayyade khalif to whom Arabian historians attribute the erection 
of the building. 

'Abd el-Melik was moved by political considerations to erect a 
sanctuary on this spot. The Omayyades, who sprang from the ancient 
aristocracy of Mecca, were the first princes who thoroughly appreci- 
ated the political advantages of the new religion. Accordingly, when 
revolts broke out against the khalifs , they chose Jerusalem as the 
site of a new sanctuary which should rival that of the Ka'ba. The 
inscription on the doors (p. 42) may justify us in regarding the 
Khalif Mamtln as the restorer of the building. A further restoration 
was carried out in the year 301 of the Hegira (A.D. 913). The plan 
of the building is certainly Byzantine, for which reason Prof. Sepp 
supposed it to be an old church of Justinian, a second Hagia Sophia. 

That the style resembles the Byzantine need however not surprise us, 
for the Arabs of that period did not yet understand the art of building. 
On the contrary it would have been surprising if they had not found it 
necessary to borrow their architecture from the Greeks. 

j^^Shetif. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 39 

/^ivffonal or round construction is found in the 8. Stefano Eo- 
^ ♦?onie as oarfy »fl the end of tlie 6th cent. But the Dome of the 
tondo f}J^Z. paa&ix^^AUy in not requiring any apse, as the building had to 
Rock ^^^^Tx^T^e BColy Rock: in its centre, just as the Church of the 8e- 
be adaptea ^ Holy Sepnlclire 5 the only diderence between the Dome of 
pulchre to i" Olinrcli of the Sepulchre is that the former is polygonal, 

the B-o^f.^..-^ fThe Cliiircli of the Sepulchre may therefore be consid- 
S^d «^rZdel for tl»e ».o.que. 

Moliammed taimself liad. evinced veneration for the ancient Tem- 
le Before lie Iolsl^ finally l)roken off his relations with the Jews, he 
even commandecl -the faitlif til to turn towards Jerusalem when pray- 
insr. The Koran slJbo nxentlons the Mesjid d-Akaa (i. e. the mosque 
most distant from MGi^csi) in a famous passage in Siireh xvii. 1 : 
'praise be to hixzi QGaST), -who, in order to permit his servant to 
gee some of our miracles, conveyed him on a journey by night from 
the tempi® el-fer^m f -fclie Ka'ba at Mecca) to the most distant temple, 
whose precincts "w^ lia-y© "blessed'. Mohammed thus professes to 
have been bere in ;oexBOXL ; to this day the Haram of Jerusalem is 
regarded by the JBd?xi.slxx>^s as the holiest of all places after Mecca; 
and it is on this ^ooouxi't that they so long refused the Christians 
access to it. The «r^-v^s , on the other hand, have never sought this 
Drivilege, as they Aread. the possibility of committing the sin of 
Ladineonthe*lioXy of Ixolies'. 

T;iir»tiire- Tooii^ I-o Temple de Jerusalem, Paris 1884. BcUclt, Beit 
emSrie^sSem' ASfST. Chipiez et Perrot, Le Temple de Jerusalem, 

Paris 1889. ,^-,««t to visit the Har&m. A small party had better be 

^° ^^^ fv^^T^^^^i. Tlie consulate, on being applied to, procures the 

formed for me purpo»«-^^^^ ^^^ Turkish authorities, who provide one or 

neceSB&n V^"^\*~^^^- ^«-^t8, aiid the kawass of the consulate also accom- 

mote soldieta w ^^^ ^person pays 12 piastres to the kawass, that being 

pauies the P*^!* TVTfeiclx, wlie accompanies the party. A boy should also 

the fee Aue^o^^^^'^^tel to carry slippers, and afterwards the boots of 

be laTs-eu "^^/'zr +^©80 »*® removed (fee 1-2 piastres from each person). 

the yi8\^0T«, f »^rr^ ,v«-*»Tr t^® party pays a fee to the soldier who accom- 

Aftet the v\nt ^\^7*^ V^e Icawass of the consulate, at least 16 piastres 

panies VheKai -"orvrAine: to the size of the party. A bright day should if 

each, or ?^*^*^ w\ p A fo/* tlie visit (but not Friday), as the interior of the 

possible be »^^;^^^ darlc. On certain days the kuslim women walk in 

bxuldins \a | y^e moB<ia.e, and are apt to inconvenience visitors. 

mc cwx ^ ^^ direct our attention to the interior of the *Har&m 

ftHexU. T^^^ Temple platform occupies the S.E. quarter of the 

eaU-s ^^ ^^^ HaT^m is entered from the town on the W. side by 

™^ ncates ' viz. (beginning from the S.) the B(xb el-Maghdribeh 

r^^te oi the Moghrebins), Bdb es-Silseleh (chain -gate), Bcib el- 

MutawadM^ 01 Matara (gate of prayer, or of rain), Bdb el-Kattdntn 

( te of* the cotton-merchants), Bdb el-Hadid (iron-gate), Bdb en- 

TV^iir C custodian's gate), also called Bdb el^Haba (prison gate), and 

1 tlv towards the N., Bdb ea-Serdi (gate of the seraglio), also 

n d'the Bdb el-Ohawdnimeh (named after the family ofBeniGhal- 

®V^ ■\ The large area scattered with buildings forms a somewhat 

^^^i^Ur Quadrangle. The W. side is 536 yds., the E. 518 yds., 

^e N 351 yds., and the S. 309 yds. in length. The surface is 


eshr-Sketif. JERUSALEM. 4. RouU, 41 

not entirely level, the N.W. oomei being abont 10 ft. higher than 
the N.E. and the two S. comers. The W. and N. sides of the quad- 
rangle are partly flanked -with houses, with open arcades below 
them, and the E. side is bounded by a wall. Scattered over the en- 
tire area are a number of mastaha (raised places) with a mihrdb 
(p. xl) and used as places of prayer; there are also numerous sebU 
(fountains) for the religious ablutions. — Visitors are usually con- 
ducted first through the cotton-merchants' gate past the 8eb7l Kail 
Bei (p. 47) to the Mehkemet Ddiid (p. 46); but it is best to begin 
with the Dome of the Rock. 

The *Domeof theBock, or Kubbet efl-Sakhra. stands on an ir- 
regular platform 10 ft. in height, approached by three flights of steps 
from theW., two from the S., one from the E., and two from the N. 
side. The steps terminate in elegant arcades (Arabic Mawdztn^ or 
scales, because the scales at the Day of Judgment are to be sus- 
pended here I), which materially enhance the beauty of the exterior. 
These arcades are Imitated from those of the fore-court of the Jewish 
Temple, as they form to a certain extent the entrance to the sanc- 
tuary. This upper platform , therefore , which is paved with fine 
slabs of stone, can only be trodden upon by shoeless feet. From 
this point we survey the whole arrangements of the Haram. Besides 
the larger buildings , a number of smaller structures are scattered 
over the extensive area. The ground is irregularly planted vdth 
trees, chiefly cypresses, and is of a reddish brown colour, except in 
spring when it is green after rain. 

The Kubbet es-Sakhra is a large and handsome Octagon. Each 
of the eight sides is 66 ft. 7 in. in length and is covered externally 
as far as the window sill with porcelain tiles, and lower down with 
marble. The whole building was formerly covered with marble, the 
porcelain incrustation having been added by Solimlin the Magni- 
ficent in 1561. The effect of these porcelain tiles, which are manu- 
factured in the Persian style (Kdshdni)^ is remarkably fine , the 
subdued blue contrasting beautifully with the white, and with the 
green and white squares on the edges. Passages from the Korlin, 
beautifully inscribed in interwoven characters, run round the 
building like a frieze. Each tile has been written upon and burned 
separately. In each of those sides of the octagon which are without 
doors are seven, and on each of the other sides are six windows with 
low pointed arches , the outer pair of windows being walled up in 
each case. The incrustation on the W. side having become much 
dilapidated, has beeu partly taken down and restored. During the 
course of this work some ancient round arches were discovered, and 
it turned out that the present form of the windows is not older than 
the 16th century , and that formerly seven lofty round-arched win- 
dows with a sill and smaller round-arched openings were visible 
externally on each side. A porch is supposed to have existed here 
formerly. Mosaics have also been discovered between the arcades. 

42 Routed. 


The Har^m 

The stones , as the visitor may observe on the W. side, are small, 
irregular, and jointed with no great accuracy. 

The Gates, which face the four cardinal points of the compass, 
are square in form, each being surmounted with a vaulted arch. In 
front of each entrance there was originally an open, vaulted porch, 
borne by four columns. Subsequently the spaces between them were 
built up. The S, Portal^ however, forms an exception, as there is 
here an open porch with eight columns. The W. entrance is a mo- 
dern structure of the beginning of the present century. The N. 
Portal is called Bdb el-Jenneh, or gate of paradise ; the W. , Bab el- 
Gharbj or W. gate; the S., Bdb el-Kiblehy or S. gate, and theE., 

a. Es-8akhra (the S acred Rock) 

b. BOb el-Jenneh (Gate of Pa- 

c. Bdb el-Gharb (W. Gate). 

d. Bdb tl-KibUh 
(S. Oate). 


e. Bdb es-JSilseleh (David's, or 
Chain Gate). 

f. Mehkemet DdUd or Kidtbet es- 
Silseleh (Dayid''8 place of 
judgment, or Chain Dome). 

Bctb DdM or Bdb ea-Silaeleh, gate of David, or chain gate. On the 
lintels of the doors are inscriptions of the reign of M^miln, dating 
from the year 831, or 216 of theHegira. The twofold doors (which 
are usually open) , dating from the time of Soliman, are of wood, 
covered with plates of bronze attached by means of elegantly 
wrought nails, and have artistically executed locks. 

The Intbeiob of the edifice is 58 yds. in diameter, and is divided 
into three concentric parts by two series of supports. The first series, 
by which the outer octagonal aisle is formed , consists of eight 
piers and sixteen columns, two columns being placed between each 
pair of the six-sided comer piers. The shafts of the columns are of 
marble, and differ in form, height, and colour. They have all been 
taken from older edifices, and some of them probably from the temple 
of Jupiter mentioned above. The capitals are likewise of very various 
forms , dating either from the late Romanesque or the early Byzan- 
tine period, and one of them is even said to have borne a cross. To 
secure a uniform height of 20 ft., large Byzantine blocks which 

f^ft , ^- ^oute. 43 

. -^— ^ o *^^ Pl*^«d aboye the capitals r^ 
^^^^tm^^-^ ^^2T}}^^ ^^nchors', or broad be^^ ^^^^^ Wocks 
«.«.ld\>ir ^en ^>eain8 beside and beneath tt^ consisting of 

i^2?tomi\-wc>*^^-^li copper-Dlatpc ,r. "*^"®*3^ them. These ArA 
^,«,^^\^ ^^\^ pxE lUce f Poussir. On the beams "e 

mi^\^i\i^i^\^^^^^ ^^^^, ^^ * cornice on the side ne^Jt^^ 

llndeitbe en^B o^ the beams are placed foliated enrichments tn 
tae. ^)i^^ ^y^^ :Pjl*«Jf ^^*'« e'^ered with slabs of marble dal- 
wgdrooitlie'peTXoa. ol Soliman, the upper part of the wall is inter- 
settei\)7 M6\ies a.x\<i adorned with mos&icB. The rich and variegated 
designs oitlieses xo.osai6fi are not easily described. They consist of 
faTvUstiGllaeaixx-textrwinedwith striking boldness, and frequently of 
gMlaTvdB oiiVovers , a.nd are all beautifully and elaborately executed. 
A\)0^e tla^exo^ is «• >>xoad blue band , bearing very ancient Cuflc in- 
scriptions iti go"*^^ letters. They consist of verses of the Koran bear- 
ing tefeieiice to Clirist, and seem to indicate that the founder was 
d&siiDusoi empliasising the new position of the Muslims with regard 
to the Ohtistians of that period: — 

SAreli xvii. ill : Say— Praise be to God -wlio lias liad no son or com- 
pBUJon iB lii^ gp'^ernment, and who requires xio lielper to save him from 
dishonour-, praise bim. Sdreh Ivii. 2: He governs lieaven and earth, he 
makes alive and causes to die, for he is almiglity. Sdreh iv. 1G9: O ye 
who have received, written revelations, do not \>g puffed up with 
your reJigion, but speak the truth only of God. The Messiah Jesus is 
inly the son of Mary, the ambassador of God, and Ikis Word which he 
deposited iB Mary. Believe then in God and ^^^ ^.^^.^^^^.^P^j/^ifj^ ?«* 
maintain there are tliree. If you refrain from tliis it will be better for 
you. Ood ifl One, and far be it from him tliat lie sliould have had a son. 
io Mni l>elo»g/ an tlxat is in heaven and eartli, and lie is all-sufficient 
4ithin himself. S^reli ii^si'et seq.: Jesus says - 'blessings be on me 
on the day of my hirtb and of my death, and of my resurrection to life. 
He is Jesis* the son of M^i t^ word of truth, concerning whont some 

the riglit way. 

Heie, too, in au Insoriptlou of great Mstorical.importance, wtich 
we have already mentioned at p. 38. . supports, 

A second kind of aisle is formed Dy a ^^^t^'Zrli^^f tox^z 
on wHici.also rests the dome. ^ixese s^porte oon^^^^^^^^,^ 

massive pieisC^hose inner and outer sides foll^^^^^iie Deing tlie 
oftte circle) and twelve coluians Qbojie in the m .^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

thlTmest) ; the piers fmonoUtlis^ Demg P^^^J^.jed iif ith marble ixv 
columns are »1bo antique; their ^^^^^^^^It tie quite different froin. 
the leth century. Beneath tlie la^*^* *t \^^tdiately on the oaP^^- 
each other The arches ahove ^^^^^ ^^'Mr^frichly adorned w^rt^ 
tals. The dome rests first on a drum.vriicn^* geotions, i» **»« 

mosaics. The«e are divided by » ^T The m"^""' "^ ° v.^*^^'' --- 
nuper otybiek are x>laced 16 -windo-ws- A^e m ^^loh arre 

J^Sods. f «t Of th|^Xre««»Sr«i Th« By-n«»« ^^^^^^^ 
Irapes »nd ears of ^^^ ^ri a go^ g'««"''- 

44: Bo***«^- JERUSALEM. TkBi^ 

^Uo executed them -were prohibited by tie laws of Ei-\B\^m iioiJv 

tep-rese»tiug ftguxes, \)ut pexhaps used these devices as emblems of 

the saotament. All the mosaics are composed of small fragments of 

colonies gla-ss, and date from the 10th and 11th centuries, when 

this ait bad probably entered upon a new phase in the East. 

The PoM^^hich rises on these supports is made of wood: its 
height (fro«^ ^^e gionnd) is 33 yds., to which the crescent adds 
51/2 yds. Ba<>^® ; the vault of the dome is 13 yds. high inside and 
only 22 yds- ^n diameter, it is consequently a surmounted hemi- 
sphere. Externally, its form is more elliptical. Its framework is 
double, the space between the inner and outer hoarding, the ribs 
of which are connected by braces, varying from 2 ft. to 5 ft. in 
width. Steps lead up to the apex of the dome, whence a trapdoor 
gives access to the crescent. The upper part of the external frame 
is boarded and covered with lead. Within, it is covered with tablets 
of wood nailed to the roof-tree, coloured blue, and richly adorned 
with painted and gilded stucco. According to the inscriptions, the 
dome was constructed in 1022 (Hakim, p. 67), the old dome having 
fallen in six years previously. The decorations of the interior aie 
of the period of Saladin, who ordered them to be restored imme- 
diately after he had taken the holy city from the Franks (1189). 
They were restored, or rather the colours were revived, in 1318 and 
1830. The window panes are thick plaster plates perforated with 
boles and slips of various shapes, wider inside than outside. These 
openings have been glazed on the outside with small coloured glass 
plates, forming a variety of designs, and affixed to the plaster by 
cramps. The effect of the colours is one of marvellous richness, but 
the windows shed a dim ligbt only on the interior, and the dark- 
ness is increased, firstly by regular glass vrindows framed in cement, 
secondly by a wire lattice and lastly by a covering of porcelain 
placed over them outside to protect them from rain. The lower 
windows bear the name of Solim&n and the date 935 (i. e. 1628). 
The walls between the windows were originally covered with mo- 
saics, like those in the drum, but the Crusaders substituted paint- 
ings , of which we still possess a description. Saladin caused the 
"'^alls to be covered with marble, and they were restored by Solim&n. 
The pavement consists of marble mosaic and marble flagging which 
is covered in places with straw-mats. 

The Crusaders converted the dome of the rock into a ^Templnm 
I>omini', adorned it with figures of saints, and placed a large gilded 
cross on its summit On the sacred rock stood the altar. The surface 
of the rock was paved vrith marble, and a number of steps hewn in 
tbe rock led up to the altar. Distinct traces of these are still visible. 
The choir was enclosed by two walls , part of one of which is still 
preserved on the S.W. side. A relic of the penod of the Crusaders 
(end of the 12th cent.) is the large wrought iron screen with four 
gates , placed on a stone foundation between the columns of the 

esWctif. JERUSALEM. 4. Route. 45 

muei ling (d-^a/^^cMJ and thus enclosing the sacred rock C^rench 
^oikmMisMTpy' Candles wexe once placed upon Its spikes. The rock 
is noiT txirtUei enclosed by a coloured -vrooden screen , but space is 
left to walk Tonnd between it and the iron screen. The best view 
of tlie lock is obtained from the high bench by the gate of the screen 
totheN.W. Tbe golden chain which bangs from the summit of the 
domenlB modem. It nsed to hold a chandelier presented by the Sul- 
tana dowager, hut this is now broken to pieces. 

We now proceed to inspect the HoiiY Rock itself. It is 57ft. long 
and 43 ft. wide, and rises about 6^/2 ^- *feove the surrounding 
pavement. The earliest reference to it is found in the Talmud, or 
Jewish tradition. As in other sanctuaries of antiquity , such as 
Delphi, an ahyss with a subterranean torrent, the waters of which 
were heard roaring far beneath the surface, was said to exist here . 
also, hut to have been covered v^th a stone. According to Jewish 
tradition Ahraham and Melohizedek sacrificed here, Abraham was on 
the point of slaying Isaac here, and the rook is said to have been 
anointed hy Jacob. As it was regarded as the central point of the 
^orld, the Ark of the Covenant is said once to have stood here, to 
M ^^^^ *'t«rwards concealed here by Jeremiah (but according to 
^ Maco. ii. 5 in a cave in Mount Nebo), and still to lie buried be- 
neath the sacred rock. On this rock also was written the ^shenC, the 
peat and unspeakable name of God. Jesus, says tradition, succe- 
Medin reading it, and he was thus enabled to work his miracles. 
rhe question whether we can identify this 'eben shatyd\ or stone of 
foundation, with the rock now before us must be left unanswered, 
as Jewish tradition is not clear. The probability is that the great sa- 
crifleial altar stood here, and traces of a channel for carrying off the 
blood have been discovered on the rock. Excavations, if permitted, 
^ould prohably show that the natural hollow under the stone goes 
deeper into the earth and is really a cistern. 

The Muslims adopted and improved upon this tradition about 

the lock, as they did with so many other already existing Jewish 

traditions. According: to them the stone hovers over the abyss vnth- 

ojt support. When we descend by eleven steps on the south side 

IPl. m) by the pulpit (k) to the cavern beneath the rock we see a 

support, and all round the rock resting on a whitewashed wall. The 

hoUow sound heard by knocking the waU is not due to any cavity 

behind it, but to the mortar peeling off from the rock. In this ca- 

jern the cicerone points out the places where David and Solomon 

(small altars), Abraham (left) and Elijah (N.) .^e^^/? *\« ^/^i* 

otpiaying. Mohammed has also left the impression of his head on 

the rocky ceiling. The guide knocks on a round stone plate almost 

j;^ the middle of the floor; there is evidently a hollow underneath. 

The Muslims maintain thit beneath this rock Is the ^^^^f;^;^'"^ 

l^weU of souls, where the souls of the deceased assemb^^^^^^^^^ 

twice weekly. Some say that the rock came from paradise, and 

46 Routt 4. JEBU^ -^LBM, Tht Haram 

that it Tests upon a palm watere^cl by a river of paradise; TE)eneat]i 
this palm are Asia, wife of riia.raoh, and Mary. Others main- 
tain that these aie the gates of liell. At the last day the Ka'ba oi 
Mecca viU oome to the Sakhra , for here will resound the blast 
of the trumpet which will annotxnoe the judgment. God*s throne 
will then he planted upon the look. Mohammed declared that'one 
prayer here was hettex than a thousand elsewhere. He himself prayed 
here, to the right of the holy roct, and from henoe he was trans- 
lated to heaven on the hack of El-Bura^, his miraculouB steed. It 
was in the course of his direct transit to heaven that his hody pierced 
the round hole in the ceiling of the rook which we still observe. 
On this occasion, moreover, the rock opened its mouth, as it did when 
it greeted 'Omar, aud it therefore has a 'tongue', over the entrance 
to the cavern. As the rook was desirous of accompanying Mohammed 
to heaven, the angel Gabriel was obliged to hold it down, and the 
traces of his hand are still shown on theW. side of the rock (Pl.h). 
A number of other marvels are shown. In front of the N. en- 
trance there is let into the ground a slab of jasper (Baldtat eL-Jetk- 
nehj PI. g), into which Mohammed drove nineteen golden nails; a 
nail falls out at the end of every epoch , and when all are gone the 
end of the world will arrive. One day the devil suoceeded in 
destroying all but three and a half, but was fortunately detected 
and stopped by the angel Gabriel. The slab is also said to cover 
Solomon's tomb. — In the S.W. comer (Pl.i), under a small gilded 
tower, is shown the footprint of the prophet, which in the middle 
ages was said to be that of Christ. Hairs from Mohammed's beard 
are also preserved here , and on the S. side are shown the banners 
of Mohammed and 'Omar. — By the prayer-niche (Jpi. 1) adjoining 
the S. door are placed several Korans of great age, but the custodian 
is much displeased if they are'touched by visitors. 

We now quit the mosque by the E. door, the Bdb esSilseleh, or 
l>oor of the Chain, which must not be confounded with the entrance 
gate of the same name (p. 39). According to Muslim tradition, a 
chain was once stretched across this entrance by Solomon , or by 
God himself. A truthful witness could grasp it without producing 
any effect, whereas a link fell off if a perjurer attempted to do so. 
The building which rises in front of theE. portal is therefore called 
Mehkemet DdM^ David's place of judgment, or Kubbet ea-SiUelehy 
dome of the chain. The Muslims declare that this dome afforded a 
model fo' *lie dome of the rock , which however is very improbable. 
This elegant little structure resembles a modern pavilion. It consists 
of two concentric rows of columns , the outer forming a hexagon, 
the iiiTi®' an endecagon. This remarkable construction enables all 
the pillars to be seen at one time. The shafts, bases, and columns, 
whicU differ greatly from each other, are chiefly in the Byzantine 
style ^^^^ *^®y have all been taken from older buildings. The pave- 
ment' consists of beautiful mosaic, and on the S. side (facing Mecca) 

g^^4 JERUSAX.EM. 4. Route, 47 

.jj^Vt-^i^^ ^®^^ ^^^ pillars tliere f« a handgome recess for 
ia*^^\«^'b^=i^-^'^«^^^5 above tbe flat roof, rises a hexagonal drum 
^^*^^^ •s6#'^T ^sr'^^^^^^ outwards. The top is adorned with a ores- 
^^^^^W^"^^^^^^ *^^ ^^ '^^ same date as those of the Sakhra and 
^'^^' ft ol''!^^ ^-w.-^^^^ "bxiildiiig seems to be ot that period. 
^^'^|^'Jjjjee^V^%\o-wr^»'^^8 tlie N. , we next come to a well. In the N. 
^ gjol^^ XTT^Y^JT platform on which we are standing, arcades, 
l&\)\1 oU^va'H.e^xodian period, were discovered a few years ago. 
m afl<>^^* ^"^^ ^A^itional proof that a lerel area was artificially 
o\)ta.iued^ \>1 %\3L\>s1tructions , although the rook which gradually 
culmitia^s ill tlie sacred rook beneath the dome is now almost 
g^eiv^\iete exposed to view. These vaults, however, cannot now 
\)e enteted. To the N. W. of the Sakhra rises the Kubhet el-Mfrdj, 
01 dome oi tVie ascension, erected to commemorate Mohammed's 
miracTilous nocturnal journey to heaven. According to the inscrip- 
tion, the BtTUcture was rebuilt in the year 597 of the Hegira (i. e. 
ilfdQ\ 13 years after Jerusalem had been recaptured by the Mus- 
lims. It is interesting to observe the marked Gothic character of 
the windows, with their recessed and pointed arches borne by 
columns. Close by is an ancient font, now used as a water trough. 
Farther towards the N. W. there is a modern looking huilding over 
a subtenanean mosque built in the rock. This mosque Is not shown 
to visitors. There is also very small building called the Kubbet el- 
Arwa^ (dome of the spirits), which is interesting from the fact 
that the bare rock is visible below it. 

If we approach the flight of steps on the N W. leading down 
from the terrace, we first observe the Kubbet el-Khidr (St. George's 
domej Here Solomon is said to have tormented the demons. In 
iront Of the mosque are two red granite pillars Farther on to the S. 
Z^elZu^^^^ 'r^'"^^^ *"^ the houses encircling the Haram, 
!U- X {^^"t*in-structure, called the SebU Kdit Bei, ^^ich, ac- 
Tl'fi^^^^^^^^'^^^Viion, was erected in the yefr 849 of the Hegira 
nt^ A J *^® ^a'neluke sultan Melik el-Ashraf Ahu'n-NaserKait-^ 
^ei. Above a small cube, the corners of which are adorned with 
piuars, nses a cornice and above this an octagonal drum ^ith sixteen 
facefe; over this again a dome of stone, the outside of ^^^«^ " ^^- 

lonnV'I''^ ^'^^ arabesques in relief. To the rf^ht «^ *^^ ^- ^^- 
lonnade descending from the terrace there is aWn elegant Pulpit 

S^r?^'' '*^^^ *^« '«^°^i^er pulpit' or PnlvU of ^^^' Borhan^ 
emn from its builder (d. 1456). A sermoa is%^teached here every 

Fnday dnrmg the fast of the month Ramadan Th p horse-^hoe arches 

S V? *^^ P^'^P^*' *«d the pulpit itself With if« slender columns. 

gennine Arabian art. ^-*«nt a i— 

The other buildings on the terrace are UnimT^nrtfltXit , consisting 
of Jorln schools, partly deserted, and dweiw"^^ O^'ects pf greater 
'^terest are the numerous cisterns with whlcb%he rocK Is ^^^Vly 

48 2?(?t**«^- JERUSALEM. The J^aram 

ftvoom^ed. Tovaidstlie S.^W.of the mosque in particular tliereftie 
^^%iv s^^^ cisteins of great antiquity, some of them connected yntb 
^^^ otheT in groups, one \>elow the other, and others unconne^^^^ 
^^ese cisterns are not visible from the surface , but the attentioa ^^ 
Ittraoted hy the numerous lioles through which the water is drayiv. 

^e return once more to the Sakhra. This magnifloent Duiiaa-3\^ 
T^Todiicedapowerful impression on the Franks of the middle ages, *-THd 
\ ^e^ popularly helieved to he the veritable Temple of Solom wi. 
Xiie society of knights founded here was accordingly called the oMer 
Qf the Temple, and they adopted the dome of the sacred r^ck as 
part of their armorial hearings. The Templars, moreover, earned xae 
plan of the huilding to Europe, and London, Laon, Metz, and sev- 
eral other towns still possess churches in this style. The polygonal, 
outline of this mosque is even to he seen in the background ot ica- 
phael's famous Sposalizio in the Brera at Milan. 

Passing the pulpit, and descending a flight of twenty-one step* 
towards the S., we soon reach a large round basin (el-KQ^)* " Y** 
once fed by a conduit from the pools of Solomon, entering by the 

B&b es-Silseleh (p. 39) Xo the E. of this. In front of the Aksa, 

there is a remarkably fine and deep subterranean cistern hewn in 
the rocks known as the Sea, or the King's Cistern, which ^*s *^®^ 
supplied from Solomon's pools. This reservoir is mentioned botft 
by Tacitus and the earliest pilgrims. It was probably constructed 
before Herod's time. It is upwards of 40 ft. in depth, and 246 yds. 
in circumference. In summer it contains but little water, and there 
are now very few openings communicating with it from the surface. 
A staircase hewn in the rook descends to these remarkably spacious 
vaults, which are supported by pillars of rock. Immediately before 
the portal of the A¥?a mosque is another cistern under the mosque 
itself, called the B^r ^I'^Vardka or leaf fountain. A man of the 
tribe of Temim (in N.E. Arabia) , a companion of 'Omar , having 
once let his pitcher fall into this cistern , descended to recover it, 
and discovered a ^ate which led to orchards. He there plucked a 
leaf, placed it behind tis ear and showed it to his friends after ho 
^^^^^itted. the cistern, ^he leaf came from paradise and never 
faded. Other persons, however ^^o descended for the purpose of 
^^sitmg the Elysi^jj orchards, M^&se nnable to find them. 
, ® mosque «^j^Alc8a. Burixig *^a* P*^^ ^^ Mohammed's career 
aT a ^®"^ed j^oat of his ^revelations' from Jew^ish sources, he 
declared the Alcsa^ the 'most distant' shrine, to be an ancient holy 
^nTv^^^ * *^'^*^^m, tradition ixi-ah:ing him say that it v^as founded 
T^\.^^ years ^^^^r the founaation of the Ka^ba by Abraham, 
frnm T *".*^^^8> too, record th^* *^e Khalif 'Omar on descending 
bouring 'church Solomon's Tet»x>l«' ^^^"^^ P'^*^^^^ ^^ *^^ ^^^S^" 

^7 mosque jg ^ ^he presen.* d*y * basilica with nave and six 
aisjes (with subsiaj^yy l>uilding8) , t^® principal axis of which forms 



4, Route. 49 


*ve edifice 

-. ^ S ^v^all of the Temple precincts. Not reckon- 

• « f^3 'ycls- l^'^S ^"^^ ^^ y^s. wide. 
^^ ^. ^Xyr foixnded by the Emperor Juatinian, who 
on&"*«»^^^^^^ of the Virgin. Procopiua, who has 
^ L3t10.ia.xi9 states that artificial substructions were 

im" enough fox 


&. XX2i 

S^^ * ^ « a'v^o, in particular, rests on subterranean vaults. 
Tlio »» ^-'latli that it waa difflcult to find beams 

o *" so _^f^®,2;j- ^ c^eiling was borne by two rows of columns, 
L^ roor- nt <^^ tlie church there were two porches and 

of a semicircle at the entrance. 'Omar 

Lobo^^'^!^ ^^»l^o»e<i m *^ -ftCiisli™ faith, but in accordance with the 
ipdicat** t-ae e^x-^x-rcli. tiy txi.e -j^ mentioned named it Mtsjid el-Akta. At 
age from fVxes. :K:ox-aii ^^'"^f'^iba el-Melilc, the founder of the 'fiakhra, 
endwtlife T-ftfc. centiix-y", _ ^^ fyc overlaid with^^ldjand silver plates. 

gjljged tae d-OOtsa Oir ZMX& -^^"^ — JTa*^'*^ ^^x-iueuxauj. \^nja-ituj buc js. ikuu ¥T , 

mring *''^,^^«fc^xfate of -A.l>»* . j^^^ake, and in order to obtain money to 

Mei ^^^^ "^^^^^"^s^e^d "by »** ea*^* -j^^tals with which it was adorned were 

Lpair tlie moa^xj^^ tb.e pireoio^^ I^TO-795), Mansdr's successor, finding the 

go0vett®^ ^^^o cioin Bl-B<^^*"^ ^rtVienc® of an earthquake, caused it to be 

L(7^gae again, in^ Tuins it*- ^^"^^ lexi**"*^ being now reduced, but its width 

rel"^* j° *^ s^'^t^xed forro, *S^i-| irH ^"* "^*^ speedily repaired. Such is 

incf^^^ ^^ d.OO0 tlie Toof * Choi's* whence we may infer that little of 

the »cco^n.X ^Xr^etxx by Ar^l>**^ ?^«: r-prol>ably only a few capitals under^the 

the orig^^a-l ^''^il^ina is »0"<^ "V -i "^H **^® aisles were formerly vaulted, 

dome ft^^ OTi^ i^ ^1,\ left »i^*5i' « side are so. 

pow o»^y t^e t-9vo outer one a <^^ 


Footprint of Christ. 
Mosque of ^ Omar. 
Tomb of the Son* of Aaron 
Pointed Arcade. 
Pair of Columns. 
9. Entrance to the old AJua. 

10. Mosque cf the 40 vntnesses. 

11. Place of Zacharia. 

g^iit form, consists of seven arcades 

Tw-u -o ^™ .i-\ ^TL i*S P^ - ^^Q building. It was erected by 

^l.e?OB^HePl.l> ^^^3les of *^^ The central 

^vvS'f . ^' '%ll tx^epl-^^tlieGothic style ofthe Franks, but 

UftVAel-Mtfazzam 'Is»» * iJJ^i*** ao not harmonise, as they are taken 

W(iadeB8howanattempTi \)»,Be^ ^ styles. The porch was moreover 

tlie columns, capitals, a^ A\.f€^^^^^ roof is not older than the 15th 

^wancienthnildingsof ^^^a tlxa 

^"^Stoied at a later pe^io > ^^^ Intbriob, which should be 

_ *««; «i#*n*^ ^^ appearance. The nave and two 

Sori^-i Sent" "«*^" ' 

50 Routt 4. mu r* A 


ad3ace]it ftislesi • 

are the only xJa^^^^*'^ the plan of the old\>asilioai8^cogni8a6Ze, 

probably once^ ,^, wliict are strictly ancient. Ibe W. aisle was 

mosque, as at P^*}^^^ "P> and on tbe E. side lay tlie coTiit of the 

with the dom^^^^^^^^Syt^U and atl>ama8cus. The great transept 

Mehdi, gave 1' ^^^^^ Perl^s.^^ belongs to tl^e restoration of El- 

ZmelrinoJ ?^ ediilce ^^ticiform shape. It was probably the 

ftntJ^rJ' r^""' ^^ ordea.!J^ol> literate the form of the cross, added 

^ fU"^ ^^ **^-^- aa^ ^- «^^ff ^^ *^« ^o«<l^e respectively, 

and for this purpose the il^^^^^ T*"« «^ *l^e building had to be 

hToken thiongb. jjj, tieir ^r^^ ^^* m™ ' liowever, these four outer 

aisles belong to a later restor^^^^^' ^ P^®^® *re of a simple square 

form, and the vaulting ia pot:r^^^ \. 

The Nave and ±ts two i^^c*. :«3cx ediately adjoining aisles are very 
superior in style to the other ^»^^^^„''^^* "^^'itioned, and possess far 
ereaterindiyiduality/ndunl€V:^^^"^[- A^e capitals, some of which 

still show the form f *t ^^t^^-rUef^^^^^ -d perhaps 

date from the 7th cent- '^'i® ®®^^^ i^,R dmii^ii f *^°^® *^® columns 

are^de and pointed, and tHer « ^^« or con^^^^^^^^ 'f ^^ d^*« ' »«<i ^^'^ 
arewiucttu i» _-.ooden 'aiio^tK^^ » "^ connecting beam betwppn fhp 
again we tod the J« to th..«^rab8 Above the arresisiruMe 
arches, which is peo ^^ ^^^^ j^^^ ^^^ open air the 

TOW of ■windows, «»" » Tia.-v-«i and oentral aisles .n^ *u f^ ' ! 
1 wet into the -^^JlMlr^^ , - ^a. the c'atVbLmcl'""^ 

also, «e;t«l too'-j^^es are f^^^^'ln rf*"'" '°' *'« ^'''Pe^f t^^' 
nave <«* .«f'tMDSi»te externa-Uy m the form of arches both at the 

ends and »ide'- ^^^e tiie les* ^'^ ^.''^ ^-^ifloe, is constructed of old 
^^ OVansept , « «,eby„omeans uniform liketho e 

materials. ^^,. _.iy iu matet3.a.i, m lorm, and even in height A, 

lud gt»f '«\C part of *« «"«? ^''tV*^°"i ^ **• from th^^nd 

consists oj/", 

from the^ot»"; t,^„ted of ^o?d, and covered with lead «n »h» 
Tbe i>o«^f« ^i3 ieooiated in the same style as the dome of J^e 
outslde;W^th». 1 eeoids the name of the MamelX °^^„^ 

^'^'^- i'iTA^ ^ '^^ restorer (or perhaps founde^ o/^^e 
Mol>»Bi»«*\**^ ^1327). Some of the windows of the mosoue 
decorations in '^ I J j the same penod (IGth cent.^ « X! 
are flU^^^* tut inferior to it- The wretched painting^ *^n*^i'* 
in the ^^'^'J, transept v^ete executed by an ItaUan dlring the 
*««' Teen *y - A-dJoining the prayer -niche we ob^^'^e a 


JERUSALEM. 4, Route. 51 

I 'i fpi 2) beatixtifully carved in wood. The details of the dec- 
tion are adinir«.l3le. The ascent to the pulpit, as well as the 
°l^ntp<l stiuoture itself, is inlaid with ivory and mother-of-pearl. 
W executed in. 564 (,±±08) by an artist of Aleppo by order 
of Niireddi;!, and "was placed here by Saladin on the restoration 
of tbeAkaa. On tliO stone l>eliind this pulpit is shown the Footprint 
ofChrui\^\- 3), -««^hicli appears to have been seen by Antonio of 
Piacenza, one of -tlie earliest pilgrims, at or near this very spot. 
Further towards tlie E. , -wre observe to the left two columns close 
together (PI- 7). Tlxe cicerone declares that persons who are not born 
in lawfol wedlock c& pass between them, while others say that 
no one can enter heaven if lie can not pass between them. (There is 
a similar P*^^ of oalajxxns in the mosque of 'Amru at Old Cairo.) 
An iron screen has now "been fixed between them. 

Subsidiary BuUcli9%^^^ A. prolongation of the transept towards the 

yf, is formed by a cionl>le colonnade with a vaulting of pointed 

arches {VI 6}, but tlx^ pilasters are of rather rough workmanship. 

All tM« part ^^ *^® l>n.xl^in€r ^*^ erected by the Knights Templars, 

vho used it as an arrxxoTxr-y or something of that sort. The Ajtsa was 

specially allotted to -fclio Templars j they called it porficu«, palatium^ 

or (emi)it*m Boimio' ; t^® knights lived here and in the lower 

chambers of this of the Haram, the windows looking out to 

thftS on the mo\inLta.xxi ©lope- This part of the building I3 now the 

Lmen's mosaue, t\iei '-wMte mosque', — The modern addition to the 

Zsane on the S.TS. ©lae is a ^are uninteresting building with a 

mosqne uu .^liere the proper Mosque of 'Omar is said 

^'*^^II we sW, «le aome of the rock having been erroneously 

ouce to ^^^^^^''^^^^^s . A similar addition is situated to the N. ; 

called 80 oy w ^^ ^^^ g j .^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ old Christian church, 

the greatw ^^ ^\^^ V^^ Mosque of the 40 witnesses (PI. 10), and 

now ^^I^''^^^ .^ r^^ ii.^ is the place where Zacharias is said to have 

to the ». ^^^^^'^^ ^ liandsome rose windotv' here dating from the 

been ^^^^ c,tufta^ftTf3- Before leaving the moscjue the visitor should 

timea ^\^ inspect a stone slab in the pavement of the nave, 

not ^^^.^^^ ^Yie enttanoe. It resembles the monument of a Frankish 

k*^ • Ut \)ut the Muslims declare it to be the tomb of the Sons of 

*^Q^^gjj^e^ging from the central portal we find a staircase on the 

•fflit which descends by eighteen steps to the Vaults below the 

^tsa' Tliese are formed by a double series of arches resting on piers. 

Tie central series lies exactly under the arcades which form the E. 

* Ae of the nave of the basilica, which is perhaps a proof that the 

. g^wja\ basilica only extended thus far. The substructions in their 

^ £ent form are not ancient, the brickwork of the E. wall, for In- 

^^ Ge being of late date, but they occupy the site of the original 

%\ aiitine foundations. Towards the S. end eight more steps descend 

 vault with arches resting in the centre against a short and 

to a, 1 ^^ 

t\i\c\. uxotiolitUci ^^^^^V^j^tlxeT P ^^*^ ,H tt. oai>ite] 0/ which 
^u^ us 8^^« a<^^^^^^^*' V^ *Irtiti^^ -^^ ^^^65, appear to be Byzan- 

vr^^le ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^''^ ^ o cOlC^^ ®- ^'^^i« complete presem- 
t^l^ t\ie t\iTee columiAS aie cv ^ ose J 0/ very Jarge stones of the 
W8\i petioA. T:\ie \ititel8 of jT^J^^te^ are sti// in positioiv-, W\.^\^^ 
eaBtexn one ia ^JioTt^tv, and "^^*^, ^ supported by columns added at 
a latei time-, ot\ t^e inside tuey ^re whitewashed, but on the 
outside t^ey aie stiii ijaxtly visiDl^ and are ornamented -with ^eii 
sc^xiated, ta\)iet-lik.e stones. Tae entire space was once a porch 
\)eiongiiig to tiie Doiible Gate, Wow walled up, but was closed in 
and vaulted in tlie Byzantine manner, probably at the period of the 
erection of thie ohnioli of St. Mary. This double gate is supposed 
to be tbe 'Huldah Portal' of the Talmud, and we may therefore as- 
j sume tbat Christ frequently entered the Temple from this point, 

particularly on the occasion of festivals. It is now a Muslim place of 
1 prayer, and is therefore covered with straw matting. 

Whether there are vaults under the S.W. corner of tM Bardm is a 
question that is still unanswered, but probably there are. 'Through a 
) children's school entrance may be gained to an interesting subterranean 

' building and to the huge square block by Barclay's gate (p. 58). 

The open space in front of the Aksa mosque up to the E. wall 
of the Haram is now paved with stone and quite empty. The whole 
of the 8. E. comer of the Hardm is supported by artificial substruc- 
tions, the sole object of which was to afford a level surface. The 
entrance to them is near a small arcade in the S.E. corner of the 
Temple precincts. Descending thirty-two steps, we enter a small 
I Muslim oratory, where a horizontal niche, surmounted by a a dome 

I borne by 4 small columns, is pointed out as the ^Cradle of Christ' j 

1 under which name it was also known in mediseval times. In pre- 

I Islamic times the 'Basilika Theotokos' (of the Mother of God) or 

'Maria Nova' was here. This curious tradition seems to have been 
founded on an old custom of Hebrew women to resort hither to 
await their confinement. According to the legend, this was the 
dwelling of ^jje aged Simeon , and the Virgin spent a few days 
here after the presentation in the Temple. 

From thig point we descend into the spacious substructions, 
which the j^^s^tys attribute to the agency of demons, but which 
in their present ^^^^ "® °^ ^^ ^^®** antiquity. They consist of 
semicircni^j. aults about 28 ft. high , resting on a hundred square 
piers, chieft ^ composed of ancient drafted stones, and are an 
imitation r^ ^-hal>ly Arabian) of similar older substructions which 
once occupj '?^|ie same spot. Tradition calls them 'Solomons 
Stables', an(f v,ere may he some foundation for the name, for the 
palace of t^ *^%^onaTch was probably somewhere in this neighbour- 
hood. Many ^r ^s sought refuge in the subterranean vauults during 
their struggi ^^ai»st the Romans, and there is other evidence that 
substructiolj^ ^f the kind existed at an early period in -this cornet^ 

JERUSALEM. . p^ . ro 

^^^^^^^^lX^^<i^S« to which they attached theifho™^^^^^^^ 
-^tf .^^^^^*^^\^1 ydB. from B. to W., .^tltyl^^Z 
^t^ V^ ^^ ^VtoS^t^er 13 vaults of unequal length and br'ead?^ 
CHc\ve^'^^^>^ ?^*?.Vit.t rather elongated semicircJe, are borne 


/>rwa». ^^'^^^ a-ffoTds access to another series of substructions, 

>w\i\<i\i tetmV^^^^ to^atds the S. in a Triple Oate, Of this ancient 

Temple 6«^^®^ ^^AciVi ^as built in the same style as the double gate 

already diescri^e^^ tTie foundations only are preserved. The gates 

ttiemselves ate fliVled. np. The arches are of somewhat elliptical form. 

^^e -w^ole iporcVv ^as about 53 ft. in width and 26 ft. in height. For 

tfie exterior comp. p. 59. Fragments of columns are also observed 

\)uilt into the -walls heie, and an ancient column is seen in the wall 

ahout Wyds. to theN. of the gate. Farther on, about 132yds. from 

the S. wall, the style in which the gallery is built begins to alter, 

and the Tipper part becomes more modem. The substructions extend 

to theN., over a large rocky cistern, beyond the Aksa mosque. (We 

observe here the huge roots of the trees which grow on the platform 

of the Haram above us.) It has unfortunately not been possible till 

now to investigate the space between the double and triple gates, but 

it is highly probable that there are substructions here also. 

We now again ascend to the plateau of the Haram, and proceed 
towards the N. -— The Wall which bounds the precincts of the 
Haram on the right (E. side) is modern above the surface of the 
gVound , though the substructions are of great antiquity. A little 
farther on, ^e find a stair ascending to the top of the wall, which 
affords an admirable view of the valley of Jehoshaphat with its 
tombs immediately below, and of the Mt. of Olives. We find here 
the stump of a column built in horizontally and protruding over the 
wall. A small building (a place of prayer) has been erected over 
l\i^ inner end. The Muslims say that all men will assemble in the 
valley of Jehoshaphat when the trumpet-blast proclaims the last 
judgment. From this prostrate column a thin wire-rope will then 
\)e stretched to the opposite Mt of Olives. Christ will sit on the 
wall, and Mohammed on the mouj.? indges. All men must pass 
over the intervening space on tho *^ The righteous, preserved 
by their angels from falling, win ^ '°P^* .+h lightning speed, while 
the wicked will be precipitated u^T''^^ i.vss of hell. The idea of 
a bridge of this kind the ^ *^^ ! Persian religion. 

Tie Golden Gate, situated f^ ^'^cient ^ ^^ ^ seems always to 
have been the only entrance from *^er ^^ 

A passage in EzeJciel (xliv. 1, 2) « *'le I^- * it was kept closed from 

a rery earf:r P^,^^^' JP *^« ^^ok ii^^iicatefl *^?i 2) mention is also made 

y&St^ea &Qala, op Beautiful Gat/ *he icte <^*^Viealing of the lame man 

^oSpla^«- Although the 'Beau«f^^^> >.^^e i:^l^^cA^r^ ^^^^ in t^^ 

54 Route 4. JERUSALEM. The Hardm 

wall of the inner forecourt of the Temple, modern tradition hafl localised 
the miracle here, as this was probably the only gate still visible on th« 
E. side of the Temple. Owing to a misunderstanding, the Greek (hgala 
('beautiful) was afterwards translated into the Latin aurea^ whence the 
name 'golden gate\ Antonius Martyr, however, still distinguishes between 
the 'portes pr^cieuses' and the Golden Gate. The gate in its present form 
dates from the 5th, or probably rather from the 7th century after Christ. 
(According to Muslim legend the pillars of the gate were a present from 
the Queen of Sheba to Solomon). In the outer wall on the S. there is a 
very small door which probably afforded an entrance to foot-passengers, 
and which was connected by a passage, now buried in rubbish, with the 
interior of the gateway. The golden gate bears a strong resemblance to 
the double gate on the S. side (p. 52), and probably stands nearly on the 
site of the gate 'Shushan** of the ancient Temple, mentioned in the Talmud. 
It is on record that as late as the year 629 Heraclius entered the Temple 
by this gate, and down to 810 a path ascended in steps from the valley 
of Kidron to the temple precincts. The Arabs afterwards built it up, and 
there still exists a tradition that on a Friday some Christian conqueror 
will enter by this gate and take Jerusalem from the Muslims. At the 
time of the Crusades the gate used to be opened for a few hours on Palm 
Sunday and on the festival of the Raising of the Cross. On Palm Sunday 
the great procession with palm-branches entered by this gate from the Mt. 
of Olives. The patriarch rode on an ass, while the people spread their 
garments in the way, as had been done on the entry of Christ. 

The Arabs now call the whole gateway Bab ed-Ddheriyehj the N, 
arch the Bdb et~ Tobeh, or gate of repentance, and the S. arch the Bdh 
er-Rdhmehj or gate of mercy. The large monolithic doorposts to the 
E. have been converted into pillars, which now rise 6 ft. above 
the top of the wall , and between the two has been placed a large 
pillar, the sides of which are adorned with small projecting columns. 
Above these the arched vaulting was then placed. The gate hav- 
ing been walled up, the central pillar is no longer visible from 
without. After lying in ruins for a long time, the structure has been 
brought to light and restored; two new buttresses have been built 
in front of the damaged corners. A staircase ascends to the roof, 
which affords an excellent survey of the whole of the Temple pla- 
teau , and particularly of the approaches to the dome of the rock. 

To enter the interior is not permitted. 

In the interior of the portal there is an arcade with six vaults, the 
depressed arches of which rest on one side on a frieze above the pilasters 
of the lateral wallfl, and on the other side on two columns in the middle. 
The inside of the W. entrance is a simple repetition of these arrange- 
ments of the E. gateway ; the ancient columns may still be seCn in the 
brickwork in the middle. The architectural details of the structure, 
which is highly ornate, point to a Byzantine origin. The depressed vault- 
ing, the lowness of the cornices, the hollowed form of the foliage, and 
the flat folding of the acanthus leaves on the capitals are all characteristic 
of a late period of art; and the same may be said of the capitals of the 
central columns with their volutes in imitation of the Ionic style, as 
capitals of this description do not occur before the 6th century. The hol- 
lows below the mouldings of the bases of the capitals also point to a late 
period. — The interior is lighted by openings in the drums of theE. domes. 

Proceeding farther towards the N., we observe a modern mosque 
on the right (probably built over old vaults). It is called the Tyrone 
of Solomon J from the legend that Solomon was found dead here. 
In order to conceal his death from the demons, he supported him- 

e.h-Sh.,tf. JERD8AJLEM. ,_ ^^^^ 

sell on Ms seat; tTioueh^L^**^' *"*^ ^* ^*^ ^'<^* ^^^ the woi-m« », ^ 
gnawed the staff -fcl»^^>'f^^«d caused tlie bod y to /alj thaurr^? ^^^ 

Taeoame aww6 tlx^-^ ^J^T' '"f,^® now released /rom the kinff'« "T^i^ "* 
ity. Heie,as a.* <>^^^J PH^^ma^e serines , we obLfve^il^i^"': 
rags suflpendea frOl» the wi^^ow ^atin^s , ha^ring heJn ^Z/ ""^ 
the garments of -fcl*^ piignms and placed tliere by them in fnifl] , 
of vows to the sain** ^"iment 

Crossing tlio ^raS8 we now reach the N, Trail of the U&tA 
which contains a ^v^li ole series of gates. Tlie flrst at the E end™' 
the Bdb el-Asbdty or gate of the tribes. C^lie -word asbdt, 'tribes'^ 
has, however, sornGtlnies been regarded as tJie name of som'e individ- 
ual prophet.) The visitor should not omit to look out of one of the 
windows under tlie arcades of the N. wall, for here, far below us 
lies the traditional JPool of Bethesda. A small valley diveiged an- 
ciently from the upper part of the TyropcBoii from N.W. to S.E. 
and was made available for the construction of this reservoir. The 
pool, which rarely now contains water, is 121 yds. long and 42 yds. 
wide. It lies 68 ft. below the level of tlie Temple plateau, and 
its bottom is now covered with rubbish to a depth of 20 ft. It was 
fed from the W., and could be regulated and emptied by a channel 
in a tower at the S. E. corner. Roman Catholic tradition regards 
this as the pool of Bethesda situated by the sheep gate. As it was 
erroneously supposed that this gate stood on the site of the present 
gate of St. Stephen (see p. 77), early pilgrrims also speak of the 
piscina prohaUca^ or sheep pool, situated here. The pool is now 
called Birket Isra'tn, or pool of Israel. Through a small opening 
in the N.W. wall of the Haram, Capt. Warren succeeded in pene- 
trating from the pool into a double set of vaulted substructions, one 
over the other, to the N. an apartment with an opening in the N. side 
of the wall of the Haram. Through this opening the superfluous 
water flowed away. 

Skirting theN. side of the Haram precincts, we observe places of 

prayer on our left, and we soon reach the next gate, called theJBdft 

Hitta, OT Bab Hotia, following which is the JBdb el-'Atem, or gate of 

darkness, also named Shertf el-Anbid (^honour of the prophets^, or 

Gate of JDewaddr, fiom a school of that name situated there. This 

perhaps answers to the T6di gate of the Talmud. To the left is 

a fountain fed by Solomon's pools; near it to the ^W. are two small 

mosques, the W. one of which is called Kuhbet STiektfes-Sakhra^ from 

the piece of rock which, it Is said, Nebuchadnezzar broke off from 

the Sakhra and the Jews brought back again. At the N.W. angle 

of the Temple area the ground consists of rock, in which has hecn 

formed a perpendicular cutting 23 ft. In depth, and ahove this rises 

the wall. The foundations of this wall appear to be ancient, and 

they may possibly have belonged to the fortress of Antoiua. Xhere 

are now barracks here (Pi. ax At the N.W. corner uses the highest 

minaret of the Haram, 

56 Bott^^ 4- JERUSALEM. The JSardm 

Havii^g examined the wliole of the interior of these spacious 
pTeoinots, ^^ now proceed to take a Walk round the Walls, which 
^ill enalJle tis hettet to Tealise the character of the suhstrnctions. 
The gieat platean we ha^e just inspected was originally a rocky hill, 
the 'sides of which were afterwards artificially raised, and the pro- 
jecting parts of which at the N. W. angle were removed. Through 
the centre of the plateau runs the natural rock, extending helow the 
triple gate (p. 53). The valley to the W. of it, called the Tyro- 
poeon, is almost entirely filled with rubbish. 

As to the materials of which the substructions consist, five dif- 
ferent kinds of stones may be distinguished in the outer wall of 
the Temple, each probably belonging to a different building period : 
— (1) Drafted blocks with rough, unhewn exterior; (2) drafted 
blocks with smooth exterior; (3) large stones , smoothly hewn, but 
undrafted ; C^) smaller stones of the same character ; (5) ordinary 
masonry of irregularly shaped stones. Blocks of the first kind are 
to be found under ground in almost every part of the Temple pre- 
cincts,! that part of the wall which is built with such blocks begin- 
ning 35-55 ft. below the present surface of the ground. These blocks 
are hewn smooth on every side except the outside, and there they 
are drafted (comp. p. cxiv). They are jointed without mortar or 
cement, but so accurately that a knife cannot be introduced between 
them. The wall is not perpendicular, but slopes outwards towards 
its base, each block lying a little within that below it. On the N.W. 
side of the temple area (but difficult of access) the exterior of the 
wall shows remains of flying buttresses (like the temple wall in 
Hebron, p. 138). 

On leaving the Haram by the second gate on the N.W. side 
(Bab en-NdzirJ we leave the Old Serdi (at present state-prison, 
PI. 95) to the right, and the cavalry-barracks (PI- 1^) *° *^® ^®^*" 
* At the comer to the right is a handsome fountain. (Crossing the street, 
we may notice how beautifully the stones of the 2nd house on the 
left are jointed with lead cramps.) We then turn to the left by the 
street which leads to the S., passing on the right the present 
Serdi, on the site of the former Hospital of St. Hel^i^^* (PI. 94), and 
on the left a lane which leads to the Haram ' ^® ^^^ arrive at the 
covered-in Suk el-Kattdnin, or cotton-merchants' bazaar, now des- 
erted, and terminating' towards the E. in the Bd^ el-Kattdnin, which 
is worthy of inspection. About half-way through *^® bazaar we turn 
to the right by a by-road to theHammdm esh B^^f'^^ or healing hath 
(Pi. 35). This too has been supposed to he tli® ^^^^ ^f ^^^^^^^f 
A stair ascends 34 ft. to the mouth of the m^p^X^^ ^^®^ which stands 
a small tower. The shaft is here about 100 f* ^^ depth (i. e. abon^ 
66 ft. below the surface of the earth), tj^ v '^dn is almoBt ei\tttelY 
enclosed by masonry; at the S. end of its ^^^aU ^^^^ a ohaimcl 
built of masonry, 100 ft. long, 31/2 ft. v.":- at^A S ft. in ^lAtVi, 
dearly towards the S.W. The water is bad b 'i^^ i*^^-^^'^^^ ^^^^^ 

esh-Shetif. JERUSALEM. 4,, Route. 57 

has peioolated througli impnre earth, but it is still extolled for its 
sanitary properties. 

Keturning to the narrow lane we pursue our way to the S. ; here 
we find a fountain similar to the one already mentioned. We then 
ascend into the so-called Dayid Street, which runs from W. to E. on 
a kind of wall formed of subterranean arches. In Jewish times a 
street led over the deep valley here (the Tyropoeon^ p. 21) to the 
upper city J one of the large arches on which it rests was discovered 
by Tobler, and afterwards named * Wilson's Arch^ after the director 
of the English survey. This well-preserved arch is 21 ft. in height 
and has a span of 42 ft. Below it is the so-called El-Burdk Pooly 
named after the winged steed of Mohammed , which has given its 
name to the whole of this W. side of the Har^m, as the prophet 
is said to have tied it up here. Whilst making excavations under the 
S. end of Wilson's Arch, Capt. Warren discovered fragments of vault- 
ing at a depth of 24ft. and a water-course at a depth of 42ft. (a proof 
that water still trickles through what was formerly a valley) ; and at 
length, at a depth of more than 51 ft., he found the wall of the 
Temple built into the rock. A subterranean passage ran In the same 
direction as the viaduct over the arches mentioned above, and led 
from the Temple precincts to the citadel. Capt. Warren penetrated 
into it for a distance of about 83 yds., but could not get farther.^ 

We now follow the David Street in the direction of the Har&m 

until we come to another handsome fountain on the left ; here we 

turn to the right into the so-called ^Mehkemek' or House of Judgment 

(PI. 84), an arcade with pointed vaulting, which was built in 1483, 

and contains a prayer-niche In the centre is a fountain which was 

formerly fed by the water-conduit of Bethlehem. A window looks 

towards the Moghrebin quarter to the S., and there is an outlet to the 

plateau of the Har^m. Thp hnnse of the Kadi (judge) used to be 

by the side of the arcade Ti. fA which here leads into theHaiam 

is cMedBdbes-Silseleh ain7%fy,(> Chain: near it is a basin which 

resembles a font. The'^^^^^^ ^l ft from Solomon's pools (p. 131) 

to the area of the temji]^^^ conduit ^ ^^^^ 

We must now retu^^ ^^^ under ^^ xane leading to the Ictt 

between two h&ndsor^^ to the flrS* ^ rf^^^t on the right with the 
Btalaetite portal was T^ old hoUS^^^* + the period of the Oiusades-, 
that to the left, ca]7* Cs' school ^t * a giiW Bchool, hut has 
been used as a bL' % ?r. 'teh^ t^me of Saladlu. I>2!L^^\^?:| 
this lane for 4 mi/ ^ '^J^rmy^'^e *^^ft we loaoh the *^b;i."Uij« 
Place of the/ew'-5?^>0l «i«^%jV^,\ioeVondthe m1..x.U. 

hyers of smaller St '^t C;""'' T^O^^ d^^'^Zls I»*^V ^^ Y,^^""^ ^^Ixt 
-— *SSj^t-r, f>r-^e, one in t.e ... ,. 



58 Route 4, JERUSALEM. The Hardm 


being 16 ft., and one in the S. part 13 ft. in length. It is prohable 
that the Jews as early as the middle ages were in the habit of 
repairing hither to bewail the downfall of Jerusalem. This spot 
should be visited repeatedly, especially on a Friday after 4 p.m., or 
on Jewish festivals, when a touching scene Is presented by the fig- 
ures leaning against the weather-beaten wall, kissing the stones, 
and weeping. The men often sit here for hours, reading their well- 
thumbed Hebrew prayer-books. Many of them are barefooted. The 
Spanish Jews, whose appearance and bearing are often refined and 
independent, present a pleasing contrast to their squalid brethren 

of Poland, 

On Friday, towards evening, the following {litany is chanted : — 

Leader: For the palace that lies desolate: — Response; We tit in soli- 
tude and mourn. 

L. For the palace that is destroyed: — R. We sit, etc. 

L. For the walls that are overthroum: — ^R. We sit, etc. 

L. For our majesty that is departed: — R. We sit, etc. 

L. For our great men who lie dead: — R. We sit, etc 

L. For the precious stones that are 1>ui*ned : — R. We sit, etc. 

L. For the priests who have stumbled: — ^R. We sit, etc. 

L. For our kings who have despised Sim: — R. We sit, etc. 

Another antiphon is as follows: — 

Leader: We pray Thee, have mercy on Zion! — Response: Gather the 
children of Jerusalem. 

L. Haste, haste. Redeemer of Zion! — R. Speak to the heart of Jerusalem. 

L. May beauty and majesty surround Zion! — R. Ah! twn Thyself merci- 
fully to Jerusalem. 

L. May tJie kingdom soon return to Zion! — R. Comfort those who mourn 
over JeiHisalem. 

L. May peace and Joy abide with Zion ! — R. And the branch (of Jesse) 
spring up at Jerusalem. 

To the S. of the Place of Wailing is an ancient gate, which the 
fanaticism of the Moghrebins prevents travellers from seeing unless 
accompanied by a guide who knows the people. (For the approach 
from the interior of theHaram see p. 52.) The upper part of it consists 
of a huge block, 7^2 ^t. thick and at least 18 ft. long, now situated 
10 ft. above the ground. The most interesting features of the gate, 
however, are not visible. The threshold lies 48 ft. below the present 
surface of the ground, and a path cut in steps has been discovered 
in the course of excavations. It is called the Gate of the Prophet, 
or after the discoverer Barclay^s Gate. 

Retracing our steps from the Place of Wailing, and now turning 
not to the right but to the left through the main street of the dirty 
Moghrebin quarter till the houses cease, we reach a large open space, 
partly planted with cactus hedges. To the right is a precipitous slope, 
consisting of rubbish on the S. side and rock on the N. ; to the 
left rises the Temple wall to a height of about 58 ft., which we 
now again approach not far from the S.W. angle. The colossal 
blocks here, one of which is 26 ft. long and 21/2 ft. high, and that at 
the corner 271/2 ft. long, are very remarkable, although it is some- 
times difficult to distinguish the joints from clefts caused by disin- 
■^-gration. The whole of the S.W. corner was built during the 

j-g.;^XJSA.r.EM. 4, Route. ! 

ati-Shti^^t' ^eis. :froin the S.W. corner we co 

,, « T^rtVo^ - ^^^^t30"ttt jiolfinson's Arch after its discovei 

HeTodfjX? «u ^^idgf^*i?^^!^„eotitain8 stones of 19 and 

"^"^^ 1 is 60 -rt;- ^-K^ ^ ^/ir^-ren* cotirses are distinguishable, i 

The »^«^^^ iboxx^ ^-rmxee «^ ^i^aiict which led from the Temj 

^'''^IVte t'V^® ^^S^^^"^ V*^^i„r« s , occupying the site of a more ancie 
^*'\vfJl'^T0P<BO^ ^o *^«^y^^^^«xiected the palace of Solomon wj 
':TaT^I ^^^ --"^l^Ti: rJ^j;«r elV-^he distance to the opposite h 

^ , Jf^t T>8.Tt o« *Ti.« Tipper CJL ^ ^^^ g.^^ j^^^^ ^^^ y^^ brought 
t^eJST^as BiL4s«t.-«^a.'tlons oil ^^^ -j, ridge there. At a depth of 21 
^s ^"" ' Q^ea^o-K^A^xmg part oi ^^ iiill, rook and a water-course. 
^^^* ^xTaTteii ^oxxx^a., OH tli^ ' gupposod direction of the viad I 

C»P^- Vxftttsv^^^i'*^ y^«T>orod ^^^_^e» C^ystus?). By Robinson's Ar 
^^^®^ l«nd i€»m»-^^« of a <5olon"^** ^ l3V2yd8., and at a depth of 21 
^etf ;<^^^^g foxr-n.a. ait a ^i^taTice ^ ^^^ ^^^ vault-stones of the ar 
s P^*^ * j^g a -pa-v^e^xi^ent oti '^^ mA. ft-, t^^® explorers came upon t 
*^®*® "btidge. .Ajfe a doptli ^'^^-.f^iiey found a channel hewn in t! 
o* * \nd Tieax trti« Temple ^*/^ «liat»««l lay the arch stones of tl 

^^^^.V^dge. rr ftin-pl® *^® ^^®^ 1^®® 57 ft. below tl 

A.t tlie S.'W^. ooTnerof the i*' ^j^^ g^eat wall which to this dj 

^Tit stirfaoe of the grouno-- .^^ far below the surface was on 

"P^^V -long th© -w-lxole of the ^ - ^.^ in forming a level plateau f 

^^•^10 ^*^ oi^ly X^^^o^® ^*® J«sexnt>led a gigantic pedestal. 

^^®^7rei»P^®' axia. i-fc must have *^ ^f theHarlm, we can at first s( 

*^^ i^tnitig ronxi.^ theS.A^V^. <;0^^^ the Double Gate (see p. 52^ 

1^ the piece -to -the B. as ^** cftXinot pursue until we issue froi 

t^e conti^^^'^^5^ o^*^^^-Ttl'^a«^> and turn to the E, keeping . 
*^® y^ttn^ Gate Co:r Jdoghrehina '-'^ ^ excavations here show that th 
*V «A afl poBsiTolo -to the v^all. corner of the area towards the i 

"^^^^ apidly f a-Xls from theb- y • ^^^ ^own to the latter depth th 
a depth ot" S8 ft. to ^.^V^Udded in the earth. The rook the 



• ,^ a ae^^"- «x oo IX. ^^ \ -TYihedcieo *** i,"« ^a*ni. x no took in e 

^^'^aia»'^®^P^^"«^a^i^^ ®T« other words— the Tyropoeon valle 

.^Ift agai^ to-9¥'a.T^s the ^- V^*t!*» Temple plateau, so that this pai 

^ 1 tiudet tlxe » .-W. angle of *»^ . ^f the ancient Temple) stand 

*^^i^© «^<5^^^^ C^OTxesponding to P^ ^^^ opposite slope. 

o^ r\^xL the Te^ix^Tei Mil itself, t>ii^ oi j^ .^^ is now no longer vis 

t^^^ %t the bott^om of this ^^'^^^^^l^J^'nea.n channel. At a depth o 

-^^ftpt.VTauTx^ii discovered a subterr ^^^^ Boman period, and a 

*^ r* is a 6tOT\e^ -pavement, probably Ol ^^^jodian era. A wall stil 

^^^^th of 4.B :E\:. another, perhaps of th^.^^g of large stones wit 

a <^^^ deep\v IxUhedded in the earth ©on j^entioned at p. 52, th 

mOT surfaces. Beyond the7)ou6lc 6?^* .' ^e C^ate,wheTe itlies b\ 

totJS ^ olAex. The rook ascends to the "^nfi^ "^^^^'^ ^* *'*^^^ ''*^^^' 

v^®-'-'' ^eet ^ielo-w- the present surface f ^^^Tripl® Gate' sevei^ pa 

fev*- *n^ the -^rallev of Kidron. U>:^lr tl^^^v, and under the 'Sing 

^^^^-f-^^ -^atS-conduits hewnT^^ ^e ^^.fpassage, have been d1 

g-f^^ CP- ^33* ^hich is of late date, a^ ^^^ *^ 

6 ate I*' ^ wr 
6."""° .«."«* 


» »,. '^•o""' ,".>"■'■■? ••••SS'f'S. "' 

^plk-etb ^r the ^ 
. of the place 
lie iirst = -■* - 

'or Onlgotha to the I^f. •'■ •— <; kow-s 
but uatiL fartiiei- excstvatiuns ai-i: 
Sisliop BQ«ebi«3 fborn at CeosaFoa 
> gives DS iDformatiom «>_m. tb.*3 subj. 

«»Q«D*a mother, promi-ted »>y„». ^ 
, JerusaloiD, ana that she an^ W'sh^ 
there dlaco^^ered! T.ot. onlsr t^« H 
ChriBt. The arose .was ^Y^";^ .„ i 
, JeroBOlem, where '\S^°*X^^t^e ap. 
^^*'™°whici. we "^w am^d, 'i^ «"— 

il form at »«^= been i>rosei-v 

Hives for examp"-- ""^ 
of the c 

its pronoo^"-- „«-r3 that an ^^J*"' 


62 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Ch. of the JSepulehre, 

In 1187 the Arabs damaged these buildings. In 1192 the warriors of 
the Third Crusade were permitted to visit Jerusalem in sections, and the 
Bishop of Salisbury obtained from Saladin the concession that two Latin 
priests should be permitted specially to conduct the services in the Church 
of the Sepulchre, in 1244 the sepulchre, was destroyed by the Kharezmians, 
but in 1310 a handsome church with numerous and superb altars had 
again arisen, to which in 1400 were added two domes. During the follow- 
ing centuries complaints were frequently made of the insecure condition 
of the dome of the sepulchre. At length, in 1719, it was restored, and a 
great part of the church rebuilt, notwithstanding much opposition on the 
part of the Muslims. In 1803 the church met with a great disaster. It 
was almost entirely burned down, the dome fell in and crushed the chapel 
of the sepulchre, the columns cracked, and the lead from the roof flowed 
into the interior. Little was saved except the E. part of the building. 
On this occasion the sarcophagi of the Frank kings of Jerusalem (see 
p. 72) disappeared. The Greeks now contrived to secure to themselves 
the principal right to the buildings, and they, together with the Armenians, 
contributed most largely to the erection of the new church of 1810, which 
was designed by a certain Kalfa Komnenos of Canstantinople (p. 67). 
Many traces of the original church are, however, still distinguishable. 

The ^Church of the Sepulchre (Arab. Kentset el-Kiyameh) is 
geneially closed fiom 10.30 a.m. to 3 p.m., but by paying a bakh- 
shish of 1 fr. to the Muslim custodian the visitor will be allowed 
to remain in the building after 10.30 o'clock. As it often happens 
that the custodian is not to be found in the afternoon, a morning 
visit is preferable. An opera-glass and a light are indispensable. A 
bright day should be chosen, as many parts of the building are very 
dark. — It is hardly a pleasant fact that Muslim custodians, appointed 
by the Turkish government, sit in the vestibule for the purpose of 
keeping order, particularly during the Easter solemnities, among 
Christian pilgrims from all parts of the world; and yet the presence 
of such a guard is absolutely necessary : so completely do jealousy 
and fanaticism usurp the place of true religion in the minds of many 
of these visitors to the Holy City. A large model of the Church of 
the Sepulchre executed by Hr. Schick, a German architect, which 
gives a comprehensive idea of the whole of the buildings connected 
with it, is to be seen at a shop of the English Mission to the Jews, 
opposite the citadel of David. 

The chief facade of the church is now on the S. side. The open 
space in front of the present portal dates from the period of the 
Crusades. It is paved with large yellowish slabs of stone, and is 
always occupied by traders and beggars. 

»,.^ This Quadrangle (PI. a), or fore-court, which is not quite 
level, lies 3^ steps below the street. To the right and left of the 
steps are columns built into the adjoining buildings, but that on 
the left (W.) only is well preserved, and even supports part of an 
areh closing the street leading to the W. Here probably stood a 
kind of Porch J and the conjecture is confirmed by the fact that the 
remains of bases of columns are still distinguishable between the 
two corner columns near the ground. 

The quadrangle is bounded by chapels of no great importance. 
^Entering by the most southern door on the right, and passing the 

64 Route 4, JERUSALEM. Ch. of the Sepnlchre. 

We now return to the quadrangle, and enter the Armenian 
Chapel of 8t. James (PI. 2) with a crypt underneath, and the Coptic 
Chapel of the Archangel Michael (PL 3). From the latter a corridor 
leads to the Abyssinian Chapel (PI. 40). In the corner of the quad- 
rangle towards the N. a door next leads into the Greek Chapel of 
the Egyptian Mary (PI. 4, below 30). This Mary, according to tradi- 
tion, was driven away by some invisible power from the door of the 
Church of the Sepulchre in the year 374, but was succoured by the 
mother of Jesus whose image she had invoked. 

The chapels to the W. of the quadrangle belong to the Greeks. 
The Chapel of St. James (PI. 5), sacred to the memory of the brother 
of Christ, is handsomely fitted up; behind it is the Chapel of 
St. Thekla, The Chapel of Mary Magdalene (PI. 6) marks the spot, 
where, according to Greek tradition, Christ appeared to Mary Magda- 
lene for the third time. The Chapel of the Forty Martyrs (PI. 7), 
which originally stood on the site of the monastery of the Trinity, 
was formerly the burial-place of the patriarchs of Jerusalem , and 
now forms the lowest story of the Bell Tower. The interior of this 
tower, placed adjacent to the church according to the Romanesque 
custom, is now incorporated, on different levels, with the old chapel 
of St. John and the rotunda. In its four sides are large Gothic window- 
arches, and at the angles flying buttresses. Above the window-arches 
were two rows of small Gothic double windows, the lower only of 
which is preserved. The upper part of the tower has been destroyed ; 
but we know from old drawings that it consisted of several blind 
arcades, each with a central window, above which were pinnacles 
and an octagonal dome. The tower dates from 1160-1180, and 
must therefore have been erected by the Crusaders. 

The S. Facade of the church can hardly be said to produce a 
pleasing effect, but its ornamentation is interesting. There are two 
portals, each with a window above it. The arches are of a depressed 
pointed character throughout, almost approaching the horse-shoe 
form. The arch over the portals is adorned with a border of deep 
dentels which fall perpenicularly on the curve. This ornament is 
said to be of late Roman origin. The jambs of the doorways consist of 
a series of elaborately executed waved lines. The columns adjoining 
the doors, probably taken from some ancient temple, are of marble: 
their capitals are Byzantine, but finely executed, and the pedestals 
are quite in the antique style. The columns have a common connect- 
ing beam, adorned with oak foliage. The space over the door to the 
left, originally covered with mosaic, is adorned in the Arabian style 
with a geometrical design of hexagons. Below the spaces above both 
doors are Basreliefs of great merit, which were probably executed 
in France in the second half of the 12th century. 

The Baireliif over the Left Portal represents scenes from Bible his- 
tory. In the first section to the left is the Raising of Lazarus in a vault : 
Christ with the Gospel, and Mary at his feet; Lazarus rises from the 
tomb J in the background spectators, some of them holding their noses! 

JEllXTSA.lL.:BlVi:. 4, Route, 65 

a of the iS^ulchre- 

_^^ tlie left Wta.x-y l>escecliefl Jesiw to come for the 

.. ^^ A *«vcl\Oii i^o^*^ -r-d. scroti An l>e«iK»» tl^e representation of Chriat's 

Ufl,,t«iOTiA aecuw ^^-^^ section oes ^j^oi plea to fetch the ass: and 

tf^^'^^saiem Ue ^are S^S-odxJo^d- THe disciples bring thi ?o"a1 
tl\SvilTl^V^^ »^®^Srfment/^ iS *1^« l>*:gronnd appears the Mt. of 

^^ho^u^^Fz^^rJ^^ ofTh'err^T^u^i 

m^i^yiis crut^. THe last ««^*^*^^^3l*i« of the table, and separated 

Ua^. on JesuB^ breast-, Jxxd»s, on t»*® ,^ t Uto ^S:S:.r'flowerf t7v '^ «**^ "* 

ftom ttxft other disciplee, is 'eceiv;»«^^ - ^^o, ^^«t'an? witi' ?? t^ ^S"":;!*' 

lli»W Portal is an intricate mass ^l^^j^ Ik »• ^f'^^^lZ J^v^®"^- ^^« 

b\?d8, and other objects. In the ^^f^l,^ ^^^iocm^^Ib below, which represent 

whole has an aUegorical meaning: ^*^ 

eTil, conspire against goodness. j- ^^^^ f roxi* Ol it begins a staircase 

The second portal is walled ^^' ^jx& Olia-pel of the Agony (p. 72). 
wMch ascends from the outside ^^ « ^j^o, oorresponding in character 
The staircase leads first to a small ^^ ^^^r^ i» t^ie N.E. corner of the 
^th the fa^de. The projecting ^ -^ foxDO-®^ ^y four large pointed 
qnadrangle has also two stories , ^ ®f^ ^ oli^P^^' — ^^® tombstone of 
arches, and has been converted ^^ ^ -jxx froxit of the portals. 
a Frankish knight lies on the gron-^^ ^^^xji-chre itself by the large 
We now enter the CmiitcH o*- t^ ^jxi-os-t remember that the whole 

portal. In order to find our -way, ^^^ -veo e***®^ ^ro™ the S. we first 
building extends from E. to ^V. ^^-^sa.derfi. To the left we first 
reach an aisle of the cliurcli of *^^^V «Xxm ovistodians, who are gen- 
observe the beiicli (^Pl. 8^ of tlie ^^^^^a. -p^V^^ and to whom, if the 
erally regaling themselves with cofE'^^ IxxsIil n©©^ be paid. For many 
churci happens to be open , no l>altxi.B ^^ -tlie 19th, a heavy tax was 
centuries, and dovvn to the begin»^^^ ^ ^jxe guard, we reach the 
levied here on every pilgrim. ^*^^ ora vv^l^i^h the body of Jesus 
large 'Stonb o:f Anototmbnt' C^l- 'A^^^ ^^ Nicodemus (St. John 
is said to have lain vrhen it v^ras a,rxo^ 

Xix, 38-40). ^ aep®'^**® 'Chnrch of St. Mary* 

Before tHe period o« tlie Cms adefl, * l«*Ht« how «?:.^- ^^^^k^/®*^**' 
rose over the place of Anointment, ^^* ^S »^^ iliojoly Places within one 
spot; when, l^c^re^r tbi ¥^ra^8 enclofl®^ ^exooved to somewhere about 
bniliing, ?he sl^l^ clf ttie anJ^tmeixt ^*^e^ changed, and has been in 
its preJent site. T^e stone has often ^^coi*»^,^°*^®f ^"^ «^«5*^«"ion. In 
possession of MxxxeTous dXentreligio^a ^^^e 16 tb, to the Georgians, from 
the 15th cent., it^twed to fhe Copts, ^^^^ ^OOO FWtres to burn candles 

whom the Latins pxSJ^Wed^p^^^ *^/^J*2°° Armenians, Latins, 

upon it, and a^fter^^aSto thfGreeks. O^^J.^ la^pa, and adjacent to it 

Greeks, a.nd Copts are entitled to btxr» t^IacUK Ri/ f* i j 

are candelabra, of i^^ge dimensions- --^--r ^^o^rhle slab, tti/gft. long and 

The present stone a leddishyel*-^ ;pilgrims were formerly in 

4 ft. broad, ^veas placed here in ^^,P\ ^rlew^ to have their winding- 

the habit ot Taeasuring the stone w^i^*^ 

fiheelB Taade of tlie same length. ^ tli^^ point we reach a small, 

A.l>oxit 13 yax^s to the ^- 0®^*^ ^1 fX*!- ^^)' ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ *h« 
recently hnilt enclosure lontid a s*^?J^vo s*^^^ *"^ witnessed the 
spot where the ^oxxien ate said to 1^* 5 ^ 

Palestine and Sy^^^^ 2nd ed. 

66 Routed, JERUSALEM. Ch, of the SepuUhre, 

anointment. Beyond this, to the S., is the appToaoh to the Arme- 
nian Chapel (PI. 2). 

We now proceed to the right (N.) for a few paces, and anlve at 
the Botunda of the Bepulclire, the principal part of the building, in 
the centre of which is the Sepulchre itself. The rotunda originally 
consisted of twelve large columns, which were probably divided into 
groups of three by piers placed between them. Above these were 
a drum and a dome , the latter being open above. The foundation 
pillars of the present day belonged to the old structure. Around the 
sacred chapel ran a double colonnade. The enclosing wall had three 
apses (still visible towards the N., W., and S. respectively j PL 14, 
17, 17a with mosaic pavement} with three altars, and another 
altar stood in front of the Sepulchre. The rotunda and dome were 
embellished with mosaics. Since the re-erection of the edifice in 
1810 the dome has been supported by eighteen piers. These are 
connected overhead by arches, on which stands the drum with its 
dead windows, and on this the dome. The space between the ex- 
ternal circular wall and the piers is divided by cross-vaulting into 
two stories, which were formerly continuous galleries, but are now 
divided into sections by transverse walls. The dome, which is open 
at the top, is 65 ft. In diameter. For a long time the old dome 
threatened to fall in, but an arrangement having been made between 
France, Russia, and the Porte for its restoration, the present structure 
was erected and completed in 1868. The wood was brought by sea 
from Marseilles. The pillars and most of the arches, as well as the 
drum had to be rebuilt. The dome is of iron and double. The ribs of 
the two domes are connected by iron braces. The inner side of the 
lower dome is lined with lead, the exterior of the upper dome is 
covered with boards, then with felt, and lastly with lead. Above 
the opening is an iron screen, covered with glass and gilt, and 
surmounted by the gilt cross. The upper third of the lining of the 
dome is also decorated with gilt rays. 

In the centre of the rotunda, beneath the dome, is the Holy 


In the course of Oonstantine^s search for the Holy Sepulchre, a caTem 
in a rock was discovered, and a chapel was soon erected over the spot. 
In tbe time of the Gmsaders, the sanctnary of the Sepulchre was of a 
circular form and had a small round tower. At that period, there were 
already two cavities, the outer of which was the angels* chapel, while 
the inner contained the actual sepulchre. The building was surrounded 
with slabs of marble. A little later, we hear of a polygonal building, 
artificially lighted within. After the destruction of the place in 1556, the 
tomb was uncovered, and an inscription with the name of Helena (?), and 
a piece of wood supposed to be a fragment of the cross were found. The 
Sepulchre was then redecorated, and three holes were made in the top 
of it for the escape of the smoke of the lamps. The whole building waa 
restored in 1719. In 1806, the small tower of the chapel was destroyed 
by fire, the rest of the edifice being but alightly injured, notwithstanding 
which the whole enclosure was rebuilt in the debased style which it ex- 
hibits at the present day. The chapel is a hexagon, being 26 ft. long and 
ITi/sft. wide, and has pilasters placed along the sides. 

^. of tht Sepulchre. JBRUSALEM. 4. RouU. 67 

In front of the E. side there is a kind of anteohamher provided, 
with two stone benches and large candelahra, where Oriental Chris- 
tians are in the habit of removing their shoes, though we need not 
follow their example. We next enter the vestibule called the Angels' 
Chapel (PL 11), 11 ft. long, and 10 ft. wide. Its walls are very thick, 
and inerusted with marble within and without. Steps on the right 
and left in the wall lead direct to the roof. In the centre of the 
chapel lies a stone set in marble, which is said to be that which 
the angel rolled away from the mouth of the sepulchre, and on 
which he afterwards sat. A fragment of this stone is said to be built 
into the altar on the place of the Crucifixion. As early as the 4th 
cent., such a stone is spoken of as having lain in front of the Se- 
pulchre, but the stone appears to have been changed more than once 
in the course of the following centuries, and different fragments are 
sometiines mentioned. In this chapel burn fifteen lamps , five of 
wMch belong to the Greeks, five to the Latins, four to the Arme- 
nians, and one to the Copts. 

Through a still lower door we next enter the Chapel of the 
Sepulchre (PL 12), properly so called, which is only 6V2 ^- ^^ng, 
o ft. wide, and very low, holding not more than three or four persons 
at once. From the ceiling, which is somewhat lofty and provided 
with a kind of chimney, are suspended forty-three precious lamps, 
of which forur belong to the Copts , while the rest are equally 
divided among the other three sects. In the centre of the N. wall is a 

of the dooristhe inscription in arAPk- *Lord remember thy servant, 
the imperial builder, LTfrKomnenos of Mitylene, 1810' (p- 62> 
The roof of the chapel U born«^v marble columns which stand on 
^; '™!! r:i"i^.V> «ell 0^ theV. side, to the right of 

the en- 

trance, is the marble tot^: "" '"Vhl shelf co-fered vflth matMe is 
about 5 ft. long, 2ft. J^''***"*- i** Mgh. Mass is said here daily- 
The split marble slab 1 > *"'* ^ \n altai We leara the char- 
acter of the tomb of Chi *lso used ^% Vg fxxlii. 53 +> OriglnaUv 
the sepnlchral grotto il*'«t from S*- '^•Len here, and a ca^tT he^" 
in tVe rock is menflon*^ Said to ba"^® ^od. What -we ha^e to v\ 
to onrselves U ^^i J. . ,...r "P®'^^.. ♦. receive the bod-j, a^<V 

tore to onrselves is a 1. •* i.t . i.tat P .,t to receive the l>od7, a^^ 
arched over fsee d t ''*>^** * 'f, -«re* ° \r the vrhole snxfaoe ^as 
overlaid ^th^ 2lie^i<>. hoUO^o^ever^^^; ,„a « -o-^^ 

require very carefti , «^ V" ^^^^' ^ *^^ Slin ^^ethet a iooU-t«w>> 
ever really eii«torf),„^a.<«r back *^ »sO«^ ,, , , 

^^ Imn^Jistelr J«^^\,„ation *<> ,i,e W .■) ^^r^e^^^f 

f«. i3).m,^l%^ ict^r tS^^'^"^ ^'^^ l6thoex.t.x, 

sepulchre tlmtmrl hged tO ^ **^vor I^*^ r* 

^U ^^6*=^ ^<y^^ t»evor 

^ Wn, and ^t» 

68 Route 4. JEBtJSA.LE3f. Ch. of the Sepulehft. 

We shall now make the oirouit of the rotunda. Of the ^aT\i re- 
cesses around it, that immediately beyond the Copts' chapel is the 
most inteiesting. We ftist enter the plain Chapel of the Syrmns, or 
Jacobites {V\. 14), at the back of which an old apse is seen. A door 
leads ont of this ohapel to the left, towards the S., t^^o^S'l * 7?? 
and narrow passage, and down one step into a rocky chamber Cl^l. 10 y 
By the walls are first observed two 'sunken tombs' (P- ^^^i^j? ^^^ ^ 
which is ahout 2 ft. and the other 31/2 ft. long, and both 6 ft. deep, 
having been probably destined for bones. In the rook to the ». are 
traces of 'shaft tombs', 51/2 ft. long, IV2 ft. wide, and iVa tt. wg^. 
Since the 16th cent, tradition has placed the tombs of Josepn oi 
Aiimathaa andNieodemus here, and researches have shown that we 
really have ancient Jewish tombs before us. , . + •- 

In the recess (PI. 16) to the N. of the Syrian ohapel is a stair- 
case ascending to the apartments of the Armenians. The bays are 
divided among the various sects; the gallery over the two stones is 
also divided : one-third to the Armenians, two-thirds to the L.atins. 
The last recess C^l- 17), to the N. of the Sepulchre, is another 
of the original apses of the rotunda. Passing through it, we come 
to a passage leading between the dwellings of officials to a deep 
cistern (Fl. 18), from which good fresh water may be obtained. 

Returning to the rotunda, we turn to the N. into an antechamber 

(Pi. 19) leading to the Latin chapel of the apparition. Tradition 

points this out as the spot where Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene 

(John XX. 14, 15). The place where Christ stood is indicated hy a 

marble ring in the centre, and that where Mary stood by another 

near the N. outlet of the chamber. This sacred spot belongs to the 

Latins, to whose principal chapel, on the N. side, we now ascend by 

four round steps (to the left is the only organ in the church). Ihis 

is called tl^e Chapel of the Apparition (PI. 20), the legend being 

that Christ appeared here to his mother after the resurrection, and 

dates froBa the 14th century. Immediately to the right (E.) of the 

entrance is an altar, behind which a fragment of the Column of the 

ScoiLraif^d ^^ preserved in a latticed niche in the wall, but it is not 

eas V to se® ^*» ^^^^g to the want of light. The history of the chapel is 

nior« closely connected with this precious relic than with the ap- 

Pea ftiioe of Christ to his mother, or with the legend that it occupies 

the ite of the house of Joseph of Arimathaea. The column was for- 

lUf^rfv shown in the house of Caiaphas, but was brought here at the 

tim of t^® Crusaders. Judging from the narratives of different 

^.T^® .^g it must have frequently changed its size and colour, and 

a f* mn of similar pretensions is shown at Rome also. There is a 

Rtf 1 ^re which the pilgrims kiss after pushing it through a hole 

an^ *^iiching the column with it. On the N. side, there is an en- 

tr to the Latin Monastery. — The central altar is dedicated to 

thJ'^fiTffln Mary, that in the N. corner to reUcs. 

After quitting this chapel, we have on our left the entrance to 




aofihcSeputcht-^^* JERUSALEM. ^ Houte. 69 

tlieLotmSams^ C^^' \^)'.7^^i©re we are shown the sword, spurs 
«ii «08. ol Mlie^ ^^ WUon , antiquities of doubtful genuiiie- 
S"^^?''*'^ ^n the ceremony of receiving knights into the 
Order ott^e8%^u\c1ire, which has existed since the Crusades. The 
Sr VV'^«' and the sword 2 ft. 8 in. long, with a simple 
CTQcifomUivdlfebiTi. long. *^ ® 

Itt again turning to the S., we have on onr left the Chnroli of 
WW umaderB, which was originally separate from the Church of 
ine aepnlchie. This church has a semicircular apse with a retro- 
caoir towards theE, The pointed windows and arcades, the clustered 
Frpnl' ! *^® groined Tanlting bear all the characteristics of the 
rencJi transition style with the addition of Arabian details. The 
uutting was erected by an architect named Jourdain in 1140-1149, 
xneBimple and noble form of the choir was somewhat disfigured 
''y the restoration of 1808. 

ofik^T^^ opposite the door to the Sepulchre rises the large Arch 
nowf .^'■°''' ttnder which is the chief entrance to the church, 
lorming a chapel called the Catholicon (PL 22), and belonging 
wxneuieeks. Itis about 39yds. in length and of varying width, and 
18 lavishly embellished with gilding and painting. According to 
tradition, this building was erected above the garden of Joseph of 
Anmathffia; in the middle ages it formed the choir of the canons. 
between the entrance and the choir is shown a kind of cup contain- 
ing a flat ball, covered with network, which is said to occupy the 
\(^e of the World (PI. 23), a fable of very early origin. On each 
side of the chapel is an episcopal throne. One seat to the N. is for 
p Patiiaroh of Antioch, a second to the S. for the patriarch of 
(IT^lT" ^^^- ^)» *^<* another at the very back of the choir 
[!l fTJ' 'r^is choir with the high altar is shut off by a wall in 
V i.'^^^ fashion, and a so-called Iconoclaustrum thus formed, in 
^flichthe treasures of the church are sometimes shown to personages 
01 distinction. 

Passing this partition wall, we proceed to the left and enter the 
«8ie (PI. 26) to the N. This aisle is formed towards the N. by two 
J«ge pilasters, betw^n which are still to be seen remains of the 
peyen Arches of the Virgin' which formerly stood here. Since the 
^me of the Crusaders they have been completely btrilt into the 
PUlais; but in the old building they formed o»e side of an open 

iTtt K p*"^ ^^^^^^'^ **^« ^^""'^^ ^f the sepulchre *^? *^*^o\T ?.*' 
n the N.E. comer of this wall there is a dark chapel C^L ^7)- Ou 
tenghtof ite entrance stands an altar where through two round 

holes the GrefticR «i,.w *^^ ,• . ' ^^® It.^ «tone which are 

Joles the Greeks show two impressions 
«d to^be footprints of Christ. ThZT 


+he stone wnicn are 
form the so-call^^ 

""* '^ "olongs to the Greeks, ^ns"ste of three V^' ^' ^'^V 

70 Bo«te4. JBRUSAH:.:EJlf. a. of the Sepulchre- 

as the l)eginniiig of the 12tli cent., tljig ^^g g^own aa the ^^^^ 
Christ, vheTe lie N^ras \)OTiiid wWle liia cross was being pr©P .g 
The legend has since tlien been so Variously embellishe^i ina" 
now difficult to tiaoe the Mstoiy of its different phases. 

We letnm in the direction of the Catholicon, and ^r^^^f,^-jged 
its choit ve find in the outside wall to the left apses whxen Y^J^xfers 
to the old choit of the Franks. Between the apses *re ©f^* ^^ 
for clothes. The fttst apse is called the Chafd of H^- "T^^ ^ent 
(PI. 28). Longinns, whose name is mentioned m tue ^^ ^^^ 
for the first time, was the soldier who pierced Jesus side , ^ 

heen blind of one eye, hut when some of the water and ''l*^^^^ ^^ 
into his blind eye it recovered its sight. He thereupon rep©"^ ^^ 
became a Christian. The chapel of this saint appears not w ^^^ 
existed earlier than the end of the 16th century. It ^®^^^^® . ^^ 
Greeks. The processions of the Latins do not stop in P*^®^"f^j^ 
and do not acknowledge its sanctity. — The next «'^*P^ij^.^g„t 
at the back of the choir, is that of the PaHing of the ^air 
(PL 29 J, and belongs to the Armenians. It was ^^^"^^^J^IL is 
the 12th century. Between this chapel and the one last d^^criD 
a closed door leading to a chamber for clothes •, by this door tne ^» 
are said formerly to have entered the church. Farther ^^ \f * ^ ^^ 
case to the left leading to the Chapel of St. Helena then ^^^ 
of the J)eri8ion, or of the Crowning with Thorns (PI- ?r» ?t^nd6 
to the Greeks, and without windows. About the middle of^^J^J^ . 
*« aitar shaped like a box, which contains the so-called ^o*«^^ 
11^ J>eri8ion. This relic, which is first mentioned in 1384, has pas 
through many hands and frequently changed its size and cow 
f «oe then. It is now a thick, light-grey fragment of stone, abou 
^t. higjj, 
We no-w descend the stslioase which we passed » moment l)Oie, 
«nd ,te 29 BtepB lead ub down to a chapel 65 ft. long, .^^J^'^^i 
situated 16 ft. below the level of the Sepulchre. This is the Cftap» 
°rst. Selena QPl. 311 id he"e once stood Const»ntlne's t.Milw»^ 
In the rth cent., a'^'J^jf ^anctuaty in the Byzantine style J« 
erected here by Modegt,« and the existing suhsttnotions date ^"^ 
ttisperiod. TotheE.t""A;,!^»v8es, and in the centre four cylindno*^ 
«olnmns, ^Wch bear » f *^J The latter has six side-windows, which 
look to the q'«dran'j,<*°?\«- Abyssinian monastery. The shafts of 
tie columns are ao^!*f <>' *''^mhrof reddish colour; their thickne". 
iowever, as ire« ^^^'^e o,onoUtn^.o„,te size of the onhlc capital^ 
«ive the TThoJe a hl**'e disP'^S;^" . ^^ i^^^ vaulting dates 
fron, the time of tC^^^y »P?**'^ A'Zth cent.). The ohapel helon^ 
to the Abyssinlang ''® Cr^igftdors K. ^^^ ^ ^^^ Armenians. From «« 
statements of medics' ^JioBa i« » ^^ i^„^ th^t this chapel ww 
fegaided »s the pla**'"'*! t>ll«!L cross was found. An upper and » 
owe, section are *';*' ^hj^ *>1 tbe first time in 1400. The AW 
in the N. apse CPl q'?,*ionea |?^ J^ to the memory of the pemtent 


tW<.ivd:i\i.lm <.1^^40 filiovn a seat fPl ql^^^"^™?'®*^ Helena. To 
V^^%UU\«>ata.^ entile tlie cross wT-wi. which the emprew 
i& %^^V.\.ms«fc^JV,ot older than th^^/^^^"* sought for; this 
M^oivAowf.^, ^^^arcb who *^^.^*^ century. In the 17th 

;>)mMtt\i.^.>, im ^^,?riTf* ^^*^^**«d by pilgrrims, and speaks 
of hamg l)een ttca^^^^^^ °°*^^®*^ *«> renew it. Down to the time 
of CUteaTi\)Tiaiid (^iBOoj, tne old tradition was kept up that the 
^Jamns of this cliapel shed teara. 

Thirteen mdie steps descend to what ia properly the Chapel of 
(heRttding of the Oro%s C^l- 35); by the last three steps the natural 
roci makes its appeaiaa^^e. The (modem) chapel, which is really 
a cavein in the jock, is ahont24 ft. long, nearly as w^ide, and 16 ft. 
high, and the floor is paved with stone. On its TV. and S. sides 
are stone ledges. The place to the right helongrs *<> *^e Greeks, 
and here is a marble slab in which a cross is beautifully inserted. 
On the left the Latins possess an altar , which was presented by 
Archduke Ferdinand Max of Austria. The chamber being dark, a taper 
(1 piastre) should be brought to light it. A bronze statue of the 
Empress Helena of life-size represents her holding the cross. The 
pedestal is of the colour of the rock and rests oin a foundation of 
green serpentine. On the wall at the back is a I-atin inscription 
with the name of the founder. Mass was said here for the first time 
in 1857. 

To visit Golgotha, or Aft. Calvary (PI. 36), we remount the 
stairs, turn to the left, and walk round the Greek cboir to the S., 
whence a passage ascends to Golgotha. The pavement of these 
chapels lies 141/2 f*- a^o^© *^e level of the Church oir the Sep- 
ulchre. It Is, however, not yet ascertained whether thxs eminence 
consists of natural rock; judging from the subfitruotions, one would 
rather infer the contrary. Nor is any 'Mil' mentioned here tiU the 
time of the pilgrim of Bordeaux, after which there is a long silence 
on the subject. The spot which was supposed to be JMt. Ualvary 
(perhaps the same as that which now bears the namej ^J^ enclosed 
in Constantine's basilica; subsequently, in the 7th cent., a special 
chapel was erected over the holy spot, which, ^%^^V^^l' ^*s 
afterwards alleged to be the scene of Abraham's trial ^""JJ^.^^^^P- 
p. 63). At the time of the Crusaders the place , "^^^Vzl,^^^^^ 
its height, was taken into the aisle of the church, "^^i??®^*^® 
of 1808, the chapels were enlarged, and the more ®*^*^^^"^Vir^ 
entrances of the church, mentioned at p. 64, was ^^^%^J;., ^J^ * 
staircase from vnthin. The first chapel on the N., the ^'^^^^^ 7/ 
Raiiingofthe Cross (PI. 36), is separated from the ^^^^^^^aAj'Z^ 
pillars only. It belongs to the Greeks, and is 42ft. long »n^ /2 «. 
wide. In the E. apse (PL 37) is shown an opening ^^^^^ V The si^ 
where the cross is said to have been inserted in the ^^^'^j^^ altar^ 
ef the crosses of the thieves is shown in the comers o 

72 Boutc^' JERUSALEM. Ch. of the Sepulchre, 

space, each 5 ft. distant from the cross of Christ (doubtless mwoh 

too ueaT^- They are first mentioned in the middle ages. StiU more 

xeoent is the tradition that the cross of the penitent thief stood to 

the right (N.)* Ahout 41/2 ft, from tha cross of Christ is the famous 

Cleft in the Rock (St. Matthew xxvii. 61), now covered with a brass 

slide, under which is a grating of the same metal. When the slab 

is pushed aside, a cleft of about 6 inches in depth only is seen, the 

character of the rock being not easily distinguished (it is not marble). 

A deeper chasm in rock of a different colour was formerly shown. 

The cleft is said to reach to the centre of the earth I — The chapel 

is sumptuously embellished with paintings and valuable mosaics. 

Behind the chapel is the refectory of the Greeks. 

The adjoining chapel on the S. (PI. 38) belongs to the Latins, 
as does the altar of the 'Stabat' between the two chapels (13th sta- 
tion: the spot where Mary received the body of Christ on its being 
taken down from the cross). The chapel is fitted up in a much 
simpler style. Christ is said to have been nailed to the cross here. 
The spot is indicated by pieces of marble let into the pavement, 
and an altar-painting represents the scene. To the Latins also 
belongs the Chapel of 8t, Mary, or Chapel of the Agony (PI- 39)? 
situated farther S., to which another staircase ascends outside the 
portal of the church. It is only 13 ft. long and 91/2 ft- ^^i*®' ^^^ ^i 
richly decorated. The altar-piece represents Christ on the knees of 
his mother. Visitors may look into this chapel through a grating 
from Mt. Calvary. 

We again descend the stairs. Beneath the chapel of the nailing 
to the cross (PI. 38) lies the office of the Greek priests, and towards 
the N., under the chapel of the raising of the cross, the so-called 
Chapel ofAdanij belonging to the Greeks. The chapel is not very 
old. A tradition, which was doubted at an early period, relates that 
Adam was buried here, that the blood of Christ flowed through the 
cleft in the rook on to his head, and that he was thus restored to 
life. It is also maintained that it is in consequence of this tradition 
that a skull is usually represented below the cross. The Orientol 
church places Melchizedek's tomb here. Eastwards, and a little to 
the right of the altar, behind a small brass door» * ^P^^* ^^ *^® ^^^ 
is shown which corresponds with the one in tli® chapel above. Be- 
fore reaching the W. door of the chapel we observe, on the righ* 
and left, stone ledges with projecting slabs coveie^^^*^ ^^^^^ ^^^' 
When the Greeks took possession of these nh^V^^ ^^ 1808^ they 
removed the monuments of the Frank kinffa ^^ Jerusalem whion 
tiiey found here, though uninjured by the «««• "^^^ ***™^* ^T 
*t that period outside the chapel, whioh w^o t%^^ enlarged and the 
entrance from the space in front of the c^! wjl^ ^^ *^^ Sepulchre 
Called up. On the ledge to the left was th 'r-^*^^**^'^^ °^ '''^ 
rfe Bouillon ; the inscription, the import of ^ tTi^^ ^® ^^^^' ""** ^v* 
^ triangular prism which rested on four short C^l^^^^* Tothensw 

^■A- o/'M(«(jMiW«. JEBU8ALEM. i. BouU. 73 

bi^lnldl'Sr""'"; """"""I "/• S««"l» '. The,, 

«ih I ^™ . "'"■ "■■• «""«»" •■! muiJ .Hen, »1.1, 

?>««., ,1, r'" "" "■•"■■ ''»" "Mialni .IW 

In fomw r ""*'* Parformed at Eome, ^^ 

Latina used Jo w™.^'f'iS°'"''? during ths regime of the Crusade™, the 
Palm and oiiVLITrV ~'*™*'*» <"ins in the interior of the cboreh unly, 
thiB da, the LmC sMd'?o"GB"'",7*atm"b ""h"* """'""■ "* '" 
;n.^d.T°°hrLSi^''celet™i=\*.™H'""''* ™V"^ 'hV'pe''ople. On Hory 
ibe Gbspel of the SepalchrB. tsta,„M^S^^\ J?,..":- . '",?™.'i'',™ """^ 

et, bul Iheir 

- The Gre 

„ f. "^" "»'« * a™n>r practice. One of the mnal 
IS ine JMsl lea miracle of the Bulr "-- ■- -'■■-'• 

lanEriea, "w"bi 

the 9tli'cenfo^"'Khlitf'D?w''™^ ''^ "■* "'""' Bernhard as early u 

the pilests br'ain.. '.*l " "" "" ^"^ ""^ '"of. Large snmi ire paid to 
»t tSo sacred iw "* *llii*efl in h" th« flp.i in li.hi ih^i. t...... 

on Good Fridaj. Th""crJ'^? ''"™ 

night ii 

'/r^ arcade >», cO**^ fp- bi)- 
S^^« several (ir.*^ LP 

,f the 

74 Route 4. JERUSALEM. AhyssmUm Monastery. 

Our path across the roofs of aucieut vaults turns to the N. and 
leads through a passage, beyond whioh ytq descend to the ground. 
Where the route turns to the W., a court is seen to the right, where 
the dwellings of poor Latins are situated (called Ddr Jshdk Beg^ 
here water is drawn from the cistern of St. Helena, see below). Near 
the end of the cul de sac we reach a column (right) and three doors, 
whence we obtain a view of the church from the £. 

Through the door to the left we enter the court of the AbjBsinian 
Konasterjy in the centre of which rises a dome. Through this we 
look down into the chapel of St. Helena (p. 70). Around the court 
are several dwellings, but most of the members of the Abyssinian 
colony live in the miserable huts in the S.E. part of the court. 
Abyssinian monks read their Ethiopian prayers here, and point out, 
over the chapel of the finding of the cross, an olive-tree, of no great 
age, where Abraham found the goat entangled which he sacrificed 
instead of Isaac (that event having, as they say, taken place here). 
In the background, a wall of the former refectory of the canons' 
residence becomes visible here. The Abyssinians also show visitors 
their special chapel (PI. 40), which, however, is of modem origin. 
A passage leads thence to the quadrangle of the Church of the 
Sepulchre (p. 64). The good-natured Abyssinians lead a most 
wretched life, and are more worthy of a donation than many of the 
other claimants. 

Leaving the court of the Abyssinians, we have on our left the 
second of the above mentioned doors, a large iron portal whioh leads 
to the much handsomer Konastexy of the Copts (D^ es^Stdldn), It 
has been partially restored and is fitted up in the European style as 
an episcopal residence, and contains a number of cells for the accom- 
modation of pilgrims. The church, the foundations of whioh are old, 
is so arranged that the small congregation is placed on each side of 
the altar, which is enclosed by a railing. The porter of the mon- 
astery keeps the key of the Cistern of 8t, Helena, A winding stair- 
case of 43 steps, some of which are in a bad condition, descends to 
the cistern. To the left, in descending, we observe an opening in 
the rock, by which a similar staircase, now walled up, descends 
from the N. ; at the bottom is a handsome balustrade hewn in the 
rock. It is difficult to make out the full extent of the sheet of 
water; its depth varies at different times. The whole reservoir is 
obviously hewn in the rock. Water is drawn hence for the use of 
the Latin poor-house, but its quality is not good. The cistern per- 
haps dates from a still earlier period than that of Constantine. The 
earliest of the pilgrims speaks of cisterns in this locality, probably 
meaning the one we are now visiting. (Fee for one person 3 pi., for a 
party 6 pi. or more.) 

Walks within the City. 

I. The HtLrist&n. The street running to the E. from the quadrangle 
of the Church of the Sepulchre leads after a few paces to a handsome 

'^**'' JEBDSALEM. i. Route. 75 

'onnstIiei''l'**^'"' ^nnnonntBd with the PniBsUn o»gle, which 
V*" "' rtout ,'™ *" *<' Mflrletiii. The whole building ooyew au 
"■e E. half- J"*^' fr<"o E- to W., aud lol yds. from N. to 8  

**'« rteit Of /k'S™*"'*^ 1')'*''8 Bullan to PrnBsi. on the ooouion of 
-u ='«osr *''"'*n-Prince of Prussia to Constantinople In 1869. 

mat men delermined to "'™" ' ■«» bi»och of 

76 Routed. JERUSALEM. MUmtdn. 

by 124 coltuns and 54 pillars. The hospice extended as far as the David 
Street, where there are still a number of pointed arcades of that period, 
once used as shops and warehouses. In 1187, the Knights of St. John left 
Jerusalem, and upwards of a century later they settled in Rhodes. Con- 
nected with the establishment of these knights at Jerusalem there was 
also a nunnery, called St. Mary the OrecUer^ which lay to the £. of the 
hospice of St. John. The buildings which we now find here date from 
1130-1140, and belong to the former church and monastery of Maria La- 
tina. The principal entrance faced the N., and the nunnery lay behind 
the church. When SaJadin captured Jerusalem in 1187, he lodged in the 
'Hospitar, and the property of the Hospitallers was granted as an en- 
dowment (loakf) to the mosque of 'Omar. In 1216 Shihabeddin, nephew 
of Saladin, converted the hospital-church, which lay opposite the Church 
of the Sepulchre, into a hospital, Arab. MUritidn, a name which, therefore, 
properly applies to one part only of this pile of buildings. Adjacent to 
it, t^e same prince built the mosque of Kubbet ed-Dergdh^ the site of which 
is now occupied by the mosque of Sidnd ^Omar. The hospice, which the 
Muslims allowed still to subsist, was capable of accommodating upwards 
of a thousand persons. The management of the foundation was committed 
to the El-'Alemi family, who, as was usual in such cases, were prohibited 
from alienating the ground until it should become a mere wilderness. 
The buildings were therefore sufi'ered to fall to decay. The lofty square 
minaret of the mosque of Sidna 'Omar^ opposite the clock-tower of the 
Church of the Sepulchre, was erected m 1417. The whole of these build- 
ings are rapidly falling to ruin. Adjoining them on the E. is the small 
Greek Monastery of Oeifuemane (PI. 65), where the residence of the grand 
master was formerly situated. On the W. side of the area is the Bath of 
the Patriarch (p. 81), and in the S.W. corner the Greek Monastery of John 
the Baptist (p. 81), DSr Mdr Hanna^ a name which is sometimes given to the 
entire Mdristan. The central remaining space is still of considerable extent. 

The porter keeps the key of the Miiilstan. The outside of the 
Entrance Portal is worthy of inspection. It consists of a large round 
arch comprising two smaller arches, which are no longer extant. 
The spandril over the two arches was formerly adorned with a relief, 
the greater part of which is now gone. These arches rest on one side 
on a central pillar, and on the other on an entablature reaching 
from the small side columns of the portal. The larger arch above 
rests on a buttress adjoining the portal. Around the whole arch, 
however, runs a broad frieze enriched with sculptures, representing 
the months. 

January, on the left, has disappeared; 'Feb\ a man pruning a tree; 
^Ma'*, indistinct', *Aprilis% a sitting figure; ^Majus". a man kneding and 
cultivating the ground; (Ju)*nius% mutilated; (Ju)Mius , a reaper; 'Augustus'*, 
a thresher i (Sj'eptenXber), a grape -gatherer; (Octob)'er\ a man with a 
cask, above whom there is apparently a scorpion; (November), a woman 
standing upright, with her hand in her apron, probably the symbol of 
repose. Above, between June and July, is the sun (with the superscrip- 
tion 'sol'), represented by a half-figure holding a disc over its head. Ad- 
jacent is the moon ('luna*), a female figure with a crescent. The cornice 
above these figures is adorned with medallions representing leaves, grif- 
fins, etc. The style of the whole reminds the spectator of the European 
art of the 12th century. — Adjoining the portal to the left is a fine window 
in the same style, half of which is in good preservation. 

Of the Church the greater part has disappeared, with the exception 
of the foundation walls and the three apses towards the E., of which 
the S. is perfect. The bases of the^ooupled columns in the interior 
of the church and the abutments of several arches are yisible » as 

and aisles, *iih a pl*^^, *Jirt *«e i^***ljw„ *»tfow, , ' "^^laSr. 77 

adjacent. The rtairoa^l^o..? tie ^ *ft« ^*^V T '"'Ae . 
window, d.tet„mtl^« %^^'»» l)«*.*»*e„«°*«tV '"^rf&r*?""' »»// 
a side of the jarttaUy ^'f^e'Voi'^ffod ^'ojf »*i^« *»<* Cl";^'* »«'" 
hai. been flttedup *s » ^^W/'^'-fer*^**^,!^ -^tt ^'^''^«"«» 
quadrangle in two stories 1« eoc)''' ^^^^ ** ^&' '"AoC^!!"? "* 
piUars, and sunounds » «<J«a,e n "^'^ «^^ ^^«' ^ »'«2^1 */ 
teresting fragments of n.*r6ie 2,°P«« oo^^* «^r^' a^,"^»- 

18 a large spaoe, now fteed W"'?""- ^^^^^'^ '^nuZ '^^'""•'" 
which formerly covered it tu *«»*e nT "** and T-J" »<""« in- 

enlarged. The hoCno^^^** Pl*te.a ^^«« 'e«.o^ed' f ^f * '^*'«P' 

ed here. Sereial verv /'**"'««We htl^®' 'oftiiy,b " *^?**'*«"">' 
been brought to lig^ ^^^k*""* ««e1y'^:*:?» J^^yt^tn^^"^^" 
low the level of fhe'* J^^ "l^^f -^tlT^i'^f^ ""t^^ h^aTX 
into these ''At several po?nt "" " ^"^ V^ls be- 

Opposite the Mftristin 1, . I'°lnt8 the visitor can see 

of its erection, the bnildew . "^^ *'*»«ta« w 

wall with a gate which xalZ ^^ '^Pon th« '^^^ '"^ t^e cottt«e 

'second wall' (comp. r, o^?" J^^oritieg Jl. '•'a»»na of aii ancient 

II. From the £to',i ^'^-^Vwo^^v '/ l>eloivKl..g «> *« 

h^it'r:i?erfl' T^^^-e,^ar^t°' ^-"^^^^^ ^^X 

w?*K^ C^o' tl-e chBTch of St S^^^^ lions hewTv V« ««>^«' 

-1^ A^^jetr^^ --ife;- Pi^,-«^->^. ^.*- - 

?.hcen't., .cCch'&:i"?iS;««e Prote^So^ 0°/^** "^"^^^^ %^-^JH^' 

was presented to the French? ia«2^*^°- »<^oes3 to it ^?5_ ^*^ ^^< 
m memory of SaJadinnfo^^^J^?^,- T?^ -A.^stT?s s^tiU <^^* ^^^m^ ^^ <^ 
buUdingfl siDce the time of tS*J?"** alterations liave ^* 
the church. "^ ^' the Crusaders. Tt».e nixaiietrJ^ 

T7»« T«o,-« -.«x_ 

The main entrance *n #1. ^ -^ -r^ 

pointed portals, Jeadin • chnrcli oxx ±la.& AV, sid» ^ 
bnilding is 40 vdfi i^^^^^Oa corresx>oxi<aiiig nave ^ 
>eing9yds. The n^?^ *""* ^^'/^ ^'^®- wide, the ^^ 
which bear four n/.,-n*/°^ "®^®« *^^ forrrxecl bytv«^^ 
""' pointed arches, ^2 rt. In lieight, ^^ 


78 Route i. 

Via Poima. 

^1^^;.J ir^^\v'^^ ^^^^^l t^B tr!^^'*ercad with small pointed 
^^^r^'^ TJ^""^^^^^ ""^ ^^;,>ept rises a tapering dome, 
^^IvtoLT ^ '^.^^^^ '^^5^^^ ^y *^^ TK^^^- Tie apses are externally 
^iJdo^s \ 'T\^* within. ^ke principal apse has three 
wMchtL!;^ T^ ""^ ^^^ <>**^®^« ^"^- The tiroes of old frescoes 
A flight of 0?+ ^^^^® <ioiitained ^exe obliterated on its restoration, 
almost entirelv^^® ^^ *^® ^•^' corner descends to a crypt, ip^hioh is 
second of which ^^^ ^^ *^^ ^^^^' ^^^ consists of two parts, the 
^th altars and '^^^^^^®® * oistern. This was formerly a sanctuary 
St. Anne and the k-^ ®^^* ^^ tradition to have been the dwelling of 
traces of ancient .*^Pl*ce of the Virgin. Explorers have discovered 
is interesting as ^^*^^**^g8 here. Before quitting the church, which 
the visitor shoulri^®^ Preserved structure of the Crusaders' period, 
f isle, in order to ^*^®® ^^^ » moment before a low door in the S. 
IS supported rpj^ examine the curious corbels by which the lintel 
some authorities ^ ?^^^ ^f ^ethesda has recently been plac^^ by 
We now retm^^® ^•^- o^ the chiwoh of St. Anne (see p. OS), 
towards the M^ 2^ *o the Tartk Bdb Sitti Maryam street, proceed 
to the Bdb Botia^^ ®^^^ P^'ss a cross-street which leads to the left 
Here, at the poi^t^i *^® ?aram and to the right into a small bazaar, 
^•elics of ancient huTI^?^® *^® »*reet is vaulted over, we observe some 
cient fortress AntonV'r''^^ (traditionally said to be part of the an- 
formerly used as a - t^' hehind a small MusUm cemetery is a hall 
was found. Soon l^^^^' ^^^, too, the stele mentioned on p. dj 
Scourging (Pj. 3^^ .^^.^^-ards, we observe the smaU Chapel of the 
a Franciscan, in thT *^® «ght. Yisitors knock, and are admitted by 
scourging has been ?''^'^® of the last few centuries, the place of the 
been first pointed on/?^"^" in different parts of the city, having 
present site was I"' *^e so-called hoiwe of Pilate. In 1838, the 
and in 1839 the nZ'^''^^^ *o the Franciscans by Ibrahtm Pasha, 
^uke Maximilian nf^^^^P®! ^as erected vi^ith funds presented by 
the column of the « ^^^^^ia- Below the altar is a hole in which 
rf, ^ ^ew paces fl^^'^^^'^S is said to have stood (p. 68). 
discovered, j^ /^.^ ^ ^ are -tlie relics of a small church recently 
^ere begins the V- ^^ ^* C^O is the entrance to the barracks, and 
^hiGh Christ is «;-^* dolorosa, or 'street of pain', the route by 
2^nt barracks fpi ].^ ^*^® l>orne his cross to Golgotha. The pre- 
^^tOJiia, are sail? ^' occupying the site of the ancient castle of 
^^ tori urn th*» • ^ stand, on the ground once occupied by the 

«o>^ A^ earjy aath??*^®^^® ^^ I^ilate. 

Oo^e-where near fL 5 ^ent., the supposed site of that edifice was shown 

j^^c^^pied by the hi „®,.^'** el-JS:attAr^€n, Cp. 56), and in the 6th cent., it wa' 

K^^Xttxe, it ^as in^JS l*^* o^ 45t;*SopIiia. At the beginning of the Frank 

*hL tJbe W. hiji in ,?<^*^ely felt tliat the preetorium should be sought for 

Si:jJ^ Oruaaders* DaH..5® ^Pl^^^ part of the town, hut towards the end ol 

^© * vrhere ,•{ is „ ''' *hat lioly place was removed by tradition to the 

^^sion tran*fprri!?^ revered. The so-called holy steps were on that 

•*crrea to the cln»i-cli of S. Giovanni in Laterano at Eomc 

ViaDobTosa. JBRUSALBM. ^^ Xo^te. 79 

mt dimtion oi \he Via r>oloT08», it need *»*i;JJy^]?e«/®'*»*«*:«<i We„«.^ 
Bot ex^SKtiSl ^xitil the leth century. ^'* I>€>laros» i. 

The tiaditional Stree* of Pain, or Way o/" M« Cross, first follows 
the street Tortfc Bab SitU Maryam (p. to) westwards, Tlie Foirii- 
TBBN Stations we indicated by tablets. The first is tlie cAapel 
in the Turkish barrackfi already mentioned j the s^cor^, where 
the 01088 was kid upon Christ, is below the steps SLSceixding to the 
barracks. We next observe a large and handsome buildingr on the 
right. This is the institution of the Sisters of Ziorh Q^l. 82). An 
arch crosses the street here, called the Ecce Homo Arch, or Arch of 
PHattj marking the spot where the Roman governor is said to have 
uttered the words: 'Behold the man I' (St. John, xix. 5). The arch, 
which has been shown since the 15th century, is pTOt>at>ly a Roman 
triumphal arch, hut has been frequently remodelled. The arch ad- 
joining it on the N. now forms the choir of the Church of the Sisters 
of Zion. This church is partly built into the rock. Tlie interior is 
simple; the capitals of the columns are gilded. The vanlts under the 
church are open on certain days only. Under the convent have been 
discovered several deep rocky passages and vaults running in the 
direction of the Haram. — Opposite the church, on the left side of the 
street, is situated a small mosque and a monastery of Indian der- 
vishesj in the outer wall of the monastery is a niche, said to be con- 
nected with the Virgin Mary. 

We may now descend the valley to the point where the road is 
joined by that from the Damascus Gate, and here we see the remain- 
ing part of the depression of what was formerly the Tyropoeon valley 
(p. 25). To the right is situated the Austrian Pilgrime Hotpice. 
Opposite, on the left, is the Hospice of the United Armenians. Near 
it is a broken column, forming the third station , near which 
Christ is said to have sunk under the weight of the cross (an event 
formerly assigned to a different place). THe Via I>olorosa runs hence 
a little to the S. To the N. adioining i^e Armenian Hospice, is 
the Latin church of Notre iia2T%cunnc, -^^^ -^^^A^lSt 
floor; to the right, about halfway, before a l*"^„^^^^;^f ' n^ttj^ 
E.), is situated the traditiona/^ouse of ^^^J'^'^Z^tIq^^^ 
beyond which, opposite this lane, is ther-9t*rtftsteUon w^^^^^^^ 

nght the Via Dolorosa again turns to tUe w., » ,, , "^ Qn thft 
?brtfc e^AMm or route of suifering, VroV^ll^^Xnte X^^ 
orner to the left is shown the ploturesa^^ m^^^^^^,^ ^^^ 15ti, cent. 
(the rich man), of which there is no i^^f *\^g and possesses a small 
Ihe house is built of stones of various coioiax ^^^^^ ^^ Cyreue took 
halcony. Here is the fifth station, wliere o^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 
the cross from Christ. A stone built ^'^^ ^j^ caused by the hand 
left has a depression in it, said to have o ^^^ ^qq paces, and, 
of Christ. We now ascend the street for 

80 Route 4, JERUSALEM. Christian Street. 

near an archway, we come to the sixth station. To the left s the 
House (and Tomb) of St. Veronica (chapel of the United Greeks}. She 
is said to have wiped off the sweat from the Saviour's brow at this 
spot, whereupon his image remained imprinted on her handkerchief. 
Before passing through the vaulting into the Suk es-Sem'dni^ we 
see to the left a house against which Christ is said to have leaned, 
or near which he fell a second time. Where the street crosses the lane 
from the Damascus Gate is the seventh station, called the Porta Ju- 
diciariaj through which Christ is said to have left the town. Close 
by is a modern chapel containing an ancient column, said to be con- 
nected with the Gate of Justice. Passing the entrance of the Hos- 
pice of St. John, we observe about thirty paces farther a hole in 
a stone of the Greek monastery of St. Caralombos (PI. 61) to the 
left. This is the eighth station, where Christ is said to have ad- 
dressed the women who accompanied him. The Via Dolorosa ends 
here. In former times it probably continued further southwards. 
The ninth station is in front of the Coptic monastery (p. 74), 
where Christ is said to have again sunk under the weight of the 
cross (which was really borne by Simon of Cyrene). The five last 
stations are in the Church of the Sepulchre : the tenth is by a ring 
of stone in the pavement of the Golgotha chapel of the La- 
tins (p. 72), where Christ is said to have been undressed; the ele- 
venth, where he was nailed to the cross, is in front of the altar 
(p. 72); the twelfth, that of the raising of the cross, is in the ad- 
jacent Greek chapel of that name (p. 71); the thirteenth, where he 
was taken down from the cross, is at an altar between the 11th and 
12th stations; and, lastly, the fourteenth is by the Holy Sepulchre 
(p. 66). — The various records of pilgrimages show that the spots 
to which these traditions attach have frequently been changed. 

III. Christian Street, Old Bazaar, Jewisli Quarter. — Leaving 
the Church of the Sepulchre, and ascending the steps towards the 
W., we pass under a vaulting into the so-called Street of the ChTiB- 
tians (^Hdret en-Nasdra; PI. D, 3, 4), one of the principal bazaar- 
streets of Jerusalem. The shops here are somewhat more in the Eu- 
ropean style than in the other streets. This is the favourite resort of 
the pilgrims. On the W. side of the street is the Greek Honastery 
(PI. 57), called Dir er-RUm eUKebir, the 'great' monastery or Patri- 
archeion, a building of considerable extent, entered from the Hdret 
Dtr er-Rdm on the N. side. It is a wealthy foundation and an inter- 
esting example of Jerusalem architecture, and is first mentioned in 
1400 as the monastery of St. Thecla. Since 1845, it has been the 
residence of the Greek patriarch. It contains three churches. The 
principal church is that of St. Thecla, which is unfortunately over- 
laden with decoration. To the E. of it are the churches of Constan- 
tino and Helena, contiguous to the Church of the Sepulchre. The 
monastery also accommodates travellers. It is famed for its valuable 
library and fine MSS. 

Bamr. JEBtJSALEM. *. Soute. 81 

Almt lalfway down tlie Chrfetfsn Street, there Is a large Ara- 
.Ta, .!? *^« ri8l>t. whence ^re obtain the best survey of the eo- 
Zi!: J^«'''«'<aa (PI. I>, 41. By the side of theeaKisabeer- 
^rii!,?* P""* *» an artiflofal reserrofr, 80 yds- lo"? (N. to S.) 
tSti, ™ «• ^*«- The bottom, irhloh is rocky» »"iS'!I'' '"^"^^ 
cTntiTw "**»•«' "<« 10 «• beloTT thelevol of the Christian St«»t. 
1," f;J- «ide, part of the rook J,; been removed, In order that a 

51 wTJ"* ''•* '>****»'^- In summer *^%XlnZtT'' 

^'}y> 'SaToz-^A/toiv ^pr'^'l^^t the S.E. end of tSI 
Cknstian StreAt wil /iJ»riar«A (pj. 34> »' . patriarch's bath' 

wled 05p«c JWAifPi -kV TMyi** '^^ formerly extended farther 

Wof ^^^^''•' ft-™" the corf t: ' t »8 ^« «?*^^Tht Sl^ 

& *<"» S. to Hn/T^ter;*^. consisting <'^*^^r»nsverse lanes. 

Sri!"!" colonnades "conpl?^'*«d ^^ «^^f "to^n. ■»'^* T^''^ 
of ..»■■• ^ *<"« of Cairo and ^^^^ Centre of *&« *lse»t «" J**'"^f 

fe^^lolesaletrad^ worthy of!.* Possesses neitb/^^^oordin^ly bnt 
»» laiXe khJns here- the Ur. "'^'ition There »'%f of the hazaar. 

tte L^i^'ongaC of th Th* '« ^^'^^^ *« *r 5^*'f T.^IU 

„ l^- Cmh. «* « .. ®)' none of •<^*'* ^^ _olnt where 

> ^^<^Zl ??"**^' <at»art «.«,lo **' t e Vow the 

>f irestTar^^f!* joins the Da;fl'«*«- r ^^^o^^^' opposite the 

82 Route 4. JEKUSALB:^ .. ciladd, 

A road along the B. side of the ba^*^^ leads past the Greek Hos- 
pital, on the left (PI. 47), to the Casa J^'^ovc. 

The road to the W fiom the Bazaar i^^^s to the Latin Patriarchate 
(PI. 91). The chxuch was ^mlt from th^ designs of the Patiiaich 
Valerga (p. 35) and, with the suirounding; corridors, is worthy ol 
inspection. The patriarchate contains an exteasiye library. — On the 
territory of the patriarchate, in the N.W. corner of the city, tJ^e "^^^^th- 
ren of the school have erected, a large school, the roof of which 
affords a fine ^iew. In the interior of this building are still seen 
the remains of the so-caUed Castle of Goliath iKaer Jciliid, PI. oZ), 
The oldest relics of the castle consist (in the S. part) of the sub- 
struction of a massive square tower (perhaps the ^Psephinus' of JO- 
sephus) ; foui courses of large smooth-hewn stones are still recog- 
nisable. The centre of the building is occupied by four large pillars 
of huge drafted blocks. — Passing along the wall of the groimd ot 
the school-brethren, we come to the Bab 'AhdmU-Haniid, opened 
in 1889. ^ ^ . ,, 

Opposite the Y^fa Gate rises the Citadel, oi 'Castle of Davia 
(Arab. el-KaVa; PI. Q, 5). The citadel (no admission ; not very 
interesting) consists of an irregular group of towers, originally sur- 
rounded by a moat, the greater part of which is still Pfeserveo. 
The substructions of the towers consist of a thick wall rising at an 
angle of about 45« from the Dottom of the moat, which last is now 
filled with rubbish. The oliief tower is on the N.E. side. Up to 
a height of 39 ft., reckoning from the bottom of the moat, the ^ 
oury consists of large drafted blocks, with rough surfaces. The lorm 
of these stones, as compared ^ith those which have ^^^^^i^^^^f^^^^^ 
up, indicate that these foundations are ancient. I^\,^°'Sl^L^i tW 
the building answers the description given us of tte 'Fhasacl Jower 
(p. 26) by Josephus. His statement that large ^^^f ioTlL^^every 
also correct. He further says that the buUding measnied 40 ells in every 
direction. Leaving out of account the present superstructure, ix y • 
high, and reckoning in the 3 (?) courses of stones Ridden in m 
gr^uAd, the present tower is b yds. high; 1 VoturThe MocS 
yds. long, which approximately agrees with the ^^ t^l\,trlr\\oc\L 
are built up without mortar , m such a way tb^t J^^^^ant tAwer 
always lies crosswise on the lower. The v^hole of *^® ^^^^t^ ^I^^ 
is of massive construction Ce^cept a small passage -r'lwem * whose 
and the finest example of the aiicient wall-towers oi^^^^^^^l .^ „jiii 
substructures consisted of a solid cube of rock or ^*^^Vui,riftft this 
a reservoir for water in the interior of the tower. --' Wusalem was 
tower standing when he destroyed the city. Vf\^^^ t^J^l^A v,yen 
taken by the Franks, this castle was the la8tDla<5«> *^ w' ll^itinn 
at that period, it was 'called the 'Castle of CVd', ^^ent fort ^ 
that this monarch once had his palace hero. In it^ ^^ f^!t,^rfrom 
citadel dates from the beginning of the Uth, and i^ restoration from 
the 16th century. 



*"*■" Suburb. JERUSALEM. ■*- Bault. 83 

to the En* u "' '"i* """"e is CTri.t Chtireh (PI- 26; D, 6), balooging 

'•"Meid h ■'*"''*' "ission. To the S. is .n open apue »ith 

»flten fp, la"^ "^''''6 is the large g»rd»n of the ArniMUa Mon- 

ftmUBiij -ri ' ^' ^' ^J- The hill of tha patriMoh is snmptooiuilr 

to h»»e bl V '''"^''. dedicaWd to St. JamM the Qie»t, who U add 

*'>'l oontafT" ™''e»ded heia by Herod, is lined -mth poroeliia tilei, 

to see ySJ* '""" "fno 8«»' '•"'«■ ^'^ ""l ""orUly dUlike 

euieo oTtt ^*^ "o their owpeW with dost/ booW. The bewtitol 

"'ie"' iato .!.« '""•'«'«¥ ie seldom ahown. It oBbm m, lateiwittng 

or .f *■» * ^'"' "^ ° f the Cross see p. Hoi 

*6^i n,^ers W GiJ-O" *»%' the '»PPet pooj. (i„s^ 

"onsv .town. This resBr*" JosepHns, op to whioU 

rS ',im'- ^SS'lt^ri" '» '■""""• 111 oper.- 

J' Hint -■> '"' '"" ' t the end of the ,aiiey 

,nj'*»r,„-'l>. "W Is sitntitoi ntwrty j,„,U»i b.aU-„„„„d. 

>..t^^'"'tifc^*. i". tow 97 yds. loitS' •"r »""**" ^' "teps. " 

r^S; *o* «»»"•■" ""' "'i .„« t.r»»''"X,«.m Hot«srte tbe 
StSl*'? * r^ edl«... Wtt <M 5 .)>• "^ S.. -.11 l« re»l. 
,^>lt/'^p. >Xand Teliffrapfi\ »?"^nBl** '^^ .i.irtin» ik.. town- 

Garden on the tigbt, aud «tlve J^ ^^^ ^^^i, ^1;?!BylBm, t^« *^'^^^ 

Bide. The first bunding on t^^^^^^^gist's ^toi^J^e ptiestB and fe 
the excellent hospital mth the d^^fii^gs of the pn ^^^ ^^^^^ 
called Mission-house with the ^^^ ^ P^^8^^ ' tre of tlie oontt, 

axchimandrite, and rooms for ^.''^^^s I« *^*l N ofitt^«^*^ivt 
a large hnilding for female- pilgn^^;^^t, tfj^^^ decorated in the 

to the left, stands the handsome ^"7. .^g and ^^^^"t 5 p.m. ^^ *? 
for male pUgrims. The church is ^P^f^^^g place ^^^l;^J^ (40 ft. ^^ 
interior. Divine service generally ^ ^ gig*'^*^*;®;' •« the soil- ^ 
open space In front of the church uee^^ ^^^^^ ftoni ^^^ rj.^© 
5 ft.), cut out of the solid rock and xi« ^^^ gate in *»« • g erected 
We leave the Russian Buildings J^ iiospice for W^ ^ ^he Oer" 
Urge comer house on the left is the ne ^^^ ^ ^^e ^-^'^^^pjch (sef 
by the Buasian Palestine Society; ^VV^^l^^s to St. V^^J ^^,„g the T^- 
man /School. The road on the right le ^^^^^ j^^ds ns ^ ^^ad 

ahove). We take the road on the left, ^^.e li^^f* ^^^Slxidings ^^^^ 
wall of the Russian Buildings, hact ^^^^^ Russian ^^^ Bo8pi<^^' 
exactly opposite the N.W. corner ol (Jertnai* C^*^ ^ observe 

southwards to the large huUdings ^Vo\n the^af*^^*^! Lht, ^^f 
^1 an eminence, at a little distance tr«^ To *^® \*\pam8el, 

fiatishonne's ^^. Pete's School fot ^ K«miCl^»^^!*tVed M *^® 
nearer the Yafa road, rises the T<^**'*^ jl for V^^s ^^""^^TbnUding 
^say unto thee, Arise I'), an orphanage organieea ^^sh- 

^oni a hundred Ar»I> girls are ^^^^tldings, to^*^,*' * the to^» 
^ent at the back of *^e Rnsslan ^^^^^^Varther fto^^^^^^ 
SchnelZer's ^yrfen Or^T^cLT^agt fot hoys. ^^^^, of ne^ ^^^^tbe 

fe tie YtiU road, w« l^ave on the left ^ ^^late, 

^«ied Jewish colonies, oix the right the At« ^, v. Austrian 

^^^n hospital ^♦« the left l>y*:l/3«tiifl* 

^ fietumf4^^ the to^^ -^e take tl^e roadto t^^ j^^^, ,^eje^^^ 

^onsuiate. TbTs ro!it^:^^^ ^b P«1* '^L^^ t^« ^^"^^l tr^^'*^'* 

to t^'f '/' and the ne^ <«.,.^n Hoj>J^«^' ^on^eh b^^*«^^ ' all ^&r 

the left, we observe <.^« School of the ^^ehitect, f J^ 5,^*- 

the left, we observe <^^« ^^^"''L'lich the architect, ^J^ ^.th- 
«ere two roads irl^^"*^ - 

Zfon Su5ttrt. JJSRUSALEM- <• Rovtt. 85 

and 'J^- '*<'«' ""> '0»d from the Yifa G**? *l"t^5' SamwaQ,. 116), 
vnS,"* *'«»»«'' J'wish colonies, t^" 0»"'«f<»« «ate. 

86 Route 4. JERUSALEM. Gate of Zion, 

was also probably here. It was not till the 7tb cent, tbat tradition com- 
bined the scene of the Last Supper with tbat of the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost. The scene of the Virgin's death was also at a later period trans- 
ferred hither. In the time of the Franks, the church was called the Church 
of Zion^ or Church of St. Mary, The church of the Crusaders consisted of 
two stories. The lower had three apses, an altar on the spot where Mary 
died, and another on the spot where Jesus appeared 'in Galilee'. The 
washing of the apostles^ feet was also said to have taken place here, while 
the upper story was considered the scene of the Last Supper. Connected 
with the church of Zion there was an Augustinian abbey. In 1333 the 
Franciscans established themselves here, and from them the building received 
its present form. Attached to the monastery was a large hospital, erected 
in 1354 by a Florentine lady, and committed to the care of the brethren. 
To this day the superior of the Franciscans is called the 'Guardian of 
Mount Zion\ For centuries the Muslims did their utmost to gain pos- 
session of these buildings, and as early as 1479 they forbade pilgrims to 
visit the scene of the Descent of the Holy Ghost, as they themselves revered 
the tombs of David and Solomon on the same spot. In 1547 they at length 
succeeded in depriving the Franciscans of all their possessions, and for 
the next three centuries Christians had ^reat difficulty in obtaining access 
to the place. The Tomb of David formed one of the holy places in the 
church of Zion so far back as the Crusaders' period, and it is possible 
that ancient tombs still exist beneath the building^ what is now shown, 
however,' is hardly worth visiting. As David and his descendants were 
buried in 'the city of David' (1 Kings ii. 10, etc.), the e^-pression was 
once thought to mean Bethlehem, and their tombs were accordingly shown 
near that town from the 3rd to the 6th century. The evangelists, however, 
who were doubtless aware of the site of David's tomb, appear to place it 
in Jerusalem (Acts ii. 29t), where by this time Hyrcanns and Herod had 
robbed the tombs of all their precious contents. According to Nehemiah, 
iii. 16 and Ezekiel xliii. 7, We are justified in seeking for the tombs of 
the kings on the Temple mount, above the pool of Siloah. 

Approaching the town from this spot towards the N., we soon 
Teach a bifurcation of the road. The edifice forming the corner is 
the Armenian Monastery of Mount Zion^ or, according to the legend, 
the House of Caiaphas (PI. 55), called by the Arabs Habs el-Mesth, 
or prison of Christ. The tombs of the Armenian patriarchs of Jeru- 
salem in the quadrangle should he noticed. The small church 
has an altar containing the 'angel's stone', with which the holy 
sepulchre is said to have been closed, and which the pilgrims kiss. 
A door to the S. leads into a ohamher styled the prison of Christ. 
The spot where Peter denied Christ, and the court where the cock 
crew, are also shown. 

The 'angel's stone' is not heard of till the 14th cent., since which 
period it has been differently described and probably renewed. The legend 
as to the scene of the denial dates from the second half of the 15th cen- 
tury. The tradition regarding the house of Caiaphas also fluctuates. One 
author in 333 informs us tbat thQ house then stood between Siloah and 
Zion. The 'prison of Christ' was then for a time transferred by tradition 
to the prcetorium (p. 78), as perhaps the prsctorium of the Crusaders 
stood here. At the beginning of the 14th cent., the prison was shown in 
the church of the Redeemer, whore the house of Caiaphas was said to 
have stood; but since the beginning of the 15th cent., this spot has been 
permanently fixed upon as its site. The Armenians have lung possessed 
the place. 

A few paces to the N. we reach the Gate of Zion (Arab. Beth 

t 'Let me freely speak unto you of the patriarch David, that he is 
both dead and buried, and his sepulchre is with us unto this day.** 

TOMB OF THE VmariNr. 6, Houte. 87 

tn-l^ehy T>a,'€i,^5t^ gate of -the prophet DaYid;), is sl-tu^ted in a tower 
ofthe toj»^— v^ai.-\\. Accoxding to the inscrip-tioxi , It ^w^as built in 947 
^1540-41 J . i^ :Fkas a massive door in two wrings , mounted with iron. 
Ou the tox> o:ff' the battlements, we can exijoy a. fine view of the 
hills heyon.^ ^Jotdan. -—Within the gate w€> -t^Txi either to the left, 
pasttheATXTi^-j-^^j^^^^j^g^g^^^ ^p gg-j^ ^^ tlieY^:faL Qate, or to the right, 
as far as ^^ o^^^^n space -where the cattle TxiaTltet Is sometimes held, 
and thence -to -fcTie N. into the Jewish street atTid -the hazaarfp. 81). 

S. Environs of JerxLBalexn.. 

^.^ 1. The Mt. of Olivoa- 

?^%trx\^.a^^ the valldy of tbe Jordan a.T»a. tlie "E. mountains is finest 
J"* 1-^bt Of *?i^ ^MX Jerasalem (from «ie Moniat of Olives) is best seen in 
*K Jlrice, ^«~^ rising sun: the MU slioiaia tlxexef ore certainly be vis- 
ifed ^2\it ta.l^^^«^«^ly as an interesting iwallt to tlxe S. as well as to the 

♦he :0=^ ^^ from Jerusalem to Bethaxiy and Jencho.(p. 162) leads 

fro^ I^rt :^"*^*^«^scus Gate into the valley o^ -tlxe Kidron. We, how- 

e^^^'.fe* t:cf^^'^ &i.8itv}im'B Qate Cp- 7T) , outside of which we 

perc<^ «V ^^^ right (S.), the wall o^ t;lie Temple, with Muslim 

t»<i Po^i^^ Of it. Ascending a few paoes to the left we observe 

Bt^*%^^> Bl yds. long, 25 yds. -wldo, ^^^i^.V^'.^'^P'/" *^" 

otn"' « oi^^^^^^ are openings for tUe xeoeption of rain-water and 

e<'n a ^\. «^-^lxs. At a nichl in the S^- corner the water is dr^^^ 

of^^^^fit'tiiiS-^^^^^or the supply of the ^"^^^.''^^^^^^^^^^1?^'^' 
^^^^^^J^^'^y<^ra), whence the xeseirvoiir as called Birftet^im^ 

V- nt ^ ^^^^^ Of the constmctioTx P?^^^^ *J? * f^'? '^^ n^J 

aettv^ fe^^^^^xaps niedia^val origin- ^lie pond is sometimes called 

Vltet ^A--^«?>dlt, »Dra(7on Pool\ ax^a ^Jl^zekiahs Pool, names for 

^Vic^^^W^ Is-iioSiity Theroaa forms an angle to the N.E. ; 

T^e ioo^^«^^>x to ♦Tf/'v^-'o^i'^^ alia s-toTiy short-cut. At the point 

tU iVx. ^o^te^e^l^^^^^^^ tsl rooK -here the stoning o'f St. 

^oU^^^t tlxelvaUey ^Mc^^^ "^^ the ^;,p.r 6ncf,e. (For the 

^*^ \o the W^^'^f ''' P^ ^ilflloT^a tne t>ridge, is the chapel of the 
^omh Of the Virl *^' T^' ^ Joo^aixxS to the legend, she was inter- 
Ted hy the LTy ' ""^'t' ^i^ «^e™ ^«*^1 ^^^ 'assumption\ 

Tlie 8to4?tW^S' r^7i^-®£o«^dea liere by the Empress Helena is 

<4M\te tinfoundpS T* <^^^'ch vi^as ^^^^^^e^^t**'^®** *^** * church stood over 

t\ie tradUionski I , **' however, »» ce***"'^- This was destroyed by 

the Persians ,h„V*5? ^^'^^ *^ ^^^  a ' ctxTxrcli of Gethsemane' had agaiii 

spTtmg Tip. ^"^* 'Omar found t-*V^^^^ a. la-*®'^ period, the church consisted 

of an upDeT a«^ **'® informed t^»*» ^flXr T^® Crusaders found nothing but 

ruins here. Th« *^ ^dergronnd e*?f^iiilt py Milicent (d. 1161), daughter 

of Baldwin IT ^^'l^'ch was then- f ®^|^ ^ojou, fourth king of Jerusalem. 

At that perioH ♦1.*'*^ ^ife of Fiil*«^^ ^^tei-y in the vicinity. This church 

of the 12th op«?^'? ^8-8 also » *^2?hle preservation. It has frequently 

changed han<?r \ l^ "till in toler»o^ ^^^ Greeks, the Latins having a 

slight share in 'f^,^""* "o^ belongB to 

A flight of t P'^^Prietorsliip- ^iie spa<*^^ In front of the church 

S8 Route 5. TOMB OF THE VIRGIN. Environt 

The only pact ot the chiuuh above gcouud is a poich. The pilnci-- 
pal facade is an the 6. side, which is flanked by two flying bot- 
tcBEEea, and in the middle has a poctal with a beantital pointed 
arch, into whioh a wall with a small door has been built. The 
aiches test on foui macble colamns. A handsome flight oF 47 
maible etepe, which is luOTe than 19 ft. bioad at the top, dea- 
oeuds immediately within the portal to a depth of 35 ft. below 
the epace iu front of the chnrch. In descending we flret obsecve a 

1. Tomb of M&rjr'a Paieuti. 2. Jaaeph'a Tomb. 3. Ssrcaphagus ofllar;. 
10. Qrotto of the AEOoy. 

w»lled-up door to the right. Thia formerly led to a eavem, supposed 
to have been the acene of Oui Lord'e 'bloody sweat', oi peihapB to 
the tomb of Milicent, as the oil desciiptlons appear to Indicate. Then, 
about halfway down , there are two side chapels. That ou the right 
(PI. i') contains two altars and the tombs of Joachim and Anna, the 
parents of the Virgin. The tcansfarence of these tombs hither from 
the chuTch of St. Anne seems (o have taken place in the 15th 
cent., but the tradittona regarding them have ainoB been frequently 
varied. The chapel to the left (Fl. "i) contains an altar over the 
tomb of Joseph. There is also another vault to the left. The sub- 
terranean ohuroh is 31 yds. long, fcomJE. to W., and6'/aydB. wide. 
The E. wing, which is much longer than the W., has a window 
above. The church is lighted by nnmetous lamps, lu the centre 

"^Jenwoion. QEIHSEMANK. 5. Boule. 8? 

^ol'drocfc ."""II ^"Js. lung, ^Val'^f, ,."» genuine grotto in the 
S"-'''ltr. ' O.. '>te E., there .« .O" " „..onr,. Th. u,ern 
"™ ■PJ..,'?" bi' lelonging <• "• I-*" Tb= I"'"'" "■" -HI"!! 
"«!„.. .1.1 the grotto «» 


- .-inns, - jnj-iines oj ui"'*- i,„ ^^os " ° 
"■"PpLV'-. "'"■»•. 'I.' "■•''""°.„ ....,d..h.8.,„„ 

oi ,5* esM, :„ tallies "»Ve F»'"''In'i t^^ "eielibourliood 

'i'U.':-i'^>>§T/Z'££ "' "' rfOil..., tew.,.. 
1 '"•C ""o '« " "■""'•; .., trite W.j.nel.e.n", te whom 
?••>««?'>» ^,,*e" the elde nei« ^e F" [,hi,aooim..k. 

"•■nn" JT't.^ -4 reel immedletoiy :_,£!«•" ,,111 „„„ij, tn 

90 Routes. MOUNT OP OLIVES. Environs 

of which is ahout 70 paces. On the inside of the walls are pictures 
of the 14 stations. The garden contains eight venerable olive-trees, 
with trunks hurst from age and shored up with stones, which are 
said to date from the time of Christ. The monk who acts as guide 
presents the visitor with a houquet of roses, pinks, and other flowers, 
as a memento of the place, and expects 3-6 pi. for the maintenance 
of the garden. The olive-oil yielded hy the trees of the garden is 
sold at a high price, and rosaries are made from the olive-stones. 

Farther up the Mt. of Olives is the large Russian Church of St. 
Magdalene, built in very bad taste in the Russian style, with 7 taper- 
ing domes, erected in 1883 by the Russian Emperor and his brothers 
in memory of their mother. The pictures are worth seeing. Close 
by is a small Russian hospice, on the spot where Thomas is said to 
have stood. 

Three roads lead from the garden of Gethsemane to the Mt. of 
Olives, one of which starts from the S. E., and another from the N.E. 
corner, the latter soon again dividing. At this point, about thirty 
paces from the garden, there is situated, on the right, a light grey rock, 
which has been pointed out since the 14th cent, as the place where 
the Virgin on her assumption dropped her girdle into the hands of 
St. Thomas. The central path, which soon diverges to the right, Is 
the steepest. About halfway up, a ruin on the left has been shown 
since the 14th cent, as the spot where *when he was come near, 
he beheld the city, and wept over it' (Luke xix. 41). The spot 
commands a beautiful view of the city. Even the Muslims once re- 
garded the scene of the Weeping of Christ as holy, and a mosq^ue 
stood here in the 17th cent. ; but the building, which consisted 
of two quadrangular apartments, is now a deserted ruin. — The 
top of the Mt. of Olives is reached from Gethsemane in Yi ^^« 

The Mt. of Olives (Mom Oliveti, Arab. Jebel et-TUr), or Aft. of 
Light J aa it is sometimes called, runs parallel with the Temple 
hill, but is somewhat higher. It consists of several different 
strata of chalky limestone, over which there are newer formations 
at places. The Mt. of Olives, in its broadest sense, includes the Mt. 
of Offence (p. 99), to the S., and to the N. an eminence sometimes 
erroneously designated as Scopus. The Mt. of Olives proper is 
divided into four eminences by low depressions. The highest point, 
to the N. ('viri Galilaei', p. 96), is 2723 ft. above the sea-level. 
The slopes are cultivated, but the vegetation is not luxuriant. The 
principal trees are the olive, fig, and carob, and here and there a 
few apricot, almond, terebinth, and hawthorn trees. The paths are 
stony , and the afternoon sun very hot. — On the W. side of the 
two central summits lies Kefr et- Tur, which is mentioned for the 
first time in the 15th cent, and now consists of poor stone cottages, 
whose inhabitants are sometimes importunate. 

a. The Chapel of the Ascension. — Histobt. The tradition which 
makes the Mt. of Olives the scene of the Ascension is contradicted by the 

of Jerusalem. MOtJKT OF OLrvnES. 

5. Route. 91 

passage in 8t. Luke — 'be led tliem out as far as to Betbanj' (xxiv. SO); 
moreover, Ihe summit of the mount was at that period covered with build- 
ings. As early as 315, however, the top of this hill was pointed out as 
the scene of that event, and Constantine erected a basilica here, but with- 
out a roof. About the year 600, many monasteries stood on the mount. 
In tiie 7th cent., there was a i small round church here, which had been 
builtj by Modestus , but^ was destroyed in the 11th century. The Crus- 
aders are said to have erected 'only a small tower with columns, in the 
eeatre of a court paved with marble; and the principal altar stood on the 
rock within'. In 1130 a large church rose on this spot, having in the 
centre a broad depression marking the scene of the Ascension, below 
which was a chapel. After the time of Saladin we find the chapel en- 
closed by an oetaeonal wall. In the 16th cent., the church was completely 
destroyed. In 1617 the interior of the chapel was restored by the Mus- 
lims in the original style, and in 1831-35 the building was re-erected on 
the former ground-plan. 

The Chapel df the Ascension stands by the side of a monastery 
for dervishes, a former abbey of the Angustinian monks. A hand- 

a. Entrance. 

b. Paved Path. 

1. Chapel of the Ascension. 

2. Prayer Recess of the Ar- 


3. Recess of the Copts. 

4. Recess of the Syrians. 

5. Recess of the Greeks. 

6. Remains of Columns. 

7. Cisterns. 


some portal admits ns to a court, in the centre of which rises the 
chapel of irregular octagonal shape, 21 feet in diameter, over which 
rises a cylindrical drum with a dome. Over the corner pilasters 
once rose open pointed arches, but these are now built up. The 
capitals and bases of the columns are of white marble and have prob- 
ably been brought from older buildings. In an oblong marble en- 
closure is shown the impression of the right foot of Christ, turned 
southwards. Since the time of the Frankish domination, this foot- 
print has been so variously described, that it must have been fre- 
quently renewed since then. The chapel belongs to the Muslims, 
who also regard it as sacred, but Christians are permitted to cele- 
brate mass in it on certain days. 

In the S.W. comer of the monastery of the dervishes is a door 
leading to the Vault of St. Pelagia (Arab. Rdhibet Bint Hasan). The 
door opens into an anteroom, whence twelve steps descend to a 
tomb-chamber, now a Muslim place of prayer, and uninteresting. 

The Jews place here the tomb of the prophetess Huldah (2 Kings xxii. 
14), and the Christians the dwelling of St. Pelagia of Antioch, who did 

92 Route 5. MOUNT OF OLIVES. EnviroM 

penance here for her ^ns in the 5th cent., and wrought mira-cles even 
after her death. The tradition as to Pelagia dates from the Crusaders'* period. 

b. The BusBian Buildings, to the £. of the Tillage, are reached 
by goiug uoithwards fiom the Chapel of the Ascension and round 
the N. side of the village. In the garden, which is surrounded by 
a high wall, we first see a handsome church, erected after the design 
of the old church, the remains -of which were found here. To the 
left (N. W.) of it is a hospice for pilgrims ; to the N. of the church 
is the large, six-storied Belvedere Tower j from the platform of which 
(!il4 steps) we have a magnificent *Vibw (comp. the Panorama). 
Beyond the valley of the Kidron extends the spacious plateau of 
the Har^m esh-Shertf , where the dome of the rock and the Aksa 
mosque present a particularly imposing sight. The spectator 
should observe the direction taken by the Temple hill, th« higher 
site of the ancient Bezetha to the N. of the Temple, and the hollow 
of the Tyropoeon, which is plainly distinguishable, though now 
filled with rubbish, between the Temple hill and the upper part 
of the town. The dome-covered rgofs of the houses form a very 
peculiar characteristic of the town. Towards the N., beyond the 
olive-grove outside the Damascus Gate, is seen the upper (W.) 
course of the valley of the Kidron, decked with rich verdure in 
spring, beyond which rises the Scopus. — The view towards the E. 
is striking. Here, for the first time, we perceive that extraordinary 
and unique depression of the earth's surface which few travellers 
thoroughly realise. The blue waters of the Dead Sea, lying at the 
foot of the mountains which bound the E. horizon, and apparently 
not many hundred feet below us, are really no less than 3900 ft. 
below our present standpoint. The clearness of the atmosphere, too, 
is so deceptive, that the mysterious lake seems quite near, though it 
can only be reached after a seven hours' ride over barren , unin- 
habited ranges of hills. The blue mountains which rise beyond the 
deep chasm , reaching the same height as the Mt. of Olives , once 
belonged to the tribe of Reuben, and it is among these that Mt. Nebo 
must be sought for. To the extreme S. of that range, a small em- 
inence crowned by the village of Kerak is visible in clear weather. 
On the E. margin of the Dead Sea are seen two wide openings ; that 
to the S. is the valley of the river Arnon (M6jib) , and that to the 
N. the valley of the Zerka Ma'in. Farther N. rises the JebelJil'Hd 
(Gilead), once the possession of the tribe of Gad. Nearer to us lies 
the valley of Jordan (el-Gh6r) , the course of the river being indi- 
cated by a green line on a whitish ground. — Towards the S.E. we 
see the course of the valley of the Kidron, or ^valley of fire', to the 
left some of the houses of Bethany, the greater part of the village 
being, however, concealed by the hills; high up, beyond Bethany the 
village of Abu Dis. Quite near us rises the 'mountain of offence', 
beyond the Kidron that of 'evil counsel', and farther distant, to the 
S., is the summit of the 'Frank Mountain', or 'hill of Paradise', 

d • H i n n D.iB I OuTd"*' 

ofJtrwaUm. TOITB;^ 0:F- THE PROPHETS. 5. B<mtt 93 

with the t^Khte «' B«-«:l».x.ol»«iK* »nd Teko.h. To tha S W 

fringe of hilU which lt»o-r« Jf^rT ♦».« nlaln of Rn-iT . • ' **" *'•« 

Thte town Itoelf is coa^^^ ' ^*^J!^ ^1-^ hL ♦t*^*"^**""'"""- 

to tS;Jftomft."Sj^«« are S- of the ;vll,.age (Before we come 
fee V 96 *e central^' * road to Bethany branches off on the left, 
Tdley ^KWion.) To *^' the three roads on the right leads Into the 
Is ttl PUO^ ^heie tlxe >* 'igtt behind the entrance (on the W. side) 
The ttidttioniegwkl^^^sttes are s*id to have drawn up the Cr«d. 
been framed in ttxe J^« the creed , ^»^V"^„7« "»«« «»W *« have 

lltS cent., and in tlx^T?^. '^^ »**^^««h of R* m'',,'^"* *» **■« 
The low-lying Chufet ^^^h cent, a '<^^^T^}fJ\- ^"^ 'o^e here. 

now vaulted over, ^t« °'' «»« O**** ^% /^Z A„ ^^ I"* ^' " *" 
Xd ahove the\^* «<► that the roof Jorms a terrace only slightly 

^hloh once lH.retw^^"^«« of the ground, ^^l^f^des are niches 
are still pieserveX r^ "Wches, and »t the N. end two pointed arches 
to whom appUoM?" ^o the S Is the hotise of the superintendent, 
tL cClain's ho?^j» BhoSd be made *'^*^^*^^^:» *« *i,« «\"rch; 

of the Creed, to £f »^ol„s the north ^l^^^hof^t^^- p""'* 
on the spot whetr* E., jg jhe beautiful <^**7*y''«: i"'-* » Proy<r, 

Christ tanghtMt^.» according to » "•'^^'^f'^^Petto^Zl^r ^'t^.' 

Th- «.^^ ^^>Sj^''""?\'"'^?N»pol««^"I- caused a ch^h 
to he erected i^ «*8ne, relative of ^**ioe quadrangle run covwed 

in as '""'y jilWl 32 »Ubs, on ^^^^^^e S- side the princess has a 
monument jntli , ^! languages. 0» * ^ to her memory. Adjoining 
the Hall of ttia \^«e-size efflgy ereo*®**;g:. *« t^e churih, the ante- 
ch&mhei of Wlij^^^ora's Prayer on *" jj^goovered when the fonnda- 
ttons of the <sl^^* contains antiqul**®^ -„g a leaden coffin and nnm- 
etouB ft&gmetvt 'oh ^^'^ '"l* > inoln** of tli® church is a convent 

of Oaimeute nuft**' mosaics. — To the ^ 

d- To tUe a ^ 1 /li r>«s lio tJie Tombs of the Pro- 

phets, or tlxe S»^ • »' tte Latin bu*l"\^e the road to the S. past the 
Latin \)«ii4j„"*««J loJyrintt. We ^"- ^o»d takes a turn to the N.W. 
ig the entrance' **!» the point where *~Lission should be made to the 
Bussian snneH" -Application for »°Sr 3 pi-)- ^^ descend a few 
' ^tendent (PI. 1 ; fe® '^ 



steps (PI. 2) and enter, through a low aioh hewn out in the rock, 
a Kotunda (PI. 4) lighted fiom ahove. Some passages ladiate from 
the lotuuda into the lock, and are intersected by two semiciicuUr 
passages in such a manner, that large natural rocky pillars are formed, 
some of which are 33 yds. in circumference. The passages are 


uneven, and partly filled up. The wall of the outermost of these 
passages contains ahout twenty-four shaft-tombs (p. cxiii). To the 
N.W. a passage with steps leads to an adjoining chamber (PI. 3), 
but the end of the passage cannot be reached. (Lights should be 
brought.) This is a very fine example of an ancient rock tomb. The 
rough way in which the chambers are hewn point to a very early 
origin , but there is no historical authority for connecting them in 
ony way with the prophets. That they belong to the Jewish period, 
is proved by the form of the receptacles for the dead (kokim). The 
Jews have a great veneration for these tombs. Greek inscriptions, 
however, are to be found in them, which show that the tombs were 
at least made use of afresh in Christian times. 

ofJerWMlem. K:.A^:^tEjyr :E§-gAYYAD. 5. Route. 95 

A few steps to tke s . ^t tlxo toead In the road, we reaoh « narrow 
jpertwe in the rock *»».:r^^glx whici we may visit a small tomb- 
ohamber with a numbet:^^ ,-^£ x^iolies , dwoovered in 1847 at which 
toe the bo^es, coveieO. -s^itb Jime, ^ere still lying there intouohed 
To the W IS another olx^^^^ber, of » roundish form, roughly hewn 
in the rook, oontaimne K».i:ne sunken *<>»"'•«.»" close together ^o 
the E., adjacent to the* ^^ is aaotber ^ne tomb-chamber. 

e. The fonrth CN.) a^^^^j^ of *b« ^*- «' Olives, at a distance of 
1/4 hr. ftom the vmage ^ j ^^Hed Viri Galilaei (Arab. JTarem 

«.S<,yvdd, **« ;l?«>'a:«ra- of ^e hunter'}. The first name it owes to 
the tradition that tha . ^^^^ - Oalil*®' were addressed here by the 
two men in wliite &;i^l?^^ * .. tJie Ascension (Acts i. 11). The 
bases ol two columns stl^ r^ ""tj^e traditional spot where they stood. 
This tiaditaon was «^*tent in tHe ±3tlx cent. , but was not connected 
with this locality tall tli^ ifi*l Tie passage Matth. xxvi. 32 was 
also intetpxeted to meax^ tW Christ b»d appeared here. Extensive 
ruins once lay here, axxa. some i>il/?rin»» even mention a village. The 
greatet P«rt <.f the ate^ xj^ Wongs to the orthodox Greeks, who 
- ,e erected there ^ ci,^°J H^fu episcopal residence and'other 

*^^".«f;Jr.n*l**'* I. tr^es of » Christian burial-ground (re- 

uu*x^"»-- - - vix^ o +rfl/-AS OX » ^"^'°"«" "uxiax-grouna (re- 

mains of tbe^all^ *^^eiUems of columns, mosaic pavement with 15 
graves t)eneat^ it) ^^^t^ di!!.t«r«d tr»<i®' *h« Present E. waU of 
the area an extensi^^ l^Uiri^, '7^^ con/sisting of Jewish and Christian 
rock-tombs (possibly tl^^'i-^^^'l^on of J-osephus), was found. The 
antiquities have b^eti t^r ^ens*®^^?^^ bishop's house. 

From thifi point v^^!!'"^"^'^* return direct to the garden of 
Gethsemane or, t>i,,^i^^ i»ay eit^^^J^ follo^^ng the top of the hill, 
perform the ciiouit J^}"" ^^^ ^' *^ tlie Kldron. The valley grad- 
uaUy expands, ^r^l\.^\^^ney .^„% to rise from it more preci- 

^^^''!}l\ t\^^^ T>oW ^^" \^^Tm tirrn^ towards the N.W. it is 
oMed' Akabet es^j^^^l^t where the ^^^"--^ the road leading from Je- 
rusalem to '^'^ccti T-^^!*. We *^^^ ^^tr of the town from the brink 
of the plateau -^^ Ip, 117). The 7^fZ,osition on the top of a rooky 
eminence is dig^j ^'iteiegting, as its ^^^^nted N. wall, resembling 
that of a nxedig^ Y^tly seen, and its ^ ^^^ ^^ numerous mosques 
and minarets ^^^^^ fortress, its *^^^^^ge. Many of the details, 
hoi?ever, and paj^t^^ to great advaH ^^ j^^w too far distant to be 
diBUnguisbabl^ ^^^oularly the Har^m » tb ® ^* ■'^- corner of the town- 
wall. The an^i^j 7^ In 1/2 lir. we ^^^^ ^«/ri XaftM ('Stork Tower'). 
Ancient tomb^ ^J^ tower here is eall^^ pin® ofKerm esh-Skekh. In 
a projeotingto^Z^*^ be seen by the ^^^^^jxer of the wall and the Da- 
masouB Gate ^^ between the N.B. ^ ig^s '^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ *^® ^^^- 
stiana the Gate ^^serve a gate ^^^^ -^ es p*"^*' *"* *^ named by the 
Arabs B(U ca-AJ^f ^^rod for two oent^^ gee p. 105. 

¥ioin the ^A *''»• — ^«wa5ct/5 ^^^t^e hiUs to the Nabulus road. 
TotheE.ofthir^*^^* load ^e may oros^ theArabsJlf«/i^W/'Chills'), 

was situated th^ 2^^» nearthespot calle^-^ j^js legions once encamped. 
^ ^Connfl whftTft Titus *^* 

'^opus, where TituS 

96 Routes. TOMB OF ABSALOM. EhulToni 

f. Prom the -rillsge El-Ttlr the ro»d to Ihe S.E. menlioned on 
p. 93 brings DB in "/a hr. 'to' Betftonji (p. 162). On His road Brth- 
fhage (Mark il. I) wsb sltasted, on the ridge of s BmsU lilll, sbonl 
10 inin. E. of the Latin 'bQlldinga. At any '*te the inina found here 
In 18t)0 »nd f> stone with fteeooes (ChriBt'e entry into JeroBalem, the 
awaiting of Laisrns) show that the Crnaadaie belleieil thia to b« the 
site of Bethphage. The Fnnciscana hsTB ballt a chapel over the 
stone oa the TuiQB of a small ancient cboich. 

8. TIm Tallay <A the Kldron. 

The VoHej) of the Kldron, now called WMy Sitli lUaryam, ot 
valley of St. Mary, bounds Jetuealem on the E. aide. The floor of 
the valley deepens somewhat rapidly. The upper part is broad and 
planted with olive and almond trees, while thelower part is narrower. 

Ai earty aa the time of Christ, the Kldron was cilled Ihe Stinier 
brook", and at Ihe pTeaenl day the Talley ii always drj abuTelheBprlcgi 

Temple, tbla valley wae regarded te unclean. The nsioe at^Vallep cfJi- 
hoiliaphal' Is of early origin harfng been already applied to this ''^f 
by the TBDerablB pilgrim of iordeanx. The tradition Ibat this gorge will 
be the acene o( the laat jndnnent (p, 51), founded on a ml»lnterpteliO,o» 
of a passage in the book of Joe] (lii. 2). is probably of pte.Chrlatiao oripn, 
and has been borroned from the Jews by Christians and Huslims illKe. 
The MusllBis accordingly bnry their dead on the B. side of the HariB. 
while the Je»> have their cemeteiy od the W. side of the Ht. of Oh'es. 
At the resurrection, the sitles of the Talley are erpeeted to move farther 
apart, in order to affotd sufBclent room for the great assembly. — Caplaie 
Warren's ercayationa have led to moat InterestlDg reaults wiA reiard (o 
Ihe valley of the Kidron. Thua, it bas been ascertained that tbe E. sk>I« 
of the Temple hill la very deeply covered with debris, and vfta formerU 
much steeper than now. Tbe ancient bed of the brook lies about 10yds 
to the W, of the present fioor of the ralley, and, apposite tbe S.E. comer 
of the Temple plateau, la abont 38 ft. deeper ^in the present ehaonel. 
Contrary to eipeclation, no water was found but ths soil in the aneiept 
bed of the Talley was moiat and slightly muddy. 

To the W. of Gethsemane, a toad 
braocbes off from the high road to Je- 
richo and leads to the right (S.W.) ^ 
the louier brid^/e. This bridge may also 
be reached by following the wall of 
the Haiaro from the Qato of St. Ste- 
phen' as far as the Golden Gate, and 
then desoending Into the valley to the 
left. The flrst tomb we oomo to, on the 
left of the road, is the Temb M H*"" 
lorn (Arab. ?\m_e»lr Fii'min, 'cap o' 
Pharaoh'}, so called from 1 Sam. xvlii 18.'+ 

t 'Kow Absalom in his lifelime had taken and reared np tor hlnuelf 

of JeriuaUm. 


'. JAMES. 

5. Boule. 


Tbo™ le no m 

eolion of 

the moBOlltli teforo the 

re« A,D. 33S. 


centuT;. Tbo enr 

1 tbe other 



>Dd pMlic 

nlwlr Ibe loi 

<ic capital!, in 




be oldw, BTid the 


o'qs mS'bl 

."6 been adde< 

1 long ifier ih< 

n fiynurcd bj 

S^ of'a«ek *"d 




»lom^. difobtJ 

. Jeirs to pelt 


The DUMive eubstructuie of this gtiuige'Iookiiie m 
large cube, G'/i yds. sqnttre, and 20 ft. high. It is hewn out of the 
solid rook, and 1b detached on three sidee, being separated from the 
look by a passage 8-9 ft. wide. The £. side, bowevei, is imbedded 
in TQbblsb. Oa each side of the rooV-cube aie fooi hslf-colnmDa 
nith TBif prominent capitals o( the Ionic ocdei, those on the W. 
fiont being beet pieseived. They bear, together with the coruei 
pilMteia, a frieze and arohittave of the Doiic ocdec. As the 
Bunoanding look was not high enough to admit of the whole 
monnment being eiecnted in a single block, a eqnare euperstruoturo 
of large etonee was erected abaie the massive base. On this is 
placed a dram , tecmijiating in a low spiie which videiia a little at 
the top like an opening flower. So fac as it 1b visible above the 
nibbish, the monnment is 47 ft. high. The proper entianoe to the 
BtcDctnie is imbedded in rubbish. 

In the rock on the E. side, behind the Tomb of AbBalom, is 
the Iamb of JehashaplLat. The entrance is entirely choked with 
nibbish, and surmounted by a kiud of gable. The interior is of ir- 
regular shape. In the fli:st chamber (PI. 1), there are three entrauces 
to adjoining chambers, of which that on the 8. side (PI. 2} has in 
additional cell ottwo compartments ||P1. 3). The traces of a coat of 
moitar and of frescoes would lead one to infer that the prijicipal 
chamber had once beoa used as a Christian ehapel. It may possibly 
be the chapel which 
eaoloaed the tomb of 
St. James in the time 
of the Franks. 

We proceed over 
the hill towards the S. 
to the Orotto of St. 
Junas, situated exact- 
ly apposite the S.E. 
oomer of the Temple 
pUteau. The narrow 
entrance looks towards 
the S. , ajid opens into 
along paSBage, leading 

to a kind of vestibule (Pl. i% In front, towards the W. , the vesti- 
bule is open for a space of IG ft., and is borne by two Doric 
columns 7 ft. in height, adjoiniiig which are two siJe-pillars iu 

98 Routed, SILOAH. Environs 

coTPOiated ^ith the Took. Al)ove these runs a Dorio f^eze ^^j, tii- 

irlvphB • over the ooniice is a Hehrew inscription, ire next enter an 

aiite-chamhei ^^1. ^") tovaidB the E. , and beyond it a chamber 

(V\ 31 with thiee shaft-tomhs of different lengths,- heyond which 

ve ascend hy Bevexal steps to a small cbiamber to the N.E. (PI. 4). 

To the N. olNo. ^is a chamher (Fl. 5) containing three shaft-tombs, 

and to theS. of it is a passage C^l."6) with a shelf of rock, to which 

steps ascend; ahove tlie shelf are font sliaffc-tomhs. The *grotto of 

St. James' is considered holy hy the Ohristlans from the tradition 

that St. James lay concealed here after the Ornciflxion, and that 

he ate no food until after the Resurrection. This tradition, and 

another that he is hnried on the Mt. of Olives, date from the 6th 

cent. , while another to the effect that this grotto is his tomh is not 

older than the 15th. Monkish preachers are said to have lived here 

for a time, hut the cavern was afterwards used as a sheep-pen and 

is still sometimes used for this purpose. 

From the vestihule of the Grotto of St. James a passage (PL «) 
leads southwards to the Pyramid of Zaeharias, executed according 
to the Christians in memory of the Zacharias mentioned hy St. Mat- 
thew (xxiii. 35), hut according to the Jews in memory of theZech- 
ariah of ^ Chron. xxiv. 20. • The monument resemhles Absalom's 
tomb hut is not so high (29 ft. only), and is entirely hewn in the 
rock ' This cutting in the rock is very remarkable. On the S. side 
are still ^®®^^ *^® ^^^^^ which probably supported the scaffolding of 
the maSoHs. The monument is about 16 ft. square. The sides are 
adorned ^*^ Ionic columns and half-columns, and at the corners 
are satxs-^^ pillars. Above runs a bare cornice, over which rises 
a bl rt*©d pyramid. No entrance is discoverable. A great number of 
Heb^'^ jxames are inscribed on the monument. — The traditions with 
jQ ^^ to ali these rock-tombs fluctuate, but they were probably 
exeo^^^d. ii^ *^® Graeco-Roman period. 

v^J^^^e these monuments , to the E. , the whole hill is covered 
^j^A^^-^sh tombstones, and we pass others on our way south- 
^ar2 *£> *^® village of Siloah (Arab. Silwdn) , which we reach in 
4 7® ^es- The village clings to the steep hill-side, and, when seen 
fjQ^^^!j^ opposite side, is not easily distinguished from the neigh- 
^o^- rocks, which are of the same colour. The main street inter- 

sect ^^ village from N. to S. ; it consists of about eighty houses, and 
mis *** Xe as is its appearance, there are many worse in Palestine. 
^ Aserat?^ of the ancient caverns of the Jewish necropolis, which was 
for ^^**J bere, are now used as dweUings and stables, they cannot 
eaft??®^l?U examined. At the entrance to the village, in the rock to 
thl ^ ^% t^®'® " another monolith like the monument of Zacha- 
ria ^^^t as i* ^s enclosed by a wall in front, it is best seen from 
*8; l>"^jxi the lower part of the cliff is a series of entrances to 
to^v^* gome of them artistically hewn. That these are remains of 
tomh ^ ^^^^ *^** *^® ^*^^ °^^y ^^ °*^^* ^^ ^^^^ " ^^^*' ^^ apparent 

?"'>lo,„ lol «»•" «l»llivi»l» I>»°^ of them brtn,>..»/h./» 
aBSkS«3of 8 -v^ell on the b»oK« ^L j,t,miIM, .ndtheAMMan 

«»\^ TtM«Ptt\toes ^vrere once t©ii»»***^„W** past- 

beMSEh6ain7min., oorammds »» ^ **» J^  a„d to the S.. tbe 
iBfertot to that from tli« m. , oll-V"' TiaP'^'' ' 

T.«ta, to tb.^., S; S»'?"j»>"'"'^ '^ ^ . „.di»d. ,. th. 

From the N. oart <if .i -nlftlS*' ,t Jt-to-"- 

pH'FE-f vs:^ i:^"- t^'sSi 

Ih.M?^'^'"'^'' l>el™ ^'^^r* t° "« *^d»t*'^i <*^ .iuthia part"* 

PKiRi,r7""'»"" ""liardH "^^P ^^m *"^ «»" „f a Bins 11 uhjhhu— 

SZ^' i". p~.«.".^^V'>-„'SS.>»» „»!"• ;,«.. v'lw "'J"-. 

Wlubha. TO.° '^*" tile rook o« **i„wS *^«r- _^i!^t.b email stones. 

the watei 

Wlapba, S T"' '•»= Moi on «»-„. *?■;. 1^,b .m. 

™™« e"o?'"? " *'= «".•■ <i*"/fo» "it ^'■*„«w- ™' <"";• 

'" «X"S,°C""> '"•In, i"° af%f t^SoW o" T 


100 Route 5. POOL OF SILOAH. Environs 

oiple until it has sunk in tlie basin to tlie point wheie tke outlet 
begins. An outlet descends to the lowei pool of Siloah. The con- 
necting passage is of Teiy rude construction and varying height, 
helng so low at places as only to be passable on all fours. Curiously 
enough, this passage is not straight, but has several windings, and 
there are a number of small culs de sac in its course, apparently 
showing that the unskilled workmen had frequently lost the right 
direction. The distance in a straight line is 368 yds., but by the 
rocky channel 586 yds. As the water frequently fills the passage 

quite unexpectedly, it is dangerous to attempt to pass through it. 

In 1880, the oldest Hebrew inscription we possess was found at the 
mouth of tms channel in the rock. It contains a brief account of the con- 
struction of this channel, 12G0 ells long, and, among other details, mentions 
that the workmen began the boring from both ends. In consequence of 
this most important discovery, the channel was again examined, uid the 
spot was found where the hoes of the diggers met. The shafts in a ver- 
tical direction, which have been discovered in the interior, are also very 

Traces have lately been discovered of a second and probably older 
channel which ran near the former, but was open at the top. 

A path ascends from St. Mary's Well to the N., towards the S.E. 
angle of the Temple wall. 

The Fool of Siloah (Arab. 'Ain Sil'wdn)^ lower down, at the 
outlet of the valley of Tyropoeon , anciently lay near the Fountain 
or Water Gate (p. 22) , within the walls. From this point also a 
road ascends to the Gate of Zion, and the Dung Gate. The pool is 
52 ft. long and 18 ft. wide. In consequence of the miracle recorded 
by St. John (ix. 7t), the pool was deemed sacred. In the year 600, 
a basilloa with baths stood over the pool, and in the 12th cent, a 
kind of monastery was erected here. The walls of the pool are now 
fallen in, and the bottom is covered with rubbish. At the S.E. 
angle of the pond there is an outlet. The water is generally more 
or less salt to the taste, perhaps from the decomposition of the soil 
through which it percolates, and is, moreover, polluted by the wash- 
erwomen and tanners. It loses itself in the gardens of the valley 
below. E. of the upper pool is the Lower Pool of Siloah^ now dry. 
The Arabs call it Birket el-Hamra, or the red pond. There was 
probably a double town wall in this vicinity, the exterior comprising 
the large lower pool, and the interior the fountain of Siloah iu its 
proper sense. To the S. of the large pool stands an old mulberry- 
tree, enclosed by stones for its protection, and mentioned for the first 
time in the 16th cent. , where the prophet Isaiah is said to have 
been sawn asunder in presence of King Manasseh. The tradition of 
this martyrdom is alluded to by some of the fathers of the church. 

A road hence leads farther down the valley , reaching in a few 
minutes the junction of the valleys of Jehoshaphat and Hinnom. 

f 'Go, wash in the pool of Siloam (which is by interpretation, Sent). 
He went his way. therefore, and washed, and came seeing.'* 

ofJerwalem. ^^ ^■- ^otite. tOt 

We foUttif the toad *« J^eU (Bt»- JEyyUbJ, from a la*!. '^^ *" ^ mfo. 
toaspringMlledJo** g^ol -fc:he Kidron is at thH' ^"- »enaeJegg 

lower than the Te«afJ* ^t^o^-^^^ - Near the well is a raft.'^^ ^^' *'"•' 
Mt.ZlonTiw.8t^lV °^*,e ^ate»^ Is drawn there «r^everS'7"'"- 
Adjoining the P^»°t,^J^,ell is Xined with masonry at dfllM ft* 

iltin S S co^«*?«::"^ *? indicate a fruitful year, .n/gi!^ 
urain, wmo" festivity* i-t very seldom dries vt-o altno-AfT^^. 

tu .Tf JmlaV t>y the ^rarilc Christians since the 16th cent 
flm t^ ^^amon t^^** *^^ ^^^^^ ^'^ ^*« ooncealea in this we 
"I. I ^^ tSy ^^^^ recovered hy Nehemiali. Probably we are 
lie «! *^' '^nn the hriul^ of tlie well of En^Rogel Cfullers^ spring) 
ml-^''^^?? ^ XT 73 as the Tt>onndary between the tribes of Jodah 
ant^^S Here, too Adonijah prepared a feast for his 
friAn^ ^*^ ^^*ftlon of his attempted usurpation of the throne 
^iLTclmn^^^ ^*^^ "^^^^"^ E.-Zr/.«,.Z.A has of Tate 

}Jn. ^ ;i^A^tical ^/^ith the 'stone of ZoheletK mentioned in the 
Cr^^^'^'*^ IT the fullers' well would then have to be placed 
Be&TAr *?*®*^^ a* ivCaTV. "^^^ question cannot be answered until it 
has hi ^** ?5. A Jhether JoVs well is of ancient or modern date. 

J^U settled "^^J^r^ ^bis point, on the hill to tbe S.E., is the village 
of £?^^t 20 ^a^^vilMl wlii<5^ consists of a few miserable hovels, but 
contain SatljiSir «l-'^"*^-vem8 and a pigeon-tower. Some flint implements 
were M^ several rocky <5» ^^g the whole N. and N.E. side of the hill of 
Dii On *^*^ found here. ^^^ large tomb-chambers, some with a hand- 

cci Ci^Yv^j are ^^'^^'rlTTese tombs are probably to be referred to the Jewish 
BOBlt postal. Iflost ot /*%i impresses should also be observed. — For the 
CnOCV. The traces of oi ^n^ g*^^ ^^ad in the valley.^ 

^iun*. ^« ^*^ ** . 

3 The Valley of Hinnom. 

« « ^* TTinnom is bounded on the S. Qeft) by the Jehel 
The Valley of ^^^led the Hill o/^tAc Tombs, the Hill o/^tAc Field 
Abtt TSf, a hill also <^*^*^,^ ^^y the Franks the Mount of Evil Counsel, 
of Blood, an* ?^<>" ^*^^ed from the Bethlehem road (p, 119). It 
it is most easily ?*?® names from a legend of the 14th cent., to 
derives the last of tn ^ggessed a country-house here, where he 

*he effect tt»t Caiaphas P^^ ^^ ^.^^^ j^.^ j^^^^ 

,^5onB^lt«* ^«ti ^ nf nnm which never contains water, separates 

Ihe VaUey of ^^^J^^J^es from the W. and slopes precipitously. 

tMs ^^^ ^^ ^^f "• ,1: WL at places, though plentifully sprinkled 

Tbe soil is veil ^^1*^^*^^^ of the valley occurs in the description 

with small Stones. The ^* j^^^^j ^j^^ Benjamin (Joshua xv. 8). it 

(?/^A^ boundaries between descendants of Hinnom', 'Oi Ben^ 

^ P''^^ «rly the Galley oi ^ ^^^ l^^er half of the valley 

ffinnor^, \ n^Hie speoiaUy ^^^ ^.^ ^^^^y that children were 




i to Moloch (2 Kin|s xiiil. 10). The spot wu 
place of Are. JeTamiah rigoioDsly opposed these 
leioltilig praodces , and Josiah 
caDsed tlie place to be defiled 
that it might never again be the 
scene of sach BBcrlflene. Even 
at a later period the valley was 
an object of detestation to the 
Jews, whence the vroid Qehenaa, 
used in the Mew Testtment, a 
contraction of the name mention- 
ed above, came to signify hell. It 
Is not now ascertainabU vbethei 
the name 'valley of flie', at pre- 
sent applied to the lawei part of 
the valley of the Kidron, has any 
connection with these ancient 
idalatroue lites. The valley of 
Hinnomwas foimeily confonnded 
vrith the upper part of the valley 
of Kidion, and is theiefoFe oo- 
casioually, bnt improperly call- 
ed the 'valley of Qihon'(p. 99). 

From Job's Well we turn to 
theW. and ascend the slope of the 
hill to the left, to the ancient !fe- 
tropolii. A little beyond the point 
where the valleys nnite we &nd 
tombs in the hill to Che left They 
are excavated Id two slopes of 
Toek, one above the other. The 
low entraaoes are said onee to 
have been furnished with stone 
doors. They oonCaln a nnmbei of 
vaults for different (amillea. Some 
of them were occupied by bennita 
from the early Christian period 
down to the middle ages, and af- 
terwards by poor tamiUee and 

We here adopt Tobler's plan, 
which is, nnfortnnately, not al- 
together reliable: — 

l.GiODpof chambers, bUoken- 
Bd with smoke, onoes hermitage. 
2. Rock-cbamber with four 

'"■"^ ^^:^^«^ or HWOK .,^.„3 

3. Portal. The seoc^-.^ -. ■»> t* * 
a beantifnl vaulted ch^^^^f" ^^^™^«r T'''t' **^ ^- <>»«« contained 

4. Imbedded^^^- .^*^^®'' "^'I * ^omb-ohamber '^"**^'*^ 

5. Cavern farthest IK^^ wxtli teii fibaft-tombs. 

a vault, and cells adja.^'^^^T''^* * ^I^^^: ^^** ^"^ *^« centre has 
with an illegible Gree.^ ^* *^. ' *-. ^®''* *^ ^*» O'i the Jf., is » caye™ 

6. Tomb-chamber. ^»scrip*ioii. » c*^eni 

7. Chamber witli -t^. 

8. Chamber remar;^^^^ niolies, and a cross over the entrance 
portal adorned with uxo^^*^^y well Iiewii. ^ few steps descend to the 
large anteroom vntb. ^*r^*<iing:s and f*"^^®- /^©upper story contains 
fourteen tomb-niches ^^ finely enrioTied doors, and there are in a 


9. Tomb-grotto&s V '-■^lio lower Btory is uninteresting. 

10. The so-oallft^ J^^ chapel witli paintings, 
tradition of the 16th. ^^^ostles' Caverrh , m which , according to a 
Christ was taken pna^^'^- » *^® apostles concealed themselves when 
entrance is a frieze li^ ?^^i, and duri««: the cruoiflxion. Above the 
of frescoes, one above^ 1?^ sections. ^^ the forecourt are two series 
Jesus Christ, orosBes *-"^e other, witli monograms of the name of 
back of the chapel Vaa^^^ other A&^±Ci€i^* The large chamber at the 
other chamber with t^ P^'obably onoe a liennitage; beyond it is an- 
il. This is a Br ^^8, as there ts on the E. side also. 

the entrance is tW i ^ ^^ ^^^^^ di:fferent sets of chambers. Over 
tombs were probaV^i^^^^^iiption 'to tlie holy Zion' in Greek. The 

12. We now ^^^ ^^ose of ineml>ers of the ^church of Zlon'. 
of Blood, Arab. ^^ ^^ to the Aeeldctmct, or Biuldiag of the Field 

The Bible dof»^ ^^«^d<2* fnsttAdiS&)' 
lay, and it has s?^ Hot i^ ^^ ff wbe^e the Afield of blood' CActu i Ifl^ 
nisalem, chnrchl^^^ ^^^^i^Zr^irT^i^^^^* ^"^^ ""^ ^^^ environs of Je- 
with it. The p?^* and Si^^T -Ji liliVli»e ^««» erected in conL/«n« 
tians, and is ftj^^^llt AoSf °***®J*t^ Jl w»y« »>®®'» °^«cb revered bvJfhiSi 
here. The Bon^t^^^^^^^'l^^-^l^ P«^-^^S'raWrt^o f ^^^-^I^^ei 

The buil^i^ ^«lieve5"to be ve^ f» vocable to decomposition, 
near a pUce, J^^ is situated in the midst of the tombs (PL 12), 
obtained he^^ ^^^xe clay is duir. ^ ^*^.T^ ? '^''®'*^ ^*^1^ ™ay ^e 
and 61/2 yds. ^[^oj^, above rk). ^He ^^^^^''^^Vk'^* ^? ^^^^ ^'""^ 
central piUa^^^^. Thevaultsare 34 ft. high; and borne by massive 

the uppL oj^- The bw^part of *1^- "^ Tfe";?ctT:!?^ '' "^^ 
shaft-tombs, ^ ^i-afted blocks of stoxi^- J^he rocky sides contain 

of tombs, tlx'^'^^? thewh ebuildi'^^ ^^^Ty choVe^?' " T^ 
^^ns ro^^ -nuances to which -^-.^^^ifetdi:^:?^ 

aZ^^ ^^es''^^'*™^ through :j^^^^^l,e interior are crosses Vnd 
Armenian IubZ; ^n the W. wall oi 

13a. Ca.^^ Ptions. rJliristians call Ferdits er-Rilm, 

^^ Pwadlse *' ^hioh the GreeU ^ . cavern of the giant saint 
^op^tixis'. xr^ the Greeks', or ^'^ f the Greeks. 
^3h, 13c. vy^i it is a small cUa-p^^ 
^^« Two «iy^interesting. -, xii<5^® tombs, 

^^mbers with shaft a-^^^ 

1 04 Route 5. 

:bfers' hospital. 



15. Unimportant. 

16. A cavern wi 
white limestone of 


17. A cavern wi 

18. Lower down, 
the holy church of 5 

19-21. Unimpox-fc 

22. Tomh with &• 
a cistern. 

23. Cavern, to 
entrance to the chj 
daughter of Maruir 

From the W. 
the English knights 
Bethlehem road (p 
the large Jewish 
This road hrings u& 
way and the pleasi*^ 
This flourishing co"" ^^ 
plain (p. 120). 
road leads hence "to 
brings us in rath.^^ 
(p. 120). — The xi'^ 

the W. of the Tei*' 
brethren of Herrc* 
seclusion of the ;p 
and thus perpeti^-^' 
are still met witl»- 
the Jews, have a» 
hut it is hoped -fct*- 
there is no oth^^ 
curable disease, 
persons are almo 
Leprosy was * 
Israelites. There 
lical regulations ^ 
xiii, xiv). Lepro 
blood. Several *— 
feels languid atx^- 

attacks of fever- 

and under tbena. ^^ 

the face particttl^^ 

grapes. The ax<y^ 

quently tornien.t>^^ 

membrane begfja;^ 

organs of spealci^ 

Jwellings burst *' 

mly to break o\»<^ 

►f the limbs begii* 

sellings, differ/3 ^ 

A lo^w^OT story containing shaft-tombs. The 
t. cen-tT-atX oliamber is remarkable for its red 

fc.Tici©nt; Ghreek inscriptions. 
-fcoraT> -w^i-fcli the inscription, 'Burial-place of 
fox so-vexal persons from Rome,' in Greek. 
Soxn.^ "with inscriptions. 
insert j^-tion like No. 11, and provided with 

5.<5li ten. s-tops in the rock ascend. Over the 
eir is -tlio Inscription, * Tomb of Thekla the 

of til© -toxnbs we pass by the eye-hospital of 
' S*. Jolm. , on a hill to our left, and come to the 
^5 5 wliero a. road branches off to the S.W., past 
ice (1*1. :f ) founded by Sir Moses Monteflore. 
a. few miriTites to the station of the Y&fa rail- 
3:iouses of -tlie German Colony of the Temple. 
(some 300 souls) is named Bephaim, from the 
aie tlie offices of the Temple Society. — A 
e S.W'., pskst -the cemetery of the colony, and 
,se tha.n 1/^ lij.. to the Greek colony ^atam5n 
Xepers^ S:ospital is situated a few minutes to 
^ colony. Tlie institution is maintained by the 
^^ The disease is not at all infectious, but the 
-g3.ts is necessary to prevent them from marrying 
T "^^^^^y^^- Hideously repulsive leprous beggars 
-fclie Yafa roati, as many of them, particularly 
.-fc repugnance *o K^^n^ ir^tt^A in tlift hosnital: 

, repugnance to toeing lodged in the hospital; 

,j.ost of them will in time be thus secluded, as 

^^*?*i ^o^e of eradicating this generally in- 

^^ xjaalady heingrliereditary, the children of leprous 

'^'^^tfof «n^^\^**^ i* in later life, 
^^tfow abonrSn S^* , ^'•^^^ent occurrence among the 
^ ^AiZ lex>ros^r^~^ J^^^^^ in Jerusalem. Tbe Bib- 
^J^^ie'coCqLnce ""o^f* ^t^^ "porous character (LeyU. 
*^^fl before th«^,?*i?^ * ^^^d of decomposition of the 
f^lrs from cotd ""ci^St**^ ^? ^^^ disease, the patient 
^ish spots then SaSv^ » ahWering in the limbs, Mid 
^ark red lumps w^*^?. tlieir appearance on the skin, 
-fcliese lumps miite?r»? ^^® more or less movable. In 
»nd lips swell tli*» « groups resembling bunches of 
^ excessive itchinffr»^.S?^®fw'****^i aad the patient is fre- 
->>e destroyed, and nT.%^ J**^ -w-hole body. The mucous 
^^eing, and hearinJ^?^^^^^ form internally also. The 
i jito dreadful, featerin^**'*^® affected. At length, the 
^ different place. The « ^^'^ea, aad heal up again, but 
^-otaway. This kind of i**^®*"^ become bent, and some 

'" leprosv ^?^9«y, with its accompanying 

«y, \^lnch produces painful, flat, 



of Jerusalem. BIKKET ES-SULTAN. 5. RouU. 105 

inflamed patches on the skin, followed by sores. Other maladies are gener- 
ally snperindaced by the leprosy, but the patient sometimes drags on his 
melancholy existence for twenty years or more. The patients in this hospital 
present a spectacle of hnman misery in one of its most frightful phases, 
and the visitor will not fail to sympathise with the beneyolent efforts 
that are being made to alleviate their suffering to the utmost, and to 
prevent the farther spread of the scourge. 

By proceeding directly to the N. from the Lepers' Hospital we 

reach the road to the Monastery of the Cross (p. 112), which passes 

the Mamilla Pool (V4 hr). Returning by the Bethlehem road and 

proceeding along it for about 10 min., we cross the Valley of Uinnom, 

on the S. bank of the Birket es-Sult&n, or SuUan's Pool, 

This reservoir is probably to be referred to the ancient Jewish epoch. 
In the time of the Franks, it was called Oermanus, in memory of the 
Crusader who discovered Job's Well. It was remodelled at that period, 
and, in the second half of the 16th cent., was restored by Sultan Soliman, 
whence its present name. At a later period, the spot was pointed out 
here where David first beheld Bathsheba. 

The pool is 185 yds. long from N. to S., and 73 yds. in width; 
the N. wall has fallen to ruin. On the N. side it is 35 ft. in 
depth, and on the S. side 41 ft., including the rubbish. This im- 
posing reservoir has been constructed by the erection of two sub- 
stantial walls across the valley, the intervening space being ex- 
cavated as far as the rocky sides of the valley, these last thus form- 
ing the two other sides. The dry floor of the lower part consists of 
rock. In the middle of the wall to the S. of the pond is an old well, 
now dry. Formerly it was fed by a branch of the conduit from the 
Pools of Solomon. This conduit (p. 132) descends the valley from 
the N., and turns to the S. beyond it. 

From this point the road skirts the town wall and brings us in 
5 min. to the Yifa Gate (p. 83). 

4. N. 8id6 of the City. Tombs of the Kings. Tombs of the 

Judges, etc. 

It is neeessary to take a light when visiting the different caverns. — 
The key to the Cotton Grotto must be procured (through the landlord 
of the hotel) from the Serai, whence a guide will also be sent (fee 6- 
9 pi., or more in proportion for a party). 

We leave the town by the Samascns Gate, which is the hand- 
somest gate at Jerusalem, and with its battlements is a fine example 
of the architecture of the 16th century. According to the inscription, 
it was built, or at least restored, by SolimS.n in the year 944 of the 
Hegira (beginning 10th June 1537). On each side of the inside of 
the gate are very slender columns, above which is a pointed pediment 
with an inscription. From these columns (or perhaps from the 
small tapering columns on the battlements) the gate is called B{ib el- 
'Amildj or *gate of the columns'. The tower of the gate commands 
a celebrated view. In the 12th cent., the gate was called that of 
*St. Stephen', as a church dedicated to that saint stood in the neigh- 
bourhood (p. 107). Excavations here have elicited the fact that the 

106 Route 5. COTTOK GROTTO. Emirona 

gate nndonbtedly sUads on the site ot sn ancient gate, ae a reseivoii 
and a fragment of wall (running from E. to W.) conetmcted of 
drafted blocks have been discovered here. Outside the gate, we oan 
still clearly see oil oni right (E.) ancient coareee of drafted blocks; 
when the gateway was rebuilt, tbe Turks had grooves cut in the 
blocks t« make them look raore modem. The Damascus Gate is bnilt 
in an angular form. It consists, properly speaking, of two gate- 
towers, between which there are distinct traces of an ancient gate- 
way, or, at least, of tbe upper part of the arch of the gateway, wbieh 
probably once formed an entrance througb the second or third wall 
{f. 'i5). Under the gates tbere still exist subterranean chambers. 
That of the E. tower is 15 paoes long and 9 paces wide, and is built 
of large blocks. The ruBhlng of a subterranean water-course ia said 
to have been frequently heard below the Damascus Gate, and it is 
not improbable that one may eiist here. 

The open space in firont 
of the Damascns Qate is the 
: pointwheiefourroadsmeet 
On the left is the road skirt- 
ing the wall from the Yafa 
Gale, and descending on the 
' right into the valley of the 
Kidron. Straight before us 
' (H.) is the road to Nabulas 
 (p. l07) ; theroad to the N.W, 
leads between Jewish colo- 
nies to the Yafa lOad (p. 83). 
We skirt the waU in an 
easterly direction. About 
lOQ paces to the E. of the 
Damascus Gate, there is in 
the rock, 19 ft. below the 
wall, the entrance to the so- 
called Cotton Chotto, discovered in 1832. Muslim authors speak 
of this cavern as the cotton, or rather linen grotto (magh^ret el- 
keiidn). It is an extensive subtecraneaa quarry, stretching 213 yards 
inastraigbtlinebelow theloTelotthecity, and sloping considerably 
down towards the S. On the sides are still seen niches for the lamps 
of the quarrymeo. The rocky loof is supported by huge pillars. The 
blocks were separated from the rock by means of wooden wedges, 
which were driven in and wetted so as to cause them to swellj and 
traces of this mode of working the quarry, are still distinguishable. 
We possess no clue as to the period when the quarry was used. 
The Qoor is very uneven, especially at places where blocks of rook 
have fallen down. Tbere is a trickling spring on the right side, but 
the water is bad. 

Exactly opposite the Cotton Giotto, and a little to theN. of the 

.,« ™.v(fi 1,1.1. -WEatslf*^' „ ftlS"... . OV .^»l eouM nl.„-,j . 

__. trees, » "6« ""'""^iere^ •'^V***^!:?""*^ '**■'« tie i 
FrigmentB of colomns ue sf*^, joto " ';*V^^- P^sin^ tbrontl 
plsM of prayer, ne iT6Mi>4ncW° pfl, 'bin, '^ tOB-„ds tJieE., „ 
then inW a secona, nicul" »» jje MlJt^ * *fp»ce» lony .nd j 
«ide, and supported bj » P"^,i.,4jitDi, kn^ ^- ^<> 'be S. W. , we ai 
shown the tomboftbaSolwnitfi ^^^^ vi beyond (t . lofty rook 
shelf, with a lomh, -which emoetn jdt.i,^''*- '"« Soon cUed th. 
Wmb of JeTemiah. The p-ophet iB " j "aje written hia Lame.-t.- 
tioM hetB. Theee cavomB -"Bie once '"Oablted by MuaUm santona 
ot montB. - In the S.E. angle of the ooun there U «n entrance and 
a descent ofT steps to  tault borne Dy  «no«, thick oolnmn, beyond 
whiob ft passage like a door leads to the N. We find here a large 
and handsome eiatem, with its roof supported by a massive pillar, 
and lighted from above. Steps lead down to the snrfice of the water. 
— The Cotton Grotto and the Grotto of Jeremiah were probably 
originaUy parts of the same qnany, and a ridge of ronk may have 
once eitended from this point to the town-wall, and been afterwards 
removed to increase the strength of the fortlflcatlons. — As already 
mentioned (j). 61}, many anthorities regard the hill immediately 
above the Grotto of Jeremiah as the true Golgotha. Ancient toek- 
tombs have also been found here. 

We return to the Damasous Gate and take the NSbitUu Rood 
(p 1061. About 390 yds. from the gate is an eitensive field of 
mins on the right, surrounded by high wails. The test entrance is 
through the gate on the MibnluB road, We first see i vaults, one 
after another from E. to W„ 26 yds. long and about 9 yds. wide. 
To the S. are the remains of a rather small ehnroh, 8 yds. wide and 
2il/„ydB, long. In front of the entrance to theW. is a Greek inscrip- 
tion, now itle^ble. The ground is paved -with well-preserved flat 
Btorkes. Part of the pavement is In mosaic. The remains are pro- 
bably those of the Chnioh of Ht. Btephen, with its adjacent mon- 
astery, built by the Greeks in the 8th century and rebollt by the 
Cmsadets in 1099. It is less probable that this is the Church of St, 
Stephen bollt by the Empress Endoiia, which mast have stood closer 
(0 the town. The Dominicans have buUt a monastery and seminary 
on the site. 

We now proceed along the N&bnlns road till we come to a cross 
road (6 min.). A few paces to the E. of the cross road are the so- 
called Tombi of the King!. Arab. Kub&r ea-SalSttn (direct carriage 
toad from the Herodes Gate, p. 96; 5 min.). They belong to the 
French and are surrounded by a wall. Wo enter from the W. aide. 
A rook-cut stairease of 24 steps, 9 yds wide, leads down into the 

ante d. TOMBS OF THE KINQS. Envtroni 

n »n E, direction. Along the stops flesceini the channels for 
ing water to the cietems below, which cross the etBircase at 
I and 20th steps and lead down on the wall Co the right, 
sending below, we observe the beautihil cisterns, which have 
m repaired; the smaller is on the right; straight before ds 
LCb larger one, with a double arched entrance in the wall of 
:. The roof is slightly vanlted and supported by a pillar. At 
ers of each cistern are steps for drawing wai«r. On the left 
id-arched passage whleb leads hence throngh a rooky wall, 
;hick, down three Bteps Into an open court hewn in the rock, 
long and 27 yds. wide. We now at length pereetve to the W. 
y hewn portal of the rock-tombs. The portal has lately been 
to 38 ft.; like that of St. James' grotto (p. 97), it was 

rne by two columns, which relieTed the open space, 
monldings of the portal are still in admirable preser- 
?tlne of a broad girdle of wreaths, fruit, and foliage. 
iCibuIe (I) are fragments of columns, capitals, and frag- 
Dphagi. We cross over a round cistern (k) and descend 
on our left Is an angular passage (b) with a movable 
c) by yibifh the entrance to the tomb cotdd be eloaed. 
a is about O'/j yds. sijuare, and from It foar en- 
lo the S., one to the W., and one to the N., lead to 
i. The S.E. chamber (d) contains rook-shelves on 
i shaft-tombs (p. oxiii) on the E. and S. In the N.'W. 
^d by 4 steps Into a lover chamber (d*) with 3 shelf- 

of- Jtruialem. TOHBS OF THE JUDGES. S. Roult. ivV 

lombe. The SBCOnd ohsmber (e) has & depre««ion iu the middle, 
tbree shaft'tombs od the S., and three on the W.j thli chimbei 
ileo his a Bubaidluy chamber (f). The cbamber g (W. of the veetl- 
bole) contaius two shait-tonilis on the right uid on the le/t, lu 
iildition to the shelTss in the walls. In the middle is a passage 
Iwdlng to a small chambec with 3 Ghelf-tombs. Fiom this thambei 
in Uie N. wall a paseage leads faithec dawn to a larger apsctineiit (h), 
ia which la a lanlted Diche-Mmb on the left, and a double shelf 
It tbe back. 

The dltTeient chambeie bear diitlnct tiacee of having ouce been 
dosed bj properly Qtted stoae doors. The chamber i to the right 
«f the priDclpal entrance once contained a richly decorated aaruo- 
phaitas (now in the Louvre). 

Thsae oalacombs, the careful conBtrnclion of whlct Kada hi Ihc in- 
ference that they were tbe burLal-pl«fs of persons nf high rank, are 
wvertd by the Jews, who from a very early period hai-e called IhQto the 

She afterwarda t 



b. Theee vaulU 

early u 

Uie lltb cent.. 

thej were f 

rly klne* of Ji 


, whence lb 



the alor 

.1 In a B.E. iir 


ud e 

er valley of 


a valley 


10 graves ii 


,1W ™ 

<e of Simon Ihi JbU 

Bbould be I 


pUgrimages to tbi 

ii spot. 

I, Tomb! on 

level of Bioand.U. Bail 


t. III. Upper 

The road to the Tombs of the Jndges, Kub&r d-Kvd&t, wblch 
leads on to I4eby Samwll, branches oft from the Nfibulns road oppo- 
site the Ghorch of St. Stephen (p. 107). From tbe Tombs of the 
Kings we go In tbe diteclion of the minaret of Neby Samwll, After 
some 25 mln., we observe the entrance to the tombs in tbe toci on the 


rS'w^r'iwt w'S tw«'S- 

^iO BO""" 





.hers «e MSigne^ ^J^B i» * -IW* vt «*■ 

•"•-».'■ », ro.d »» J„ . ««^ 

II of ashes'" -^j,SftW*^ 

„r we lun. by a hill o£ <"*""'" 

^k.'f <nr¥ BA.ST OF TP JOBDAIf, 

jUP^ _-^- 

'y^^ ^i« <Lltf% T¥^ "to *li.e Montaterf of t^ OroM, 'Ain 
^^^^.^^^^d S*. :Plillip*s Wen 112 

^^tH^ -^]Pliilxi>"» -W^ell to Bittir 115 

^^S^-^saJLercL iio I^el>y Samwil and El-Knb«beh (Em- 

5><^^^=^^ ' 116 

VfO^ -» ^^-^-osalona. tx> *^ Adnata, 'Aln Fara, Jeba', KikhmsLsh 117 

*• tJi^^^i'^^^^A' to Jex-vEsalem direct 118 

^Q^^^^^^^im^ *o »*t«« by I>«r Dirftn 119 

B. V'^^^^salem- -to Bethlehem 119 

i^<^'^^ — Ai&d "tl^e 'E'ielcl of the Shepherds 128 

9. ^^^-^^^^xkB^X^TSM. ^Bethlehem) to the Pools of Solomon, 
^ <^^^.^ tilie Frank Mountain 130 

^^ aloTsx "to Hebron (and the Southern End of 
'^/*^^^A"Soa3 135 

'StOtJ^ ^^^5aA» "to Hebron 143 

Vto^ ^Si^^?I^aiSa. to Jel>«l XJsdum 143 

VjotJv ^Sil^^^x'o**. to Jebel Usdum 144 

^to^ ^i^^^l. XJsa.nm to El-Kerak 144 

^toi^ ^e^*^ 146 

t<^^ - of :P«tT» • . . 149 

r. "C«»^*xVot»^^i*La\>«i. to Petra 149 

i% ^tS^Zr*>-^«X XJsdtiDa to Petra 149 

^*'*^ ^^ *?a. to Hebron 150 

^^^^^^» to Bl-Kerak 151 

^^S^St^TotttoBetJibrtnandGaza 151 

Zx^^^Z^^ "^ El-'Anah (iBma^lliya) \^ 

A^. ''^ ^to^ fwta to Jeruaalem by Ascalon 167 

^XO^ ^calon to rafa 159 

\t^, ^ -^tc***^ itfcuftal^™ *^ Jericho , the Ford of Jordan , the 

-^^fCftfv ^ j^jj^ "back to Jerusalem by M&r Saba . . . 161 

3el>e^ jrScho to Beisan 166 

t»®^p Influx of the Jordan 170 

to "^^lerlcbo to 'Ain Feshkha and Engedl 172 

^*®!J iar S&ba to Bethlehem 176 

^*^teiicho to Es-Salt and Jerash 176 

a6 '^K.X^' *■" 

^ je^c* - jj^jj to 'Amman, 'Ailk el-Emir, Hesban, Me- 

W. ^;ll and El-Kerak ' .... 186 

i^^m ^Amman to Es-8alt 187 

2'nm 'Arflk el-Emir to Jericho 188 

nS 'Ar&k el-Emlr to Efl-8alt 188 

112 Routes. MONASTERY OF THE CROSS. FromJeru8alem 

18. The Hauran 193 

History 193 

1. From the Valley of the Jordan hy M^es to El-Mze- 

rib 195 

From Jerash to El-MzSrib 197 

2. From El-Mz^rtb to Damascus 198 

From Jisr el-Mejami'a to Damascus 199 

3. From El-Mzerib to Bosra 200 

Tour in the Eastern Haurin 203 

4. From Bosra to Damascus 204 

From Bosra by Hebran to Es-SuwSda 204 

From Kanawat by Suleim to Shohba 207 

From Shohba to BrEk via Shakka 209 

• • • I 

6. From Jerusalem to the Monastery of the Cross, 
'Ain E&rim, and St. PhiUp's WeU. 

The new carriage road from Jerusalem to 'Ain Kdrim direct strikes 
ofif to the left from the Yafa road a. little beyond the 3rd watch tower 
(p. 18), and skirting a low range of hills leads towards the S.W. past 
KMrbet en-Ndhleh (p. 113). 

From Jerusalem to the Monastery of the Orou 20 min., 'Ain Kdrim IV4 hr., 
Mm el-ffdbs 1 hr., Kuldnipeh 1 hr. , Jenualem IVz br. 'Ain E&rim to the 
WeU of' St, Philip IV4 hr., JerusaUm ±1/2 hr. 

1. Jbbusalbm — 'AiN Kabim — 'AiN el-Habs. 


From the Y^fa Gate to the Birket MdmUla see p. 83. We next 
leave the road to 'Am Y^lo (p. 115) to the left, and the old road 
to 'Ain Kllrim to the right (see the map, p. 84), and descend the 
valley in 20 min. to the Greek Monastery of the Cross, Arab. 
Der el-Mu8allabeh, 


Monastery of the Cross. — Histobt. The foundation of the 

monastery is attributed to the Empress Helena; according to another 
tradition, the church was founded in the 5th cent, by King Mirian, one 
of the three kings. depicted over the inner portal of the church. The fact 
that in 1098 the Crusaders found the monastery already in exiatence, ren- 
ders it certain that it was really founded before the introduction of EI- 
Islam. At that period, it was the property of the Georgians, and was restored 
in 1644 by Leontation, one of their kings. ' The monastery seems to have 
subsequently belonged to various other sects, but never to the Latins. It 
has suffered much from the hands of the Arabs, who plundered it and mur- 
dered the monks more than once, as evidenced by the traces of a great 
pool of blood in the nave. Hence-, too, the high wall without windows 
and the iron-mounted wicket, which has so long been in use in Oriental 
monasteries. .... 

The monastery is of irregnlar quadrangular form, occupying the 
E. side of the bottom of the valley. The buildings embrace several 
large and irregular courts, and are fitted up partly in the European 
style. They also contain a large seminary for priests (now closed). 
The library contains many fine works and a number of MSS., among 

^ X^tantHSkdir 




^, ^-t ^if 


vTeU J( 




V'.'-i--'"'" ■•^••«*- 













W. Bttrufliftt 



ir^-Crlnarftr ^ 





ICAbti Hoiuui i^-'^f^ 

ICQlBnuirci. ■» •» ••'"-^'i 

















SngrKTed. » yrtatea. "ky 'Wk^iier * D«bea. 


' 1 

lo 'Aln Kfiflm. 'AIM KARIM. 

them A roll of Chrysostom, with splendid mj^f 

tiie moniatsry Chubch eeems to cocroborate th* ** 

dates from the Byumtiue period. It oonaitta r^* ""'W 
The dome ie boiiiB by foni l«rgo pillais, and in "** 
windows. The laultiiii nod arches are Doin* ,P"**'<it 
the walls, come of ttem of a rude ohanicteV ^''« 

ibout 20U jeara ago. The Intareoting n,og^'' *ere ,i, 
aiderable antiquity. The principal ghring Jl PaTflmen 
hind the high alut, where a round aperti *•>» "nona 
maikB the spot where the tree from which Pk ' ^''"'^ " 
is said to ha^e gtown. TMb ttadiUo^ gives th**'* ""^^ 
which is more ptopetly the 'wotastoty at ti.^ 'Monaster; 
The tradition is probably very anciei,* ani, ^ ?'»"« °^ 
back than the Crnsadere' period, and nevBr ''"^'' "'" '^"'^^ 
Latins. Among later myths may ij^ ,- '.^"tirely recogn 
buried, and that of Lot having Uved "^^""''ned that of A 

Loaying the monasteiy, we retrain- '*' 
and then take the 'Aia Kdrim road tT*^""! stepe for abou 
ley of the monastery of the Close, .„V*^ TA'- ^* intersei 
^^dtnthi it then crosses a hill i„ .9 '"^^ ™i"- enW" 
<^Syeh On the right lies Kbirb^ si-JVafi^fc ' t*" -,*«^ ^^ 
head of a dale (well rniiivatad u,, '"!'""■ In 10 mm. " 

JTilrim  we !fll ^'"* ° Jerusalem. In fcoiit are the bo 
remain' some h™ ^ ""^ ^"^^ * "^''P "*"">'• ^^tl' ^ P**!* ' 
tt. Sin, Sj?, t" "• »r "'"• ""■ '>■"•>' 12 rein- 
a Lill Tb'^'°'^> ^thSamwUi beyond tlie valley is 
ill 30 min T^^* road leads in great windings down to 
iiarim- be'low'"^"* ^^ deseout, we have a beautiful 
village'beliind ''^' 'be ^'ranclscan monastery and ohm 
•atabliahnreMe',,',,'""""'!'" rlgl', »" »" •■^Inmoo 
educaUonai inst.,...? Sislers of Zion ; convent, giils sohi 
•0 lb, l.« ffl of S"" ('»"'•! 'J r>«li«' Ra«l-l>o"™) 

"4 bospte .„;'.'• '"'-s') "' '■"■ ""■",;;''vaii"'v 

blUaodibeiiiii. .^•"■•lajeli bol"* '» '^'wii'' 
■iln Mriia. _ !? "'• beandfol St- «"» " " '„ 

■'iia ATdrtoi (^, 5olr the modera If ata n**?^ Greek and ^* o^^ - 
fm. The YinS f»4nj i, „„i, vialtei J» ^j" ai.trio' ^ ,» 
"■p. of the bin tf,.''" in . boauUfol •"* f„ i» „„„i<.» *> 
eWinbablta,,. *= «., .b.v. a Krea* "'S 6r.»>». »* J?^ 
«u.llms. Tb„i.'»io„(OO.rel.atii-. !>"„,a po,.e.. * 
•Irve-tr.™ ail „ •" «i,,„ „t ,he ground , 

I..i.,«....,,„"''"''»«. " _. 

114 Route 6, 'AIN EL-HAbIS. 

The castellated Latin MofMsiery of 8t. John belongs to the 
Franciscans. Travellers can be accommodated on bringing letters of 
recommendation from the secretary of the Salvator monastery in 
Jerusalem. The garden of the monastery, with its conspicnaus cy- 
presses, lies within the enclosure. The dome-covered Church of St. 
John, which is enclosed by the monastery on three sides, peers 
prettily above the walls. Tradition declares it to be the spot on 
which stood the house of Zaeharias, John the Baptist's father. 

After this church had for centaries been used by the Arabs as a 
stable, the Marquis de Kointel, ambassador of Louis XIV., prevailed upon 
the sultan to restore it to the Franciscans ; and these indefatigable monks 
succeeded in firmly establishing themselves here, rebuilding the monastery, 
and purging and restoring the church. The older part of the building is 
probably not earlier than the Crusaders' period, when the birth of John 
the Baptist was first localised here. 

The church consists of nave and aisles; the elegant dome is 
borne by four pillars , and the pavement is still adorned with old 
mosaics. The high altar is dedicated to Zacharias, the father of 
John the Baptist, and the S. chapel to the memory of the Virgin's 
visit to Elizabeth. Adjoining the organ is a picture representing 
St. John in the desert, copied from Murillo. On the left (N.) of 
the altar, seven steps descend to a Crypt, the alleged birthplace of 
the Baptist, where five well-executed basreliefs in white marble, 
representing scenes from his life, are let into the black walls. 

We take the first turning to the left from the Monastery, and in 
4 min. arrive at the Spring of 'Ain KHrim*, which lies a little to the 
S., and which was associated in the 14th cent, with the supposed 
visit of the Virgin and called St, Mary's Well. Over the spring is 
a Mohammedan place of prayer. — About 4 min. to the W. of the 
spring stands a chapel, constructed in 1860 from ruined walls and 
vaults, marking the alleged site of the summer-dwelling of Zacha- 
rias, where the Virgin visited Elizabeth. In the chapel near the en- 
trance is shown a piece of the stone which yielded when Elizabeth, 
during her flight before Herod, laid the infant John on it. 

From 'Ain K^rim we proceed to the W. , towards the so-called 
Terebinth Valley (see p. 160) , the lower part of the Wady BH 
Hantna or Wddy Kuldniyeh (p. 17), which is partly planted, and 
partly overgrown with underwood. In 1 hr. we reach the spring 
'Ain el-Hablg. The Orotto of St. John (el-habis: Hhe hermit') , to 
which steps hewn in the rock ascend, lies close to the spring. It 
belongs to the Latins, who have erected an altar in it. On the side 
next the valley, there are two apertures in the wall of rock, leading 
to a kind of balcony, whence we survey the Wddy Sdtdf and the 
village of Sdba. The place is called by the Christians the Wilderness 
of St. John, although now well planted. It was cultivated in an- 
cient times also, if we may judge from the traces of garden terraces. 
The altar is said to stand on the spot where the Baptist slept when 
he dwelt in the grotto (Matth. Hi. 1-6; Luke i. 80). From other 
passages, however (Luke iii. 3), it is obvious that by the *wilder- 

PHIUP»SWELL. 6. Route, 115 

ness of Judaea^ the region near Jordan is meant; and, moreover) the 
tradition attaching to 'Ain el-Habis does not date farther back than 
about the year 1500. 

For the sake of returning to Jerusalem by a different route, we 
may proceed from 'Ain el-Habis through the Wddy BH Hanina, 
and reach the Y^fa road near Kuloniyeh (p. 17) in an hour. 

2. From 'Ain Kaeim to Philip's "Well. 

We ride through the Mohammedan burial ground of the village 
and ascend the side of a narrow valley towards the S.£. Halfway 
up, we leave on our left the path which leads by El-Maliha and BU 
Sujfcifa and joins the Bethlehem road near Tantur (p. 120) , and 
keep to the right (S.E.). After Y2 ^^' ^® arrive at the top, which 
commands a splendid view. Continuing in the same direction we 
descend on the right side of a small dale, passing some tombs on 
our way. We then cross the dale and arrive in ^2 ^^' at t^e Wddy 
el- Werd ('Valley of Roses'), near the spot where the Wddy Ahmed 

runs into it from the other side. 

Ascending the narrow Wddjf Ahmed^ which is richly planted with 
vines and olir^-trces, we reach Str'Hauna in 46 min., Bet Jdla (p. 130) 
im another 18 min., aid Bethlehem in 25 min. more. 

The old caravan route from Jerusalem to Gaza runs through the 
Valley of Roses* We follow the road down the valley for 1/4 hr. till 
we come to Philip's Well fAtn eL-Hav^yeh). The spring bubbles 
Ibith from beneath a niche in the wall, with Corinthian columns on 
each side. At the back is a small pointed window, now walled up. 
The building is a ruin ; remains of columns and hewn stones still 
lie scattered about. The tradition that 'Ain el-Haniyeh was the 
spring in which Philip baptised the eunuch of Ethiopia (Acts viii. 
36), dates from 1483, before which the scene of that event was placed 
near Hebron (p. 136). 

To reach BitUr^ we remain in the Valley of Boses. After 20 min. the 
village of El-Wdej%h lioa on our right. (Thence to ^Ain KAHm 1 hr.) A 
few min. beyond the spot where the Valley of Boses enters the Wddtj 
BitHr Kea the village of BiWr (p. 13). 

Frobe BiTTfs TO Bbthlkhex (IV4 li'-)' The direct road ascends the 

AlTi ^ 

reach B^i Jdla (p. 130) and in 25 mio. more Bethlehem. 

The route from Philip's Well to Jerusalem ascendr* mo t •a^^, «- 
Roses. To the right flS min.) the Wddy Ahmed (see above^ di- \ 

verges, and 5 mia. father on we reach the village of 'Am Yd^, au- . 

ri^ht amonff fh^^ "^ ^""^^^ ^ - ^ CiO min.) the small viUa.g© oi 

partly hewn 1« "" „ on A* ";^ in ^ 
_ Tb. .™a» »7,„„,lel S.O"' 

fartliei B., the hUl ^^^ 

distMice, rise the Mu.^ ^^=^-V^ ^^ JVc^ait^i to the ^.^ ^ 

S.E. aie Jerusalem atx^^^^ *^^ ^^-^-2^^ Op- ±18), BeyoDd"^^?..' ''''' 

m to the S., is Afa^ iL'^^^'***^"* ^-^ **^ ^^^^^ <>^^l»e JoXn * /i?* 

Tjua5« vi. ^»- — «• 1^* ^■'*a^'^ -' «»*/crvc7 ^-^ - — -- ^^ ^^""^ Summit Of fht 
Lifla, and to the >^^ ^p, and fartbGT <f^st»nt is Bethlehem Tie 
W.; the Mediterri^^ ^^:^Muite near ns to the S,; to the S.S w is 
From the 8unm^*^^>^ ^ X, Biddts. X^amleh and Ydfa lie farther 
to theW. We ift^^^ As^ ^^ ^Iso TisiM0 ^^ clear weather. 
which descend to^ M:j^ ^ descend to tb0 S* 'W, and then turn directly 

viUage of Btddu, af'^^a ^^ the b^iffb^ *«^ **Jlf **^'^ ^^^ ^*"«y8 
trees. It was &tH^^>:^^^ the S fleftl. A^fter 35 mln. we reach the 
of Jerusalem (th^^^t^ V^tided by ho^r^ ^^ atones and destitute of 
traces ofthepav^w^^^l.^*^at the CtusaS.&ts gained their first glimpse 
in 15 min. On tIK ^^t ^y BSt NAbct «-»<* Biddu is a very old one; 
oftheN.T.,8ee^^^ la*f^«««Il visible^. :E:i-:KnMbeh Is then reached 
nnmerons ruing ^B ^^Jflcation of tli& tillage with the Emmatu 
existence slucG 4 ol'bk J^® vlUaire is pxe*tily situated and contains 
of an old Crn! i^^^ i^'anclscan monastery, which has heen in 
distinctly viJvf^^rs*' ^^la a frtV.«ai v ^veeloome to travellers. Ruins 
*«*«'y ^« &^^)/l "^^^A S i^ia^o *nd aisles (the apses are 
Jesus bro^^*^*- ^'i;®^® ^oniid in tb.& ground on which the mon- 

.n>«*^* *e CRti!'"J *"■&<*&« /- -.,^^«"» Three roads meet here: 

^^'^^S'AinB?**!*' one, ^ f««« *il**T,V'aloxig the valley past the 
^?^ nam/l^t^ (^^^^t ^T^t^^rtgM, is the village of the 
"Skt; in Off" . /* J"- w«^ "*' °" • *^^"of KHirhet tl-Uta. on our 
ontCX'"- ■"<>'« the van.' * f^ls wi*^ the -WddyBitnanlna; 
««Ve! in on "' ^"^ ™»n« ^thi^I^^l 77a^ on the right to KM- 
SB , . ";"•)• We crosa !t ^'^^^v ascend straight on to the 
i 5: ;;*i^).^0 -»"• -^0^^^^ J^^^^^ra. V^ence to the T&fa Gate 

^m Jerusalem to 'Anata., 'Ai» ^*'»' '«*»% «»* 

ll(ikhzad.sli- • 

.^J^^>«theDa^asc.sGate, we *«"V.e«^%?i -ft^^t^^*: 

andtfitk^^s. From the N.E. corner w© ^^^^^oxx reach the top of the 

Mounted sing the upper valley of tbe *^ tlic top we have a fine 

fiew tots^^ Olives m 20 min. fp. 90:). -»^^ ^a-Hey of the Jordan). We 

^^^^^ to the right, leading to tJxG ^^^ ^ 

118 Routes. JEBA^ 

haps the ancient Nob (Isaiah x. 32). The path next descends grad- 
ually to the N. to (28 min.) the village of — 

'Anata. — History. 'Anata corresponds to the ancient Anathoth, in 
the territory of Benjamin, the birthplace of Jeremiah (Jerem. i. 1), where 
the prophet's life was also once endangered (Jerem. xi. 21-23). Tradition 
has erroneously placed Anathoth near Abu Qdsh (p. 16). The district we 
are now surveying is mentioned in Isaiah'^s description of the approach 
of the Assyrians under Sennacherib (x. 28, 90). The village was repeopled 
after the captivity (Ezra ii. 23). 

'Anata seems to have been foitifled in ancient times, and 
fragments of columns are hullt into the huts of the piesent village. 
A little to the right of the road, at the very entrance to the village, 
we observe the ruins of a large old building, probably a church, 
with a well preserved mosaic pavement. The view from the top of 
the broad hill on which the village lies embraces towards the E. 
the mountains of ancient Benjamin, sloping down to the valley of 
Jordan, and part of the Dead Sea. A number of villages, among 
them Tell el-Fdl (see below), lie on the hills to the W. and N. 

Starting from 'Anata (guide necessary), the road leads us towards 
the N.E., and in 3/^ hr. skirts the Wddy Fdra (magnificent view). 
After 20 min. more, we descend precipitously into the valley a 
little below the 'Ain 7&ra, a spring with abundant water. The 
vegetation in the bottom of the valley remains green and fresh even 
in summer; the brook in some places runs underground; numer- 
ous relics of aqueducts , bridges, and noble buildings are visible. 
High up on the steep rocky sides are ancient habitations of her- 
mits (which may be reached from the S. side, but the ascent is 

Following a small side valley which issues a little below the 
spring, we ascend in a N.W. direction, and in ^/^ hr. reach the 
village of — 

Jeba\ — HiSTOBT. Jebef is the ancient Oehah in the tribe of Benjamin, 
near Gibecih of Benjamin (1 Sam. xiv. 2), but not to be confounded with it. 
The latter is now Tell el-Fdl (see above) and is identical with *Gibeah of 
Saur (1 Sam. xv. 34) and 'Gibeah of God' (1 Sam. x. 26). But 'Gibeah 
of God' in 1 Sam. x. 5 seems to have been confounded with Geba, 1 Sam. 
xiii. 8. The situation of Jeba', as it commands the pass of Mikhmash, 
would serve to explain the exploit of Jonathan (1 Sam. xiv. 1--15)-, but 
verse 16 suddenly takes us back to Gibeah of Benjamin , towards which 
the Philistines would hardly have retreated if any other route had been 
open to them. Possibly Geb'a and Gibeah of Benjamin have been con- 
founded in this passage too. In 2 Kings xxiii. 8, the kingdom of Judah 
is described as extending *from Gebah to Beersheba\ 

The shrine of Jeba' is called Nehy Ta'kijih (prophet Jacob). Here 
also we obtain an extensive view, especially towards the N., where 
the villages of Burka, Dh' Dhdn, and Tayyibth are situated (the 
latter a Christian village, perhaps Ophra of Benjamin, Josh, xviii. 
23 ; 1 Sam. xiii. 27); to the N.E. RammHn is visible. 

Fbom Jbba' to JBBnsALBM, the direct route leads via ^Anata. Going 
S., we descend after 25 min. into the Wddy Fdra^ near its headj in about 
10 min. we ascend the hill again towards El-JBizmeh, enjoying a fine view 


^i^ i^* summit. N. of the village li« *^ . *• JSoui^ 1 lO 

Bent israritnO), to the W., numerSL i^„/^*^ "^ile ^ '^ 

w^^^^*^^''^ ^"*« **^^ ^^ySeldm, cross s\^'^'' *«»d ^^'•Uto^^, 
wards the 8., reaching 'Anata in 10 mi« *r ""^ *sce^S*^ea ^ t' «^^«Wr 

into the W% 5„«,«in?« (35 min V ' ^^«ov ^^^.^ "^ ^" ''^ 

to the N. The sides of the W^dv' *^o*ier Valil ^''^ *<> *Ae iV.E. 
Afa*wwla&, are indeed very steeT> ^^^«J«it. tlT^ *^«o opens here 
i Sam. xiv. 4, 13. The village of iiP^^^^ng tW *5°'*®n* ^«** o/" 
to the N.E.. is nnw nAariv ^aa**^^ . -^^^lUiiA-i. ^®" oesoription in 

to the N.E., is now nearly deserted "^^^^^^Aai ^®*'" <^©«oription h 
cept a cavein with round vaulting J^V^^ ^JHain« « "* .' ^'* ^^' 
Fkoi« Mhlhmash to Bftrhf. We asc/^^ ^'O^Umh^ • J^ cnnosities ex- 
^«g the E. Bide of a narrow, but d^^^'^d toward? ♦?"* fP' ^53:)- 
^«»i€f. At the point where wo obt?-^*"^^ /WK-^^ ^- ^ *l^e table-land 
?^I "^ rock-tombs on the W. slope, a5?*»» a vieX iS** "*»« *«*<> t^« '^'^''F 
the ancient ififlrron (laaijih x. 28) .A Jr^^e ^bicr i?^ *> ^»"ey. there are 
oppjosite to the W.N.W., and thai^*^' ^ min il® *J^« ^aina of Matron, 
TtA "^ tombs and quarriw. We ne^.*^^ ^ud^"" J^^ village of Burka Ilea 
5*r Divftn, loftily situated and et^J 'each nf ^'^^i^er to the N. After 
deep Waay Matyd i^7eU8i^iL?^^^^ ^'••> ti»e l^^ge village of 

»'e clothed Witt oiwi and fl^-t^/^*^*»»: 'A,'^^^^**>n«- To the N.T the 

Isaiah Cx. 28) calls V/'a • ^® ^^® *« ac^n^**"®^ C«en. xfi. 8). It was a 
Benjamites. " ^***^» *°<^ *fter the '^^^'^tioned at a later period. 

Prom DSr Div&« *v ^ i <^*Ptivity it was repeopled by 

«>P of Tell fiLfr^' ^ **^e road leads ♦>,-. , 

^•E. we see theT>. ^^^ *^«° *'»^ergefl^'W^ * hollow to the (20 min.) 
on, we pass S! ^^^^ of Rimmon, nowrL^ oeaiatifal, lofty plain. To the 
valley wrpeJit '"Y^'^^ of ^t^r/ 5?tf„^''S^^,^ C Jixdg'ea x^ &-47). Farther 
CP. 213>. ^^--- the village of J^e^l] ^mJ^X^Z^^^I^^ ,^%t^t^. 

,, ^V. hr. oo!; f '''''*' Je^a«alein to Bethlehem. 

™g«s and Pidinff S-*^^- The excnrsion may also l^c^ ^.^. ^» foot. — ^^' 

'equire . Jif*r*"e«-» »i ' ~ 5*1^ ' ^'^^ "^1" suffice for B«2^^\ 
^ ' * « whole a,; Who go OB to Solomon's Pools or 'Alii Kft»»*^ ^ 

. Immediately „;/*"'"'• PP- "2 and 180). ° - 5^ 

i»te the npper p.!?*«Me the Ylfa Gate, tbe road descends to *J°^^^ 
Snltin C5 min. j!!* °'*e Valley of Hlnnom, skiiting the Bir^^%»«. 
«o Me railway stati **" Monteflore instttutioii. W© leave *»^ .r».sV^ 
M the point whe^"** «»d the Temple colony Cp- 104) otx o^\^-fc^ »*' 
eends to the S., g*?.-*^* ^""ey turns towards tlie E., out ro ^ ^^^ 
^lem ftom this sJS^S''* np the rocky Mil- Tlie test vie-^ 'f* , ^^a 
'"(^lately before tl„ ! ^ obtained by diverging to the yit^* 

rt?fcT'^i* P««co,P9. a walk of a few minutes only. It* ^^ 
"^ ''the village Of Sif«y good survey of tlie S- side of Je* ^ 

""tfo ej Se ^opi-et's foot. jQftd Ml lJ«* ^luiiJ '"^ B^'* 

to BMhem, 
the Tomb of Bachel ( ?ub^ ^. ^^ ^^ - p. ^^^^ 

;'»sbed8aTOoplLagu8 is «xoei^^ ^^^abj^'j^r^/m .^I'^'*" *^"* «^ 

,,. N. side/ The tomb ^^^^^z^ / f^^^ ^^1^^'^'' ^^^ ^^« - 

Jver^l with the names oV ^^>"^,f ' tf.F^ltll '^'i^^^^n^ 
00^1 .,... *. ^«^ -i'V^'^^acI eo *><* l>M2r:EOd here. The walh 

»ble objectoon to the eeii^J^fen ^^*;s t5^ Have l>een altered m the 15th cent 
Jas^ag^ iS*™''^^^- 2, W'h'^^'^^a^^^^tedljr x-estored A single but Insuper 
&r of Benjamin. Xr^^*© ^^ oe t be *««»*>'.** 5 ^^''f^i* fo«»dc<i on th' 
n, for many reasons v*^^bo1;tt^Jti«5l'fl toml> i« J*«f«r*^ed aa being in th 
foV lay o^*he :N.>^> ^^ve pXI^*^<l^ry betweer. J>»<iali and Beniamin could 

^%^.?rn l-A"^^^^^^^^ «^^St^ this way;, i* */ " e'/nr^^^^ ^^^^^ th 
'' •;aeie the toa^L ^- ^^^X^. been ro«n<i about ly^ m. to the N. 

d^^»W%i^^^?«*^ Sv^^^ ^^^ oe»*«y. tradition has .8. 

^« ^««iV), 18 very piottiTesqxie from this i>oi»*- The eye is at once 

struck: with thecateM^ay i^ ^Mch -fclio groiiTid is cultivated in 

terra<5«8. The vegetation here, partly o^i?*^^^' *^ *^® neater industry 

of tU^ ln^aMtants, is lichex than in -eli^ ixnnaediate environs of 

-^^f* Cexisted for thoueande , years, *|^Sa'f^- *p"-e oT^^JeS^^^^^^^^^ 

/«?/>«/*/. ^,... inHehrew the word ^*»®*Sa.l>ly <ie"^ed from tbe fact 

more ^e>^X9mo^' ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ .^ pro^aOiy^^^^^ antiquity pre- 

/Aii/ ^A^jj^ierftUT; '"JjoTit Bethlehem has ^ roxri T^^^aeroesa; (comp. p^ &). 
-^«j»/erf ^^ teglOB * tyagt to the surrounding r^ .^^^ aistrict in wMc^ tlie 
Tlie ep^V >^*f1tej. V^-tah (Mlcah V i) i»<l^*= ?l' ,, tiiTixl idyl of tlie boo\t of 

town la>^^^of JPjr***i8 thf L^^^^ tlxe ^^t?o *y ^^ ^*\3*^ ""^ ^* ^« *^ 
Wntl, ^B^*^ BetMeheDa is t^e scene « 1^*^*5* %«rau3 loolced upon &a «.u 

2:  ^It^^^ ?form8»n»°*'0ductlon to t^ ^^^^ ^^ importance. lTv\.\ie 

that «*<>»^«|jr^VX, especially at a l**f/celel>rity *ia aa tHe hoitie of ttv* 
^:i.*;h*t the little town owes l^J^iaJiy ^^J^ of ^^^ family, 3o«.\> 
^-^l^thcts Bethlehem wa««Pfe^ r^^TV^^^. ii. i??- i* T,'^..^^; 

that moxji.^ 

x,/^ /*?*». Iv'-t the litwe town owo** I'^cialiy ";^^;-fl of xne lainxiy, ooaw 

e^e^ ^^i^^ *^* inta Bethlehpm W»-*» ®Pf ^ nieml>«f;f ii. 18). It waa no 

family or -^^ propt^*^^*^^^^^^^ Sa»»- 1^* attract pilgrim: 

.4^a2ieA **:::W^%);>^d, and the other cei^^d jcre C i,eg*^ /^e 4tli cent, it vr« 

that Bethl^^^^^^^til the Christian pe^^^^ size, ^^^e "^^^^Mt lti» spoken 
8tilluBimi^1^:«n became a place of a»>' caused *c*^**V,^fng ^^ th^t peri. 

erec*«>**» ^i„g at that T>eri( 
5h«rcl» ^Se S^rabs destroy 

especially ^-?^^^g place about the yf,fof tbe Crus 
^ -^ ^"^^^^ous. On the approach »* 

122 Routed. BETHLEHEM. From Jerusalem 

Bethlehem, but the Franks soon rebuilt the little town, and ffounded a 
castle near the monastery. In 1244, the place was devastated by the Kharez- 
mians^ in 1489, the fortiGcations and the monastery were destroyed. For 
a time the place lost much of its importance, but within the last three 
centuries, it has gradually recovered. Quarrels between the Christians and 
the IM^uslims frequently caused bloodshed, and the inhabitants were even 
occasionally molested by the Beduins. The Muslims, who occupied a sep- 
arate quarter at Bethlehem, were expelled by the Christi ansin 1831, and 
after an insurrection in 1834 their quarter was destroyed by order of 
Ibr&him Pasha. Since that period the town has been almost exclusively 
occupied by Christians. 

Bethlehem Is situated 2550 ft. above the level of the sea , on 
two hills running from E. to W., and connected with each other by 
a short saddle. To the S. of the town is sitnated the Wddy er^ 
Rahtbj and to the N. the Wddy el-KharrH^heh. The slope of the hills 
towards the W. and E. is gentler than towards the N. and S. The 
situation of Bethlehem and its surrounding valleys is not unlike 
that of Jerusalem. — Cafe on the square in front of the church. — 
Turkish telegraph office. 

The town numbers about 8000 inhabitants, about 260 of whom 
are Muslims and 50 Protestants. The Latins possess a large Fran- 
ciscan monastery here with a hospice, boys' school, and a handsome 
new church (these buildings lie on the slope of the hill, at the back 
of the large church) ; they have also a school for girls and a convent 
belonging to the sisters of St. Joseph. In the S .W. quarter of the town is 
the convent of the French Carmelite sisters, a building in the style 
of the Castle of S. Angelo at Rome; on the W. slope of the valley 
of the carobs, on the hill of the N. suburb, is the large boys' school 
conducted by Father Belloni. A convent and a school of the 'frSres 
de la mission alg^rienne' are in construction. The Oreeks have 
a monastery of the Nativity, two churches (St. Helen and St. 
George), a school for boys, and another for girls. Adjacent is the 
Armenian monastery. The three monasteries together occupy a 
large building resembling a fortress, which forms a prominent ob- 
ject at the S.E. end of the town. There is also a school for girls of 
the British mission, and a German Protestant institution containing 
a school for boys and one for girls, both well attended. A handsome 
German church is in course of erection. 

The inhabitants, who have often given proofs of their intrepidity 
in their battles with their neighbours (see above), live chiefly by 
agriculture and breeding cattle, besides which they have for several 
centuries been occupied in the manufacture of rosaries, crosses, and 
other fancy articles in wood, mother-of-pearl, coral, and stinkstone 
(lime mixed wfth bitumen) from the Dead Sea. The vases made 
of the last-named material, however , are very fragile. A visit to 
one of the workshops, when buying, will prove interesting. Beth- 
lehem is also the market-town of the peasants and Beduins in the 
neighbourhood , many of the latter coming from the region of the 
Dead Sea. 

to Bethlehem, BETHLEHEM. ^.Bouit. 123 

^^^ }^^f!'^^^ *'**• ^^f e'^*^ ^^«' *^« traditional birth- 
place of Oiirlst, iies m tie W. part of the town, aboye the Khaniibeh 

valley, and is tie joint property of the Greeks, Latins, audArmenians. 

« . J^^ *"^l*^^5„ Yt^^^ Joca2i5es the bi'tli of Christ in a Cavtm near 
BetUehein extendi back as far as the 2nd century (Justinus MartyrrAraS 
insult to the Christians Hadrian is said to have destroyed a church which 
stood on the sacred spot, and to have erected a temple of Adonis on it« 
site, hut this story is not authenticated. In 330 a h^S We hwUica wm 
erected here by order of the Emn^rov Constantine Th^ ^^«,*i!w?VwT^ 
present church is the original st?uXre, is Wd on the simS^^^^^^^^ 
style andlthe absence of charactexiatica of the bnilflTna. «f tlJ - i 
sequent era of Justinian. Other a.^tlioritie8 co^ider it S^.L 5® !^^' 
thit the Church of 8t. Mary una^rwent cons???;:?^^* ^J^^? question 
davs of Justinian (527-5651. In an^ «a.«e. w?™'r.^^ "»*0'»tion in the 

1010 the church is said to l^&ve miraculousrv „^!!: ^^^ *^® ??*' 

by the Muslims under Hakim, »nd the Frank/ ^?f»P«d destruction 

invoked by the Christiais of BoTlxlehem, foun\''thI^T„ *l^ ^^.^^^^ 

Throughout the accounts of an tlie PilgrWof t^e mWdTe a^e'^^^^^^^^^^ 

prevails so remarkable an unanimity regarding tht^ \u»n*^i ^/' t. 

tecture of the church, that there can be mtle dLbtThi?''-/^?^ "*'^*" 

been altered. On Christmas Day, llOl, Baldwin was cln^, JV^*"' ^®''^' 

and in 1110 Bethlehem was elevated 'to th7 ra^ of ar.^-o^'"^ i^^"' 

The church soon afterwards underwent a thorough rJL^^l'^^^i ?k * 

Byzantine emperor Manuel Con^nenos (llls-llsSf m,fi?5"*J!' *"^ *^S 

the walla to be adorned with gilded mosaics SLe wpI^"""^ fT^^ 

an architect named Efrem, who iiiti^duceTthe effi^ nf ♦>,. ""^^^ ^^ 

various places. The church was covered wfth leaf In ?^9°;r'^' f 

which had become dilapidated, was repaired Edwkrd TV nf 5^ ^''''^' 

giving the lead for the purpose, and Philip of B™n-?e ^y* ^^. ^^S^*^/ 

The woodwork was then executed by ar fleers of V?nf.i! P^'^e-wood. 

sea to Y&fa, and carried thence to Bethlehem by ^ Jet ^«\ ,*^°J\«y«d by 

the mosaics fell into disrepair, and the conditioZof S.. tn.^ that period 

the subject of new complaints. Towards the end n^^fhTl-rJ^'' ^^^T« 

Turks Stripped the roof of its lead, in order tn ,^ v l^7w '^^''X'^ *^« 

occasion of a restoration of the church in 1672 .r/r^ ^'V"^*'- ^" *^e 

obtain possession of it. During the present centurv ^h! ' ?»;°»eed to 

been repaired. The Latins, who had long heenl^ll'Jh^ '*''°^ ***/ *S**"^ 

to a share of the proprietorship of the church thrSuith7^-'^* admitted 

of Napoleon III. in 1852. " trough the intervention 

In fiont of the principal Entrance on the W side fPl n r 
large paved space, in which traces of the former atrium of the basilLa 
have been discovered This was a quadrangle surrounded^ oo^o^^^^^ 
nades, in the centre of which were several cisterns for ablutions and 
haptisms. From the atnum three doors led into the vestibiVlft nf 
the church; hut of these the central one only Zue^T^s^^^l 
and it has long been reduced to very small dimensions from fear nf 
the Muslims. The portal is of quadrangular form, and the simply 
decorated Untel is supported by two brackets. The windows m, 
each side are built up. The porch is as wide as the nave of thL 
church, but is not higher than the aisles, so that its roof is ereatlv 
overtopped by the pointed gable of the church. The porch is dark 
and is divided by walls into several chambers. One door onlv leads 
from it into the church, instead of three as formerly. 

On entering the church, we are struck by the grand simpUoity 

124 Routed, 


From Jerusalem 

of the Btructure, but the transept and apse are nnfortiinately con- 
cealed hy a wall erected by the Qreeks in 1842. The building 
consists of a nave and double aisles, the nave being wider (11 V2 Y^s.^ 
than either pair of aisles (4^2 Y^s* &nd 4 yds.). The floor is paved 
with large slabs of stone. Each pair of aisles is separated by two rows 
of eleven monolithic columns of reddish limestone, with white veins. 
The base of each column rests on a square slab. The capitals are 
Corinthian, but show a decline of the style; at the top of each 
is engraved a cross. The columns, including capitals and bases, are 
19 ft. high. Above the columns are architraves. In the aisles 

BMmfV:-»SV8.VV« ^x vw^m^«^->| 

1. Principal Entrance. 2. Entrance to the Armenian Monaetery. 3. Enr- 
trance to the Latin Monattery and Church. 4. Entrance* to the Greek Monastery. 
5. Font of the Qreeks. 6. Entrances of the Greeks to the Choir. 7. Common 
Entrance of the Greeks and Armenians to the Choir. 8. Armenian Altars. 
9. Entrance to the Latin Church. 10. Steps leading to the Grotto of the 
^a«M<y (comp. Plan,p.l26). 11. Greek Altar. 12. Greek Choir. 13. Throne 
of the Greek Patriarch. 14. Seats of the Greek Clergy. 15. Pulpit. 
16. Latin Church of St. Catharine. 17. Entrance to the Latin Monattery. 
18. Stairs to the Grottoes. 19. Latin Sacristy. 20. Schools of the Framciseans. 

21. Latin Monastery 
The dotted lines in the Plan indicate the situation of the grottoes 
nder the church (comp. Plan, p. 126). 

to Bethlehem, BETHLEHElii:. 

these aroMtrayes bear the .wooden beams o:p ,^^ o 

not, as elsewhere, raised to the height o:^ t^"^^~^^ ^ute !« 

upper gallery, but walls were erected -t^^ ^^^^:^^ ^^Ojf^ ^ * '** 

above the architraves of the inner row 0:p '^^- K "^^^^o i> ^ ^sJog 
of the roof-beams of the nave. These fo:^^ ^^^^o^J^^^^* or '^^^^ o7^^^ 
from the end of the 17th cent., and ono^ :fc^*^^~^ ^^^***^« /V> ^^^^t 32 yf^ 
The church is Ughted only by the wind.o-^^^'^'^^^lii^^^^^^tetf' ^^® ^^Pp^ 
wall, each window corresponding to * sp^^ ^<i e^^*^***^'^^^ ^^ting 
Unfortunately very little has been prese^^^ ^^^ bo* ^ ^t^X»er^^ ^^^^. 
nenus (p. 123), coloured glass cubes s©^ tI^^'^ o^ tJ***^^^** *Ae c?^^^^® 
fivefold series of mosaics represented th^ *Vn.^ * Afj-r/*^ '^^^^ca oi^"^- 
ing from below: (1) A series of ^s^lt-^^^^^^^ji^^'^<>f^oJdT^' 
eestors of Christ; t^) A number of tl^^^J^^^es t^^^^^^^s, begCZ'^ 
with groups of fantastic foUage betwe^^ ^*iOfit im^^^^^ *Ae «„,' 
liage with rows of beading; (4) Figure^ "^iiena; C3^ ^*?* ^^^^oiis' 
dows ; (5) A frieze similar to No. 3. ^^ angels b^twee ® ""^^"^ 
are now about seven busts only, ^lil^>^ *^o S. C^g'itl ^v?*^^^** 
ancestors of Joseph; above these are ^xr^^ ^oprosojoit; tie im *^®'® 
cealed by curtains, on which books o:f -tK^^' oontaijiin^ aiti^^^^**® 
inscription above contains an extract 5^^ Gospels are placed * tt''" 
Council of Constantinople , and stilX >i - ^°^ *^® ^'esolutiona of th^ 
joining the arcades is placed a large, ^^-^^Sher are -t^v^ro crosses, ^d 
the N. (left) side, in the intervenitxj>^^*'^*i<5> artificial plant. On 
plants with vases or crosses; but for S spaces , are placed fantastic 
presentations of sections of churches arcades are substituted re- 

of the Gospels. Two of these are sti\i ^^^^^i^^^^S alters with books 
of Antioch and Sardike, and one-Uali^ preserved, ^iz- the churches 
ing is very primitive, being without -rT ^^ * third cliiirch. The draw- 
inscriptions relating to the resolu^^^^spective. Here, too, are Greek 
which the Councils were represent^A^^^ ^^ Councils. The order in 
is recorded in the writings of the ^J^* with the relative inscriptions, 
of six angels between the windo^r*^^^®! pilgrims. There are figures 

A passage from the N. or S. aisl«, * - *^ +1,0 t^ 

which is of the same width as tW ^^xt leads us xnto the Transbpt, 
the intersection of the transept ^^^e. Tlie four *"£^^f^'^^d/y 
lar^ piers into which are buf^ ^Hl. the nave a^ejo^^^^^^^^ 
columns of the nave. The trans^^'^lt-columnscoTx^^^^^^^ 

The nave is prolonged beyond tl^^^ ^^^^^T t^ tlie aisles here 

of unequal length, terminating r^ "^^^ansep^, ^^aii, ^Mle the nave 
ends in an apse like those of tK ^^*V 5^ st^^^^'^^s pa^ of the church 
also was once embellished ^ii-^iT "^^aYtseP** t^^fVv lepresenting the 
history of Christ. The S. arT ^aai*^^ ' ""^^ept contains a very 
quaint representation of the :E1^^^ rTf t^® ^^ \o^. Christ, accom- 
panied by a disciple (the otbT^^^V l\o ^^^^Tvt \)e®^ destroyed^), is 
riding on the ass. The peoni ^ ^.^ «« l*^''^ rtisalem to meet him, 
and among them is observed t ^Ck-^^^%*otP^ •* vTild sitting ouhet left 
shoulder. Children spread t^O^^^^ ^i*'^ * ^n the vay, and a man 

_„_, From JwW'^ 

follMei napiUlB. The central «oh >s ?„ „art is gone, ^''"vifiili 

W« now dMomd » ih. Cmll , •"■■"!? "v U,« tUri """"J 
It has three entcanoea, two from the oholrtr'- ^' ^ oonrt™"*™. „i 
i.1. b) 1. torn the ehotoh ol St. C.tha™. ■«' ™„ „) dea^-J 

Ihrohgh doot. dlteel into the Ch.pel '''"■" It 1. '»'»'• 
l„,omnt pan of the !o„jt, lighted Ij f ^™g. » ja'^J^ 
long (from B. to W.^, 4 jda. "Id., and W "; "%„,rl, >" J ,S 
la of marhle, and the walla, wh.oh a» .f "■»!"£., » s-l»« ^ 
with m„bl.. Bnd., th. alt., '" i' '!Jf .".Sption' '»• ■?„ ^S 
(PI. dl la let Into the pavemont, with the » ^ t"""' '^ 

^ . . . . ^ , . . .L Hw.aVa. ft to tna -»■'■" 

(PI. d^ is let Into the pivemant, wit" "•" "Xthe reee** ■"" " „d 
\ine Maria Je™. C/ n«l«. "''■ ^'"ff l^t XTmani"""' •"* 
iMnpi, of whi5h 6 Wong to the thseHa, 5 to tha a 

^ to tte l,ti„, The ^^^ ^ ^ill ''ho«« » '^% hlXe oJcoCl*^"''' 

siMrecImot„'*-joIiIv7*^^0'i*'*"^''*»,. later pen""- -, 

Oppoalj, • „„, a, _^-„e S.t,,l« a™ _.„.„, .n "I"" 


to BetJUehem. BETHLEHEM. 9. Route, 127 

according to tradition , Christ was once laid, is of marble, the 
bottom being white , and the front brown j a wax-doll represents 
the Infant. The finding of the 'genuine' manger, which was carried 
to Rome, is attributed to the Empress Helena. The form of the 
chapel and manger of Bethlehem have in the course of centuries 
undergone many changes. — In the same chapel, to the E. , is the 
Altar of the Adoration of the Magi (PI. f), belonging to the Latins. 
The picture is quite modem. 

We now follow the subterranean passage towards the W. At 
its end, we observe a round hole (PI. g) on the right, out of 
which water is said to have burst forth for the use of the Holy 
Family. In the 15th cent., the absurd tradition was invented, 
that the star which had guided the Magi fell into this spring, in 
which none but virgins could see it. Passing through a door , and 
turning to the right, we enter a narrow passage in the rock (PL h), 
probably hewn by the Franciscans in 1476-1479, leading to the 
chapel (PLi) where Joseph is said to have been commanded by the 
angel to flee into Egypt. Other Scriptural events were also associated 
by tradition with this spot, and ^n memory of them the chapel was 
fitted up in 1621. Five steps descend hence to the Chapel of the 
Innocents (PI. k), where, according to a tradition of the 15th cent., 
Herod caused several children to be slain, who had been brought 
here for safety by their mothers. The rocky ceiling is borne by a 
thick column. Under the altar is an iron gate, generally closed, 
leading to a small natural grotto. 

^Proceeding in a straight direction, we reach a stair asoendlog to 
the church of St. Catharine, where we turn to the left and oome to 
the altar and tomb of Euaebiua of Cremona (PL 1), of which there is 
no mention before 1556. A presbyter Euseblus (not to be con- 
founded with the Bishop Eusebius of Cremona in the 7th century) 
was a pupil of St. Jerome, but that he died in Bethlehem is very un- 
likely. Farther on is the Tomb of 8t. Jerome (PL m), hewn In the 
rock. The tomb of the saint has been shown for about three centuries 
on the W. side; opposite, on the E., the tombs of Mb pupil Paula 
and her daughter Ekutochium (formerly on the S. side of the church) 
have been shown since 1566. 

St. Jerome waa bom ofpagan parentfl at Stridon in 331, and was after- 
wards baptised at Rome. While journeying in the East, he had a vision 
at Antioch, commanding him to renounce the study of heathen writers. 
He then became an ascetic went to Constantinople, and afterwards to 
Borne, where he interpreted the Bible to a band of Christian women. 
Paula, a Roman lady, and her daughter, accompanied him thence on a 
pilgrimage to the holy placpa after which he retired to a cell near Beth- 
lehem, where he presided ovl'- a ki»d of monastery, Paula becoming head 
of a nunnery. He died i^ ^Jf At a very early period, it began to be 
related that he desired to h ik* vd ne»' *^® P^^^* **/ *^ Nathitp. St. Je- 
rome is chiefly famous as a ^^y A6 a dogmatist he anxiously strove 
to support the orthodox ^j * ^* 'V^'the church. He learned Hebrew from 
the Jews, and translated V^^'ine ot * ^^ Latin (the Vulgate). Following 
the example of the GreAil^® Bible * distinguished between canonical 

^*^ fathers » ^ 

128 Route 9, BETHLEHEM. From Jerusalem 

and non-canonical books, wMch last he called apocryphal. Intereating 
letters written by him are also still extant. 

A little farther to the N. is the large Chapel of St. Jerome (PI. n), 
iu which he is said to have dwelt and to have written his works. 
It is large and originally hewn out of the rock , but is now lined 
with walls. A window looks towards the cloisters. A painting here 
represents St. Jerome with a Bible in his hand. The chapel is men- 
tioned for the first time in 1449, and the tomb of the saint was also 
once shown here. 

Retracing our steps, we ascend the stairs [PI. b) leading to the 
Church of St. Catharine. Here Christ is said to have appeared to 
St. Catharine of Alexandria and to have predicted her martyrdom. 
The church Is probably identical with a chapel of St. Nicholas men- 
tioned in the 14th century. It is handsomely fitted up and in 1861 
was entirely re-erected and enlarged by the Franciscans, principally 
at the expense of the Emperor of Austria. On the N. and W. is 
the Monastery of the Franciscans y which overlooks the Wddy el- 
Kharraieh, looking like a fortress with its massive walls. Within 
its precincts are several fine orchards. — S. of the basilica are the 
Armenian and the Oreek Monastery. The Emperor of Russia has 
built to the Greeks a pretty tower, from which we have the most 
beautiful view of Bethlehem and its environs, particularly towards 
the S. and E. , into the Wddy er-Bahtb , and towards Tekoah and 
the Frank Mountain. 

To the S. of the basilica, a street leads from the forecourt 
between houses, the Oreek Monastery and its dependencies back to 
the open air. The chain of hills still continues for some distance 
before we reach the descent into the valley. After 5 min. we come 
to the MiUc Grotto, or Women's Cavern, to which 16 steps de- 
scend from a large, open, and vaulted entrance. The rocky cavern is 
about 51/2 yds. long, 3 yds. wide, and 8 ft. high. The tradition 
from which it derives its name, and of which there are various 
versions , is that the Holy Family once sought shelter or conceal- 
ment here, and that a drop of the Virgin's milk fell on the floor of 
the grotto. For many centuries both Christians and Muslims have 
entertained a superstitious belief that the rook of this cavern has 
the property of increasing the milk of women and even of animals, 
and to this day round cakes mixed with dust from the rock are sold 
to pilgrims. 

In order to visit Bir SAHLiiB. and tke so-called Fibld op thb 
Shbphbkds, we may continue to foUo^ the load which led us to 
the Milk Grotto towards th© ^- 1 "^^^ ** ^^^ ^^^sceivt is very steep, it 
is advisable to send rouna o-clx \iots6S hy the aasiet route on the N. 
to await us. About 7 min a,f tei leaving the Mlk Giotto, proceeding 
towards the E., we obserVo to the tig}it of the io&^ t, small ruin, 
which, according to a meai^e^val tiadmou , oe^M^i^a i\^ site of the 

*^«« a^Xe iT «?*^o«». TbJZfV the V. *!•„ ?^'"*' *^« Inhabitant 
'"'briiied at it" ^- 3'ie kev^r^^ngofli^ I '^^ ''**« rose In the 

«ten4i^^\'»",48t Of ah en<^y^ tCl «n"»ority, the Field ofBoaJ 

Boman^.^Vr '^ '*" yZla^ ^l **«• «" *••• Shepherd., sUu: 
I^PierdsK^ (P- ^27), ^^L^of Oup of olive-trees. A tradition 

J""*- The gnu *« i« no ma!* * !. ""S^J® *» '"'^« appeared to the 

* ""e Gr«»t. ^"^aean <!Ji«„„r*in.. •"'wh and * monastery stood on 

* *** W „; '* contains XT^' tl^ 0^ * ff*^"" °"*" *'^*' Crusaders' 
Ifii.t. "^ OfamoJ.- r* «0b>- *0 w,. , . o< =*AT.« descend, belonirt 

S;X?^V;'^£:" -ef r*"C e«-t^- tsvu- 

'^m t1t\ From Jerusalem 

130 BouiclO, al>out5 1ir8- 

r ^Lf ^-" ' r!c^' s.'^- -«---»*-' "*"'''" 

10. rrom Jerusalem (Bethl^em)^^^^^^^^^ 
Solomon, Khaxextto, ajdtt^^r ^^^ 

should also be taken. - "^^J^tto md the ^"f^^m be required, 

WV^olS "HSSi oTa^. wUSn'^^rs'JSle'^- 
the night being "P?"* »* ^5^*,t be vWted to eonnectaon w. ^^ ,^ 

Te m^e, or eUe the P^ol^^^^'i^fonly wUbe, o »ee toe ^^ 

So this best wHen visitmg ^^^f ^7^ Jj, ^ i/. l^.) see pP- ^^^^T-V 
Fox the road to the Tomb of^^!^^ I^^^,\^. 135), and th^ 
here the road to Hebron ^^f^^^^^^ Pools of Solomon. After 
we follow for about 1 br. to ^^^^Vf^.^m J^^ wbicb peAaps 
Ifew steps, the road leads to tbe ^^f^^f^^^ J. i% It ib sit- 
corresponds with Qiloh, Joshua ^^. ^\^ J »* ^ possesses beautiful 
uated on the opposite slope of the ^»?7'*\ J tolerably clean, is 
olive plantations. The village, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ of ^^o^^ ate Greeks 

inhabited by Christians only Cal>ont*"^"J' ^"''^^-^♦ty Uttle cbuiob, 
(with a large church); about ^^0 PiotesUnts LP^ >^ ^^^^^ 
served from Bethlehem, and school); *r,lp distance along the 
the Latin patriarchate and school). — For ^^^ . , ^^ pipes of the 
road, we see from time to time on out left t&e siji 
old aqueduct fsee p. 132), .. ^ ^t length, after 

Tie road to the ponda Is very unlntetesting. ^^obsetveon 
60 min., at the point where the road bends to t|^t rinsane-asylnm, 
the Tight the Greek mon^rstery Dtr el-Khidr, mth an insa^ i^ ^^ 

cZl'l '^.t "^^'^^ ofEl-J^mr. In a fe.. «^^^^?' Tuet-towets, 

i7th century ItL ' ^"^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^TruheBeduins, and 

is still garrisoned ^^. er^^t,^^ ^^^ ^^''''^''^^'^J^T^Z^ a^^ "^ ^^"^- 

her of cylindrical bJt ' ^^ soldiers. ^^^^^^,^^^,110 yds. to the 

w: of this, inti'l!^^^^ ^ade of clay. — About W y ^^^^^ 

Qigbt necessary). V^ ""^ ^escena to tilie so - caU®^ ^^.y^t of 
^^a„,,,,4;re^..tb^^ a va^^*-^ t^'^^^'^i t^'-^'^^^• 
*«» ^iixx-t;^ ij^ 2^ \>aslnL of beautituuy ^ 

to KhareitHn. ^ ^^ SOLOMON. 10. Eouic, 13^ 

which is condiioto<i Tianx^el to a fountain-towei above the 

first pond, part of i^ ^y » ^^ flo^ng into the old conduit which 
passes the pools. TvJ* ^^^tl call tlie spring ^Ain Sdlih, while the 
Christians for the la^^ ^ Air»«>» T^-tixries have supposed it to he identical 
with the 'Sealed B^o^^ "^^^^^^^meTitioned in Solomon's Song (It. 1^> 
There is a second fo^Cr^^ai^^ little to the S. of the castle-, this foun- 
tain Biiites with th^ ->^*^^^ ^r "^ASn Salih at the fountain towei. 

The so-called •■^*^;^ ^"ter ol ^^xkmO'O^* three in numher, are situated 
in a small valley a.t; -t^ ^^ v^of *^^ castle. They were repaired in 
1865. As the valX^^^;? ^^3.8 »l>^^P*^y *^^"^^ theE., the reser- 
voirs had to he coixs-tjc ^^^^1^ stops? as an embankment of great size 
would have heen "r»«k*^^*®*^ ^"^ ^nrx'O^^^ the water in a single large 

reservoir. The thte^^ -^^®®*^^ ^ot H® exactly above each other. The 

second is 53 yds. ^^5^^<is do ^^j^^ highest, and 52 yds. from the 

lowest, and is '^^oxit: ^S*^* from ^^ ^^^ former and the same height 

ahove the other. ^. 3 ^** ^^ rrr ") ^^^ of each pond a wall is built 

across the valley , ij^"^^ lower L^'-^^^^hi the Sultan's Pool (p. 106). 

The Ht^^«8* pond. Is 4o4® *^® oB-S^f ^^ ^^^ wideatthetop and 79yds. 

below, and is at tH^ -. ^y<^»- ^^^^U<3 ^^ ^* ^®®P* ^* ^^ P*^^^ ^®^^ 

in the rock, and pa.Ttl ^^®' ^"^'^ ^-w^ xxiasonry, flying buttresses being 

used for the Bupp^^^j^ *•>' encloseci ^ j^ staircase descends in the S.W. 

comer. The Ccnt-rcr/ ^*^ *^® walls- long, 53 yds. wide at the top 

and 83 yds. be\o^ Pool is 14:1 y^ 'j,. It is almost entirely hewn 

in the Tock, and. st^- ^^^ ^® ^^ ^*' V.^ N^- "^^ ^^^ N-^- corners. In the 

N.B. corner is t\i«. Ij^® descend in ^^^\ii from 'Ain Stlih (see above). 

The E. wall ot tli«, ^^*^ o^ * ^^^^ tlii<5^^» and is strengthened by 

a second wall >99'i^ ^©servoir is ^^^^ jform of steps. The Xowc^e 

pond, the ftnest oAv* "buttress ^^^/i^^s. long, 49 yds. wide at the 

top and 69 vds >v 1 ® *^^ee, is ^^^^oes 48 ft. deep. It is partly 

hevm inth^B WcV ^ » ^^^ *^ ^*^ -«^i*^ masonry. Stairs descend 

in the S.E. and xr ^^ Partly lirx&^ in»®^ ^*^^'^ *^® supported by 

numerous tlyi^. f**-*^- corners. ^^^ S ^^^® *^®^® ^^ * conduit for 

the leception ^1 *>iittresses. On *^^^r ^^^^ C^O is built of large 

l)look8 in tli^ ^ ^ain-water. The ^^ ^,ie>trated by an open passage 

leading to a cl^ "^ ^^ s*®Ps, and 1^ ^^xSj ^"* inaccessible, exist in 

the lower nxa^J^^^^er. Similar oli»i^''jji the chamber of the lowest 

pool rises tlift J?V^ ^^ *^® other pod^ - - ^xid flows through a channel 

Into the J^Tnali ^P"'*^' '^m Far<^J^^' t^e E. of it, another spring, 

'Ain 'Atan ^^^^^ aqueduct. A U**^^ ^ tb^ ^-^ '^nns into a stone 

cistern on' th *^®^ ^^^^ a little vall^^ ^ tl*^ P^^^®' *"^ *^®r® unites 

witti thft j^^^ N. side of the vall^>^ ^ 

"^^ae ant?^*^®"^ aquednof ^^« f'^^'" the water supply of an- 

cient Jernal^'^^ngfl, however r.. ^t ^^^^^%ixe>t at the pools and allowed 
their wn*^ *^ei»i Twn nfit ', did not ^ stB 'Conduits runs above the first 

in a 

132 Route 10. POOLS OF SOLOMON. From Jerusalem 

dait, which is much longer, is a rectangular channel, 9 in. wide. It be- 
gins in the Wddy ^Ar^b (p. 135), crosses the plateau of Tdbft^a, and is 
carried along the slopes of the hills in remarkable windings. It finally 
flows into the middle pool, the upper side of which it encircles. — From 
the pools the water was carried to the city in two different conduits. 
The higher of these conveyed the water from *Ain SAlih (the Castle Spring), 
and the aqueduct of the Wddy Bidr along the V'. slope of the valley of 
Burak. It was partly hewn in the rock , partly consirueted of masonry. 
The conduit descends near Bachers Tomb and then rises again : here the 
water ran in stone siphon pipes. The conduit then continues in the di- 
rection of the hill of Tantihf and the Valley of Hinnom. The lower con- 
duit, still in a state of complete preservation, conveyed water to the city 
from all the pools and springs in great windings 7 hrs. long. It begins 
below the lowest pool, runs E. along the slope of the valley and W. 
above Artdt. One arm of the conduit was connected, no doubt under 
Herod^s government, with the Art&s spring, and conducted to the Frank 
Mountain. The main arm passed Bethlehem and Bachers Tomb on the 
S. By the bridge over the valley of Hinnom the upper and lower con- 
duits met, and ran along the southern slope of the western hill of Jeru- 
salem towards the temple. The upper conduit is the more artificial con- 
struction, and is no doubt the older ^ but it is difficult to say to what 
period these gigantic works should be assigned. The name ^Solomon^s 
Pools^ is based solely upon Eccles. ii. 6, and, notwithstanding the state- 
ment of Josephus, we have no evidence that the gardens of Solomon were 
situated in the Wddy Arids (= hortus, garden?). Josephus speaks of a 
conduit which Pilate began to build, taking the necessary funds from the 
Temple treasury, a proceeding which gave rise to an insurrection. The 
length of this conduit is stated by Josephus to have been 200, or in an- 
other passage, 400 stadia, and the latter figure (about 20 hrs.) would suit 
the conduit from the Wddy ^Ardih. It is probable, however, that Pilate 
simply repaired existing conduits. The question who built the pools and 
conduits, had therefore better be considered an open one, but it may be 
observed that historical reasons are against our placing the construction 
of these great works in the period after the return from the exile. They 
may with greater probability be referred to the [golden age of the King- 
dom of Judah. It has lately been maintained, however, that these con- 
duits are exactly similar to those which the Arabs constructed in Spain. 

Descending the Wcidy Artds towards the E. , and skirting the 
pools, we find openings in the conduit whence water can he drawn. 
The surrounding mountains areharren, but the bottom of the valley 
is not entirely destitute of vegetation. After 10 min,, we observe 
on the opposite side of the valley, to our right, a conical hill with 
ruins and rock tombs, probably the site of the ancient Ei^am (IChr. 
iv. 3), the name of which is still preserved in ^Ain 'Atdn (p. 131). 
In 7 min. more, we perceive to the right below us the village of 
ArtdSf which has given its name to the valley. It is chiefly in- 
habited by Muslims. The houses are miserably bad. A Europeau 
colony has existed here since 1849 ; and an Alsatian (Baldensperger), 
who cultivates vegetables and keeps bees, also lives here. Accom- 
modation may, in case of need, be found in his house. 

Fbom Abta.8 to Bethlehem. The road continues to follow the conduit. 
After 8 min., a view of the town is obtained in ftont; in 16 min. more, 
the foot of the hill is reached, and the ascent is made in 10 min. 

Beyond the village of Artlls, the road descends the valley to the 
traditional Gave of Adullam andTekoah. The irrigation soon ceases, 
and the gardens disappear. After 20 min., a small lateral valley 
descends from Bethlehem on the left, while the main -valley curves 

to Khareittin, ADULLAM. 10. Route. 133 

to the S.B. ^^^ route frequently crosses the dry and stony hed of 

the brook , and descends the desert valley between low ranges of 

hills. After V*^'*' ^® observe the ruins of mills on the rock to the 

right. After V2 ^''•? ^^ leave the ^^^V Artdt^ and ascend a lateral 

valley to the right (S.W,). After about 10 mln. this valley makes a 

sharp bend to the left (8.); anoth©^ lateral valley descends from the 

right (N.W.). 

Proceeding further up the valley to the 8., we come in about */4 hr. 
to KHrbet TtMfa^ the ancient Xels^oali, on the summit of a long hill, 
2790 ft. above the le,\e\ of the sea- A.* the foot is a spring. The place 
was fortified by Jeroboam , and ^as celebrated as the birthplace of the 
prophet Amos, who was originally a herdsman (Amos i. 1). The ruins are 
a shapeless mass*, the remains of a church (there was a monastery here 
in the middle ages) may stili be x^ecogmsed, and an octagonal font is to 
be seen. There is a good view to tlie E.-, through the clefts between the 
mountains, glimpses of the Deacl. Sea may be obtained. 

At this bend, we leave ttxG valley and ascend the steep hillside 
to the E. At the top, we again see Bethlehem, and enjoy a fine view 
of the hills to the E. of Jorclari. In 10 min. we descend to the 
spring of Xfeareittin, named B?r el-'Ainhtyeh; by the rock opposite 
lies the ancient ruined Laura, or monkish settlement of Khareitftn, 
and before us opens a deep goxge . The whole scene is very impos- 
ing. A group of natives is generally congregated by the spring. We 
now descend on foot by a patK to the right (1 min.). The opening 
to the traditional Cave of ^dullam is partly blocked by fallen rocks, 
and on the left yawns a deeip aT>yss. 

Since the 12th cent, tradition ^as identified this cayem, now called 
El-Mcfsa, with the fastness of ^<jM«am in which David sought refuge 
(i Sam", xxii. i-, 2 Sam. xxili. IcS). According to the Book of Joshua (xv. 
35. xil. 15), l^owever, the stronghold of Adullam must have lain much 
farther to the 8. (P- 161), »na. this agrees also with the statement of Eu- 
sebius. The name Maghdret KharettUn la derived from St. Chariton, who 
founded a so-called Laura, or colony of monks near Tekoah, and retired 
to this cavern, where he died m 410. The cave was occupied by other 
hermits also at a later date. 

The cavern itself is a natural grotto of labyrinthio character form- 
ed by the erosion of water, 182 yds. long, and, as the explorer may 
easily lose his way, he should be provided with a cord of sufficient 
length, or better with a guide. The temperature in the interior is 
somewhat high. The cavern consists of a continuous series of gal- 
leries and side-passages, which are sometimes so low as to be passable 
by creeping only, but sometimes expand into large chambers. In 
many places the ground sounds hollow, as there are several stories 
of passages, one above another. A short rock-passage leads us into 
a spacious chamber, about 38 yds. long, from which several side- 
passages diverge. In a straight direction, we traverse a long passage 
to a second cavern, into which we must clamber down a steep descent 
of 10 ft. ; another very narrow opening then leads to a third chamber. 
The innermost passages contain niches cut in the rock, and the frag- 
ments of urns and sarcophagi found here indicate that the place was 
once used for interments. The inscriptions found in the inmost 

134 Route 10. FRANK MOUNTAIN. 

recesses are illegible. — A little distance from the cayern, by the 
spring ^Ain Khareitun, is an excellent spot for camping. 

From the Wddy ArtdSj and a little above the point at which we 
left it, a road ascends to the N.E. to the (1 hr.) — 

Frank Mountain. — Histort. The attempted identification with 
Beth Baccerem (Jer. vi. 1) falls of proof. It is most probable that we see 
here the remains of the town of Ilerodia and the castle of Herodium founded 
by Herod the Great, which were situated on the spot where he defeated 
the partisans of Antigonus. Josephus says that Herodium was 60 stadia 
from Jerusalem, and that is about the distance. He states that the hill 
was thrown, up artificially, a statement which is correct, if the top only 
of the hill be taken into account. Josephus also informs us that Herod 
was buried here. Herodium was the seat of a toparchy. After the over- 
throw of Jerusalem it surrendered without a blow to the legate, Lucilius 
Bassus. The tradition that at the time of the Crusades the Franks held 
out for a long time here against the Muslims, dates only from the end of 
the i5th cent. 

The hill (2487 ft. above the sea-level) is now called by the 
AifibB Jebel el-Ferdis J oi Fureidta (^paradise', t.<. orchard), by the 
Europeans the ^ Frank Mountain\ At the foot of the hill , on the 
W. side, are some ruins called Stdbl (stable) by the natives, and 
a large quadrangular reservoir, called Birket Bint es-Sultdn (pool 
of the sultan's daughter), 81 yds. long and 49 broad, but now dry. 
In the middle of it rises a square structure, resembling an island. 
Remains of the conduit from the Wddy el-'ArijI^ are also visible. On 
the N., we see traces of the great flight of 200 steps mentioned by 
Josephus. The summit of the hill, which rises in an abrupt (35°) 
conical form to a height of about 385 ft. , may be reached in 
10 minutes. The platform is not level, but depressed like a crater. 
The castle which once stood here has disappeared, with the ex- 
ception of the enclosing wall, of which the chief traces are the re- 
mains of four round towers. The E. tower contains a vaulted chsimber 
with a mosaic pavement. The blocks of stone which lie on the 
plateau at the top and on the slopes of the hill are large, regular, 
and finely hewn. 

The *ViBw is beautiful. It embraces to the E. the desert region 
extending down to the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea, with a pro- 
fusion of wild cliffs, between which a great part of the blue sheet of 
water is visible. To the S., the view is intercepted by hills. To the 
S.W. are the ruins of Tekoah, and the village of Khareit<in. To the 
W. S.W. is the wely of Abu Nejem, and to the N.W. Bethlehem ; to 
the right of it Bet Sahiir, and in the foreground Bet Ta'mar; on a hill 
rises Mar Ely Us. To the N. are Neby Samwil and the village of Abu 
Dis. Farther off stretches the chain of hills to the N. of Jerusalem. 

The road to Bethlehem runs to the N.W., along the Wddy ed- 
ptya'. After Y4 ^r., we leave Bet Ta'mar (with traces of ancient 
buildings) on a hill to our right. After 25 min. we descend. Bethle- 
hem now lies before us, but we are still in an uncultivated region. 
When we have descended the valley for Y2 ^r. more, cultivation 
begins, and in 17 min. more we reach Bethlehem. 


11. From JeruBalem to Hebron (and the Southern End 

ot the Dead Sea). 

Carrii^'J Md ridlSTo«.'"'«<'= ft>^«"rf»g«. IV. hrs., for rider. 6 hrs. 
^SJ«? the proprietor o??h' '/« P" "6- (^Tlage* may Uso be hired of 

baok within 21 hr«., wi,J. i ^o^reVi-^-i ta«L';- f^%tnS2?.Sr- W 

F«.m Jerusalem to the1>;ii:Tf l;^'*(5inToT4Tl30 

the b.w. tV4 hr.j. Turning 1t>ack, -we see the stx.ii ■^1^.^ ^r pi 

Khidr, to the left (p. 130), a^^d soon aWtdTtil ^itf^/n ' 

d-BeuStt on the right; to the left, far beW ^thJ^! ™ ™i ' 

FUimisH, or Widy eUBUir^ along ^^ZkV^H^ZX. 

new road runs in great windings along the elotiM nf 2.wT a 

the raTines of the lateral vallels of the Wei nt^'n "^^ '"^t 

ig B«t ZoMry.^ where Judas Maccabensw^ defeat!,; hvV *• 7 * 

Eupator (1 Mace. ^. 32), <,« the left J^rM B^ r^it^*''';«!! 

40 min., we cross the Wddj, til-Sidt ne«- it«i,-f^ ? ' ^"^' 

smaU plkteau. On our tight la JE^ri^iLv*? 7n '?""' *° * 

we descend into the hroad T^ddyT'^^J 1 1„ ^l \° """• °"'"' 

the bridge, near which is a caf^. This is aL^h.lf '* .'I ?"^ 

place fo* carriages. Bight and left ottLrZ^^^Z''^ ? ' *■*"*"* 

li the Widy el-'ArftV, exactly on tt ^Tw 1 oHl^hr"^ 

handsome weU-room. A. portion of the wlt!A= k^ the bridge a 

terranean conduit from the isolated hm b^l \ ^^TV'^^ '"'- 

hiU there are extensive ruins. The water w . ** 7' ^ **' 

in a large reservoir Birfcrt et-'AHO, former dow^f^*'™^'^ «}?*"'*'* 

to ae sTe. of the bridge), and convSht^ ! ^'l*^ f*" "•'"• 

lomon and Jerusalem (see p. 132) The «?., „*° ± ^r'" "^ «»- 

531/2 yas. broad) is fairly well pLemd I "^ r' ^f '['I'- '»"« ''^ 

Uke Solomon's Pools. It is now Impr„d h« ^""^ ^^^ ""^""^^ 

a garden. The sprinp now water fte fZtfnf T '''"V'^'^a into 

el-'ArAb. rnatfnl gardens of the WSdy 

From the bridge the road ascends to the W .^a w 
10 mln. to a rather large but not very deen Ml. 4 ^T "* *" 
in the rook. It contains no water In ^mme? ?n anSLWe'T 
water from it was conducted to the ahove-menfinnr^^ f *.'' ** 
WSdy el-'Ariib. Close by is a pretty pUnStion „f ^i- ^"°*'v*" *« 
are the ruins of the villa^ of LZ A ?ew mds fc.^ *^!. '^• 
the S. side of the hUl are handsome rock tomb« .^ "'^ "" 

small caverns, some of which were also used a" buria^iSacr w 1 
KAftn we see the Mohammedan village of SUnJ- / T" "^ 
Afojoratt, Josh, xv 69), and near it L the ^nI':^Z<l^SZ 
Josh. XV. 08). — The road now crosses a vaUev unH ,»..ol. <„ 1 
windings round the he.d of a second. Theses art l^Zll^T 
bare, only a few low shrubs growing here a„d there ^ 


to Hebron. HEBRON. 11. Route. 137 

his son. — The Mnslitns of Hebron are notorious for their fanaticism, and 
the traveller shoald therefore avoid coming into collision with them. The 
children shont a well-known Arabic curse after the 'Franks^ of which of 
coarse no notice should be taken. — Guide through the town advisable, 
to be found at the hotel or the hospice. Fee 6 to 12 pi., for a party pro- 
portionately more. 

HiSTOKY. Hebron is a town of hoar antiquity. Hedieeval tradition 
localised the creation of Adam here ; and at a very early period, owing to 
a misinterpretation of Joshua xiv. 15 , where Arba is spoken of as the 
greatest man among the Anakim (giants), Adcmi's death was placed here. 
The ancient name of Hebron was Kirjath Arba ('city of four'j Num- 
bers xiii. 22). Abraham is also stated to have pitched his tent under 
the oaks of Hamre, the Amorite (Gen. xiii. 18), the place being near 
Hebron , and opposite the cave of Machpelah. When Sarah died (Gen. 
xxiii.) Abraham purchased from Ephron the Hittite the double cavern 
of Mctehpelah as a family burial-place ; and the narrative is no doubt 
intended to convey the meaning that an interest in the soil of Palestine 
was thereby secured to Abraham's descendants. Isaac and Jacob were 
also said to be buried here. Hebron was destroyed by Joshuah (Josh. 
X. 37) and became the chief city of the tribe of Caleb (ch. xiv.), which 
gradiially became incorporated with the tribe of Judah. David spent a long 
time in the region of Hebron. After Saul's death, David ruled over Judah 
from Hebron for 1^1% years. It was at the gates of Hebron that Abner was 
slain by Joab , and David caused the murderers of Ishbosheth , the son 
of Saul, to be hanged by the pool of Hebron. Hebron afterwards became 
the headquarters of the rebellious Absalom, but after that period it is 
rarely mentioned. It was fortified by Rehoboam, and repeopled after the 
captivity. Judas Maccabeeus had to recapture it from the Edomites, and 
Josephus reckons it as a town of IdumsBa. Hebron was next destroyed by 
the Romans. During the Muslim period, Hebron still maintained its im- 
portance, partly by its commerce, and partly as a sacred place owing to 
its connection with Abraham, who was represented by Mohammed as a 
great prophet. The Arabs call him l^alil AlWi^ or the ^friend of God' 
(St. James ii. 23), and their name for Hebron is therefore 'the town of 
the friend of God', or briefly El-Khalil. The Crusaders also called Hebron 
the Castellum^ or Prae*idium ad sanctum Abraham. Godfrey de Bouillon in- 
vested the knight Gerard of Avesnes with the place as a feudal fief. In 
1167, it became the seat of a Latin bishop, but in 1187 it fell into the 
hands of Saladin. Since that period it has been occupied by the Muslims. 

Ancient Hebron lay to the W., opposite the modern town, on 
the olive-coveied hill Bumeideh, N.W. of the Quarantine. On this 
hill are rains of old cyclopean walls and modem buildings called 
Dir el-Arba'^ , 'the monastery of the forty' (martyrs) 5 within the 
nuns is the tomb of Jesse (Isai), David's father. At the E. foot of 
the hill is the deep spring of Sarah, ^Ain Jedideh. Modern Hebron 
lies in the narrow part of a valley descending from the N.W. (3018 ft. 
.above the sea-level) and, nnless it be assumed that the ancient city 
extended further along the hill to the E., is one of the few towns 
of Palestine that are not built on a hill. The environs are extremely 
fertile, and beautifully green in spring. The vine thrives here ad- 
mirably, and it has therefore been supposed that the valley of Eshcol 
(*valley of grapes', Numbers xiii. ^3, 24) was situated in the neigh- 
bourhood, possibly in the wddy ^^^ ^^^^^^^ tH.'W. of Hebron. Al- 
mond and apricot trees algo occur. 

The present town y^^^ - -jy divided into four distinct quar- 
ters. In the N.W., the tr^ ^^^ h Shtkh^ deriving its name from the 
beautiful Moaque i^^gXi^.n^^ox h-^- 1269-70) of the Shtkh ^Ali 

138 Route 11. HEBRON. From Jerusalem 

Bakkaj a plons man who died in 670 (A.D. 1271-2), and whose 
minaret forms the handsomest modern architectural feature in the 
town. Above this quarter is the aqueduct of the Kashkala spring, near 
which there are ancient grottoes and rock-tomhs. From the spring a 
path well worn in the limestone of the mountain leads to the top of 
the hill Hobdl er-Ridh. The W. quarter is called Hdret Bdb ez-Zdwi- 
yeh; to the S.E. is Hdret el-Hardm^ and to the S. lies Hdret el- 
Mmhdreka. Of late years the town has grown considerably, so that 
six new quarters have been added , thus uniting the old quarters 
together. The houses are generally spacious and built of stone, many 
of them having cupolas as at Jerusalem. The population numbers 
from 8000 to 10,000 souls, including 500 Jews (with 3 synagogues}. 
The merchants of Hebron carry on a brisk trade with the Beduins, 
and often travel about the country with their wares. The chief 
branches of industry are the manufacture of water-skins from goats^ 
hides, on the N. side of the Haram, and the glass-houses, which 
are also at the N. end of that quarter. Glass was manufactured 
here as early as the middle ages, and the principal articles made are 
lamps and coloured glass rings used by the women as ornaments. 
The wine of Hebron is made by the Jews. 

In the bed of the valley to the S.W. of the Haret el-Haram 
are situated two large reservoirs : the upper one , called BirUet el- 
KazzdzM, is 28 yds. in length, 18 yds. in width, and 27^2 ft. in 
depth; the lower basin constructed of hewn stones, square in form, 
each side being 44 yds. long, is called Birket es^Sultdn. These 
pools are unquestionably ancient , and it was perhaps near one of 
them that David hanged the murderers of Ishbosheth (p. 137). 
Tradition has settled the point in favour of the larger pool. In the 
town the tombs of Abner and Ishbosheth are shovm (the former 
within the castle) but are not worth visiting. — The large building 
on the hill of Kubb el-Jdrtib, to the S., is the Quarantine, 

The Great Mosque, the *Har&m, encloses, according to tradition, 
the cave of Machpelah, It is situated in the quarter named after it, 
and also named Hdret el-KaVa, or castle quarter. The castle is now 
used as barracks, and is half in ruins. On the N. side it is^over- 
topped by the adjacent wall of the Haram, which also appears once 
to have been fortified. The enclosing wall is built of very large 
blocks, all drafted and hewn smooth. The drafting, however, is 
not so deep as that of the stones of the Haram at Jerusalem. The 
walls are strengthened externally by square buttresses, sixteen on 
each side, and eight at each end. They are without capitals, but a 
kind of cornice runs round the whole building. The wall belongs 
to the Herodian period. Above this old wall, which is 39 ft. high, 
the Muslims erected a modern wall and at the four corners min- 
arets, of which two still exist at the N.W. and S.E. comers. The 
Muslims have also erected a second and modem enclosing wall on 
the N.E. and S. sides. Two flights of steps on the N. and S., be- 

J to Hebfon. HEBRON. 11. Houte, 139 

tween this wall and the old one, lead to the court in the interior, 
I vhich is 5 yds. above the street level. The only entrance is in the 

middle of the E. wall. Visitors are conducted as far as this en- 
trance, hut Muslim fanaticism precludes their nearer approach. — 
From the elevation on the N. of the Haram a sight of the court and 
the buildings within the walls may he obtained. 

Few Europeans have ever been admitted to the mosque, and then 
°?*y "y * special firman of the sultan. The last visitor was the Prince 
of Wales in 1881. — The S. part of the Haram is occupied by a Church 
^^T a ^o<g,<e), 23 yds. long from to N. to S., and 30»^ yds. wide from 
iJi. to W. The interior is divided by 4 columns into a nave and aisles 
running N. and S. The capitals of these columns appear to be partly 
Byzantine, partly mediseval work. In the middle of the 8. wall is a 
mthrdb or prayer niche, to the right (W.) of which is a handsome pulpit. 
Two openings in the floor of the church lead direct to the Cavern beneath. 
A *l-*^j^®'^ " ®*^^ ^ ^® double, each half having a separate opening. 
A third opening in the floor of the church affords a view of a subter- 
ranean chamber, which seems to form a kind of antechamber to the 
cavern. At any rate, a door leading to the tombs is visible in the S. wall. 
X he walls of the church are incrusted to a height of nearly 6 feet with 
marble, above which runs a band with an Arabic inscription. A church 
was probably erected here in the time of Justinian, but few relics of it 
are now ®?**^*' The present mosque was built by the Crusaders be- 
tween 1167 and 1187, and has been restored by the Arabs. — Under the 
floor are six Cenotaphs^ which are said by the Mohammedans to stand 
exactly over the spot where Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, with their wives 
»arali, Rebecca, and Leah were buried. The cenotaphs of Isaac and 
Bebecca are inside the church, those of Abraham and Sarah in octagonal 
chapes m the open court N. of the church, those of Jacob and Leah in 
chambers in the N. of the Haram. They are of stone and are hung with 
green cloth embroidered with gold and silver. A number of apartments 
have been built against the N. and W. walls of the Haram. — Outside 
the Haram, at the N.W. angle between the Haram and the castle, is a 
Uvo-etory building, containing two cenotaphs of Joseph. A footprint of the 
i^ophet IS Btill shown in a stone here. — The oldest Arabian buildings 
date from 1331, under the Mameluke Sultan Mohammed Ibn Kilawiin •, 
Joseph s tomb dates from 1393. 

The building is surrounded with the dwellings of dervishes, 
saints, and the guards of the mosque, who derive their maintenance 
from six villages in the plain of Sharon and Philistia. 

In order to visit the traditional Oak of Mamre CV2 ^r.), we quit 
the town, leave the road ♦/. Terusalem on the right, and ride towards 
the N.W., on a payed i.\li between vineyard-walls. The garden 
with the oak belongs to ^^^J^ -gians, who have here built a hospice 
for pilgrims (p. 136) ^^e K^^^ ^^^ hospice stands a tower, which 
travellers should not * Behin<^ ^^^^^y ^^ ^^^ hospice), as a magni- 
ficent ♦View as far a^ *^J] to ^^^^ i;e obtained from the top. The oak 
which is shown hetQ J^A^ gg^ jUa-V Z, j^lraham was highly revered as 
far back as the ig(^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^iquestionably of great age. For 

the eariier (Jewish) ^^yj \nd ^^ 137. The trunk of the oak is 
about 32 ft in cirQ^J:^J^t. ,^ » ^^e V' ^^ ^ i^eight of 19 ft. it divides 

into four Au^sW<>)*:^ditJ^^* T^el^^^Il^ 
j CTOwn, 96 paces if^ ^^^^ret^^^tn t^^^ 'THe finest and strongest branch 

I was unfortunately ^^^^^^ ^^^f^cO- ^^ some time ago. 

1 ''^ "' * 

140 Route 11, ENGEDI. From Sebron 

In the conniry to the W. of Jordan, the oak tl-baU^ (Qaercoa ilex paea- 
dococcifera) does not, as beyond Jordan, develop into a large tree, bat, as 
the young shoots are eaten off by the goats, it usually takes the form of 
bushes only. A few gigantic trees were, owing probably to superstitious 
veneration, allowed to grow up unmolested. Under such trees the Is- 
raelitish communitv was in the habit of assembling (Judg. ix. 6) ^ and 
there, too, they used to bury their dead. 

Excursions to the South, 

All these excursions require an escort and competent guides, and are 
therefore somewhat expensive. When the Beduins of these districts are 
at war with each other , travelling becomes impossible. The traveller 
should negociate direct with the tribe in question without resorting to 
agents. The tribes are Ta^dmireh for Engedi^ JahdUn for the 8. end of 
Dead Sea; Beni Sakher for Moab \ JahdUn and Suwetdt for Petra. Represen- 
tatives of these' tribes are most easily found in Bethlehem. We warn 
travellers once more to have nothing to do with Sh^kh ffamza in Hebron 
(p. 136). — Extreme caution is necessary in selecting a dragoman. Prices 
vary exceedingly : 50 fr. a day for each person is often demanded. 

HisTOBY. The country to the S. of Hebron, the South Country (Heb. 
negeb), is an arid steppe with few villages and numerous ruins. There 
are many caverns in the hills. The ground is soft white limestone, through 
which the water penetrates and, where it is not collected in cisterns, 
runs away below the surface of the beds of the valleys. Near YatOj^ DUra^ 
and Yektn the ground falls some 160 yds., forming a plateau about 2620 ft. 
above the sea-level. This plateau is crossed by the great valley extending 
from Hebron to Bersheba and then W. to Oerar, 

1. Engedi. 

Fbom Hbbbon to Evgboi (7-8 hrs.), an interesting but fatiguing route. 
The road ascends the Jebel Jdbar and reaches in about is/4 hr. Teli ZAf 
iZiph^ 1 Sam. xxiii. 24), on the left^ after 40 min., cisterns j jl hr., W&4y 
Khabra (little water) which we follow (2 hrs.)< Then we ascend in about 
IVs hr. to the top of the Pau of Engedi (656 ft. above the sea-level, 1945 ft. 
above the Dead Seat magnificent view). The descent to Engedi (35 min.) 
is very toilsome. There is no doubt that the modern ^Ain Jidy answers 
to the ancient Engedi, both names signifying 'goat's 8pring\ To tbe 
wilderness of Engedi, which belonged to the dominions of Judah, Da- 
vid once retired (1 Sam. xxiv. 1 et seq.). According to Josephus, there 
were once beautiful palm-groves here, and in the time of Eusebius, Engedi 
was still a place of iznportancej but in the middle ages the place 
was almost unknown. The water of the spring is warm (80** FtJir.), 
sweetish, and impregnated with lime, and contains a number of small 
black snails. The natives assert that the water comes under the mountain 
from Se'ir (?) near Hebron. Different varieties of zizyphus, the nd>k and 
tidr (p. 165), occur here, as well as the *oikr (Calotropia procera), which 
is seldom found except in Nubia, S. Arabia, and other sub-tropical regions . 
This tree bears the apple of Sodom, described by Josephus : a yellow, 
apple-like fruity on being squeezed it bursts, and only fibres and bits of 
the thin rind remain in the hand. The s^dl (Acacia seyal)^ from which 
gum Arabic is obtained, occurs here as well as on Mt. Sinai. Among 
the smaller plants the night-shade (Solanum melongena) is very conunon. 

By the spring, and to the E. of it, are a few remains of old buildings. 
The ancient Engedi probably lay below the spring. The gradual slope 
towards the Dead Sea was converted into terraced gardens. We have 
still to descend about 330 ft. to the level of the sea, which we reach In 
20'25 minutes. 

Engedi is very impressive by moonlight. The precipitous eliffo on 
one side and the sea on the other, the warmth of the atmosphere, and 
the strange-looking vegetation seem to transplant the traveller into an 
almost tropical zone. In the morning, the sun, which in spring rises in 

to the Dead Sea. MASADA. 11. Route. 141 

the gap formed in the opposite monntaina by the Wddp Heiddn^ tints the 
Tocke with a peculiar red glow, and aets in motion the fleecy miata 
which frequently hover over the aea. 

From Engedi to Jericho^ see p. 172; to B$tMehem^ aee p. 129. 

2. Haaada. 

Fbom Enokdi to Masapa (4s/4 hra.)* About 20 min. below the apring 
we turn to the S. We cross the (12 min.) Wddp eUOrijeh^ and Maaada 
cmnea in aight to the S. The ground is barren and uncultivated, a few 
salt-plants only appearing to thrive. The chief of these is the SaUola 
laUj Arabic huhfbeh^ a plant with a flat, glossy, reddish stalk, and small 
glass-like leaves, which the Arabs burn in order to obtain alkaU. The so- 
called Rose of Jericho also occurs here, but the plant is neither a rose, 
nor does it grow near Jericho. It is a low annual herb of the cruciferous 
order, soft and herbaceous at first, but whose branches become woody 
with age. It owes its name anastatica (the arising) to a peculiarity of 
its woody branches, springing from the crown of the root, which are 
curved inwards when dry, but spread out horizontally when the plant is 
moistened. Thia phenomenon haa given rise to a superstitious belief in 
the virtues of the plant, and it is accordingly gathered in great quantities 
and sent to Jerusalem, where it is sold to pilgrims. The finest specimens 
occur to the S. of Hasada. Another similar plant to be found here is 
the Aitericus aquaiictUt which was perhaps considered in earlier times 
to be the Rose of Jericho. 

After 1 hr. we round a promontory. To the left are several small 
hills where the sea-water is evaporated for the sake of its salt. Abra- 
ham, once coming this way with his mule, is said to have asked some 
people engaged in carrying salt what they found here, to which they 
replied 'earth\ Since that period the salt has had to be procured by 
evaporating the water in small artificial lakes. After 20 min., the Wddy 
Khabra. 32 min., the small valley of Umm el-FUs^ deeply hollowed in the 
mountain-side. The large peninsula of El-Lisdn rises more and more 
conspicuously from the aea. 18 min., the Wddp Beydl; 40 min., the Wddy 
Nemtiyeh (no water). In 10 min. we reach the oppoaite height, and pro- 
ceed direct to the hill of Maaada. On the way we cross the two small 
valleys of Zenikt and Qalldr^ and in 50 min. reach the foot of the hill. 
The country is devoid of water. 

Maaada. — History. The castle on the hill, now called Es-8ebbeh^ is 
identical with the ancient Masada^ a mountain-stronghold founded by 
the Maccabees. Herod the Great afterwards rendered it an impregnable 
place of refuge. Josephus states that Herod enclosed the whole of the 
plateau at the top of the hill with a wall constructed of white stone, 
seven stadia in circumference, 12 ells high, and 8 ells thick-, and that 
he erected on this wall 37 towers each 60 ells high, through which the 
fortreaa was entered. The enclosed space, the soil of which was very rich, 
was used by the king for cultivation. He then built a atrong and aump- 
tuoualy fnmiahed palace on the W. alope, with four comer-towera , each 
60 ella high. Acceas to the fortreaa was very difficult, the only ascent 
being by an artificial stair called Hhe serpent' on the W. side. — It was 
after the destruction of Jerusalem that Masada played its most important 
part in history. Eleazar with his band of robbers gained possession 
of the place by stratagem, and found there considerable stores of provi- 
sions and weapons. The Romans under Flavins Silva then built out from 
the rock to the W. of the castle an embankment 200 ells in height, on 
which they brought their besieging engines close to the wall. The 
defenders then erected within the outer wall a second, of beams of wood, 
and filled the intervening space with earth. The Romans succeeded in 
setting this second wall on fire. Eleaear hereupon persuaded his adhe- 
rents to kill their wives and children, and then themselves. They obeyed, 
and the sole survivors were two women and five boys who had hidden 
themaelvea. The Romana left a garrison in the place. 

The hill (1703 ft. above the Dead Sea) must be ascended on foot, 
the path being impracticable for riding. At places there are remains of 

142 BouU li 

RODun ate; 

1 crosB 1 Hope o[ looie itoneB which 

ub&nkmeiit. Thtongh i well-projerred 

„ _. a pulDtsd BRh with iDicriptionB ud 

ruts' pTftteM f»°Q yds. 'lotl6''M^ MO^'iM' jdg* 
i.j .,_ -1 . — .er^ side by iicrpendicnlar rockn. 

an no I extensive. On Ihe N. side of the hilKlnnda  sannFe tuwei; 
» n. higher, but stiU 19 (t. below Ibe level of the plutein, riiea > n 
owei. From the K. »i.11 bnneh off  grest men; aide-w.lle, « 

1. are ciaterna. In the centre of the plateau are &e Tenulni of a b 

to th 

the rem 
on fh.d 
penod _ 
to ^e p^:^ 

J shapely 
neuer w^^ 
the TTild^^ 
trace of i^ 
of the ae ^ 
to the S- 
its fontai^ - 

ire still 

The mo' 


cad iS^ca. 

JEBBJL. XJSX>TJM. 11. Route. 143 

^^ it would aeem that Mas&d^ mras still inhabited after the 
mentioned above. The Arct^^wtky on the W. aide, looking down 
an embankment, iooka »3 if i* belonged to the Crusaders' 
^"•^ rain A to the K. and W^ or *li.i» »rch, however, seem to belong 
^Ci.e of BTercKl, while those orx *li^e B- s^^e of the plateau are now 
mass. — The greatest attraction »8 the view from the top. The 
^.poro&cli the S. end of tlio I>ea.d Sea, the more desolate does 
^4as become. Around lies » v»«t mountainous region, without a 
X^man liabitation. Tbe oolou-^ring jf the sea and mountains, 


lud the 
at the 


jttttah ^^^ 

^ V.?li^iir' Immediatelv Volow t^t© fo't'ess to the S.E., as well 
<,^^f ?^. '^T^nf- nfTh^ W tli-e camps of the Roman besiegers 
^^^v- cbam of hills of tj^ W - , * .^^ ^^^ Silva's. 

distinctly traceable; *f^* ^^ ^ . ^V«re return to the WMy Ne,nHyeh 

^ Masada to Hkbbon (lO ^^^-/^3 on the right side of the valley. 

After »/4 lir- **^^»«<^«^* J^^^e?^, »n^ al«o the cony (Hyvax Sy- 

antain-goat of Sinai occurs *^^^%?ery curious littie animal of the 

^rab. wahr, ^«5.'- *^^-^f^V<fkt- Its flesh is much esteemed, but 
Doted family, with a ^rown ooo.^ ^. 5^ j^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ 

rbidden to tbe Isfael^j®^ J-i'o<^a Cl'salm civ. 18). - After 25 min. 

also as a !'« ^^J?^*^' ^^ *^® after lO min., the spring of <OrSbeh. 

to tHe rigbt^^w *viv?^^a^eaolxea. To the right lies the Wddy 

r. tbe top of the hill IS *®* ^ aes cent begins. After 20 min. we 
- aeferly^. >^*«7 »i ™^»--%l^ ^G^Grtye^l^ valley, where rain-water 
-to tbe C^ mm.) bottom or J^^^^ -tril^e have encampments in this 

fonnd. Bednins of the J a.n»**-|^ ^lie top of another hill (i/a hr.), 
^»«4» «a^*.naiTiff totheW^. we r^*^^, ninrAnhtt MR ™,-„ ^ Beyond 

onmands a view, and J^^Jf^ ff *^a.»d to (1 hr.) iDiir6e< el-M'elaksafa, 

hr.) valley of ^^f ^^\-?^S^Z^t& Beduins live in tents. These 

v^rbere a number of ^^^'*^^IL now^ on a lower level, and culti- 

«re notorious thieves. ^SWe *^ ^^o tlie village of YAia^ the ancient 

<3L is reached. After 1 br. wo ^ 3^-^, The soil is productive. In 

shua XV. 55), or Juda C^'^'St*-,^ , a-n^ in 40 min. more we reach 

Zif (p. 140) becomes vxsxX>ac 

'• ^^-'" ^ ^imon«« *® El-Kerak). 

8. '«\«1 ^•^-"^^•^t , :^ra.). From the foot of the hill the 

.A8t road is now quitted, x» .^^^ foirt of JJmm B&ghek. There an 
^^'5^ -^V In iVa ^i"- we reach tbe ^"* ^^a ^7 ». conduit from the mount- 
^-tSsi^^^'^'^^TVoiTS here, which were ??*5^e»a ^®* " 7®^ shallow, its depth 
\.vfO *^he whole of the 8. bay of JSt«^»- ^^ 7^^?^ *^^ ^- end of the — 
^tv*-.^^ from 3 to lift. In 1 br. *"^^^>ry- ^^.*^® name of Usdum is 

^el or Khaahm TJsdum. -- ^^ c^^et^- ^^"j^ xix). it is probable, 

>.^^^ed the ancient name of ^ZftS^iaMT ^^T^^f^J ^^^ ^*"«y of ^'^<'»'n 
/'''f.^^er, that the name has been arUflcia^g^ ^»t:?»*fd here (Gen. xiv. 3). ' 

iSi^^ was fall of asphalt mines, was ^^^t ^.M_in length and 145 ft. 

^ J^^hel Uadnm is an isolated ^}\\^ is about 350 ft. above the level 

. fta^Seht, the highest point of "^"^^Jt^ »rxd crevassed, that it is difficult 

'^tbei^ Dead Sea. The sides are so ^7^\^ of P^^^ crystallised salt, which 

^i^c^ ^id it. It consists almost entirely 

144 Route 11, EZ-ZUW£rA. 

takes the form of pinnacles and minarets, and has been partly washed 
out by the rain. These formations probably gave rise to the tradition 
mentioned by Josephus, that the pillar of salt into which LoVs wife was 
converted was to be seen here (Gen. xiz. 26; Wisdom x. 7). In many 
places the hill is covered with strata of chalky limestone or clay. Many 
blocks of salt have detached themselves from the top of the hill and 
rolled down, but these are not generally transparent. The salt is trans- 
ported to Jerusalem. 

Fboh Hbbbon to Jebbl Usdum (direct. 15 hrs.). To Tell Z\f (p. 140) 
about l»/4 hr., thence towards the S. The plain is one of the best cul- 
tivated in the territory of ancient Judah. It slopes towards the Dead 
Sea to the E. After 1/2 hr., to the left, Umm el-'AmUd^ with remains of some 
clumsy columns which once belonged to a church. Farther on, to the 
S.W. , rises the tower of SemC'a (p. 151). In */4 lir. we reach the ruins 
of Bt'Kurmul (Josh, xv, 55 ; 1. Sam. xv. 12, etc.). On the top of the hill 
are the ruins of a castle, and the foundations of two churches are visible. 
The terrace affords a survey of the environs. The small valley contains 
a large ancient reservoir. The village of Afc^in (1/4 hr.) also possesses 
ruins, rough-dressed blocks of stone, and subterranean rock-dwellings. We 
follow the road to the right of Tell Afcfin and in 1 hr. reach the top of 
a hill. Descending we enter a pasture district which belongs to the Ja- 
halin Beduins (scarcely any water). 

We proceed along a small valley, passing the ruins of Jen^eh^ Ka- 
ryaUn^ el-BeyHd^ and Et-Tayyibeh (1 hr.). To the S.W., about 1 hr. distant, 
rises the Tell ^Arad (Numbers xxi. 1 ; Judges i. 16). We next reach (1 hr.) 
Tell Ehdeib. After Y4 hr. the valley turns towards the E. , and lower 
down it is called Wddy Sepdl (p. 143). "To the left (35 min.) lies the 
ruin of El-Msek. On the ('A hr.) top of the broad hill are the ruins 
called RvJ&m Seldmeh. Farther to the S.E., we reach (10 min.) Sudeid^ 
and the country gradually assumes the character of a desert. After 40 min. 
we come to the first slope of the hills towards the Dead Sea with ruins 
called Zuiceret elFdka ('the upper'). Here we survey the S. part of the 
Dead Sea. On the margin of the sea the top of Jebel Usdum and the 
peninsula El-LUdn beyond it become visible , and to the S. of them lies 
the Ghdr. In the extreme S. rises Mount H&r (p. 150). The route descends 
and (20 min.) crosses the Wddy el-Jerrdh. After 3 hrs. we come to the 
brink of the second mountain slope, and descend by a defile into the Wddy 
ez-Zuw^ra^ at the foot of which (50 min.) the character of the soil alters 
from limestone to soft chalk, or whitish, hardened clay in horizontal 
beds. In the bottom of the valley the small fort of Ez-Zuwira^ which 
stands on a cliff of crumbling chalk. In the soft, perpendicular rock, 
nearly opposite the fort, a little above the ground, is a chamber with 
loopholes. We now descend the valley, and reach (1/3 hr.) the broad plain 
of the coast, covered with acacias and tamarisk trees. On the right is 
the broad Wddy el-Mahauwat. We cross to the S.E. the plain sloping 
towards the lake, and in 25 min. reach the N. end of Jebel Usdum. 

Fbom Jebel Usdum to El-Kbbak (14 to 15 hrs.). After a ride of IV4 hr. 
along the sandy coast, we reach, at the foot of Jebel Usdum, a cav.ern. 
The blocks of salt here are often coated with clay. Stalactites hang from 
the roof of the cavern, through which there is a considerable draught. 
In 20 min. we reach the S.W. end of the Dead Sea. The S. end of the 
sea is very shallow, and the coast consists of a marshy flat which is 
sometimes covered with water, as the pieces of wood drifted over it in 
all directions indicate. Near the shore the reddish soil is too spongy to 
walk upon. This tract is furrowed by the channels formed by the water 
as it retires. We obtain a view here of the white cliffe bounding the 
Ghor, or Jordan valley, on the S.E. Beyond them begins the 'Araba valley, 
extending to 'Akaba. The ValUy of Bali (2 Sam. viii. 13-, 2 Kings xiv. 7) 
lay in this plain, now called Es-Behkha^ which is strongly impregnated 
with salt. To the N. the promontory Rde Mereed, and even the Rdf el- 
Fethkha (p. 172), are visible. After lV«hr., the Sebkha ends and the so- 
called GhAr ee-Sdfiyeh begins. In addition to the reeds we observe the 




« . 1 . f 



V^lW^'^ ? 


l-^Kf^J^.' *» •»*' 





; .... • 

■■-. •! 

-  . 1- ' 

*" »w 







<^'^- - 



*^ ) of O'^ r, 



^^^ r .'' 



A'oBiXeoudeLaborde'a «Xiiuuit« Surrev. 
Scale of i: 12.500. 



^:: r 


_[l ^ 

PBIt,^ is. Boule. 145 

* *«A. 

^httie' i^ ,,, 4,_ „e reach th^^^C ^j.^, i.„,flfc„, „iib a brook, ina 

'1^ o" BV-MSlb., «d iD «I..mS.'^ ^u^?-^- ^^.^, w« U.e ffiil- 


1?» Vnl ™ tte beaTitifnl and e,r'«DS !•« ■'■=', „*o( Sf«rrfo adjolntaE Jhei" 
mlli^i ' ,n--= „f /\>.a_ i_ , *^Xt^^' . _ ^Tiflifl "* .._,iff t^ . flat rl»vpT 

front a the brajt of B „. 

If-Wl- J(«i«*ifA and In 96 mio, '„. „„,„^ •ft*' ' ™  
JC^I by » Yittlted p«s»6« 19 ft. htgb »»* ^ **' 

12. Petra- ^„t yet been aufacianUy 

,„,*he region to the 8. of the Dead Sea ^f^^, o^irl A'Ji'.urpX 


,P.H., I8»i; Sea {. BUi 'Voy«' .E.^r; ^n.e"»""' 

SlfiMi*! ^**S''w''f from the tf»«'!?^' •- "ic -^-f.m 

bottom of 


inil 8?""- 

146 Route 12. PETRA. Kaar Fif'aun. 

the valley is not quite level , several conical hills rising along the 
course of the hrook *Ain MUsa, which traverses it from the S.E. The 
valley is enclosed on every side by nearly perpendicular rocks of 
considerable height. These rocks are composed of sandstone of many 
different colours (p. xlviii), and contain much saltpetre. The whole 
basin was evidently once a lake, and the water has worn deep 
passages for itself among the rocks. 

HiSTOBT. The name Petra corresponds to the Hebrew Sela^ (2 Kings 
xiv. 7; Isaiah xvi. 1); the Hebrew name was known down to Arab times 
as the name of the fortress. Petra is an cmcient commercial town, the 
staple-place for the trade of Arabia with the K. and W. Its site was 
eminently favourable, the place being very difficult of access, and there- 
fore less exposed to the predatory attacks of the surrounding Beduin 
tribes. From the 2nd cent, before Christ the population of this region 
consisted of l^abateeans. Around the city dwelt nomadic Arabs, som.e of 
whom owned the supremacy of its princes. The religion and culture of 
the population were Arabian. In the year B. G. 310, Atheneeus, the general 
of Antigonus, took the town by attacking it in the absence of the men at 
a neighbouring market. The latter, however, on their return retaliated 
by a nocturnal attack, which resulted in the destruction of the Greek 
army. A second attempt to capture the place, under Demetrius, also 
failed, as the inhabitants were well armed. Strabo states that many 
Romans had settled there. From the time of Pompey (Gabinius) onwards, 
Petra was under the suzerainty of the Romans. At length, in 1(>&, we find 
Arabia Petrsea a Roman province under Trajan. Hadrian seems to have 
conferred privileges on the town of Petra , and some of the coins of the 
place bear his image. Christianity was introduced here at an early period, 
and bishops of Petra are mentioned. In the 4th cent. , however , the 
prosperity of Petra was gone , its commerce began to be diverted into 
various other channels, and the Arabs of the desert gradually encroached 
upon its territory. The whole region was at length conquered by the 
Arabs, and from that period the name disappears from history, the town 
having by this time dwindled into insignificance, or entirely vanished. 
Seetzen was the first of the modern explorers of the place. 

The general character of the buildings at Petra is that of the debased 
Roman style of the 3rd and 4th centuries of the Christian era, when 
simplicity and unity of design were sacrificed to richness of decoration 
and theatrical effect j and it is interesting to observe how much resem- 
blance there is between this stvle of architecture and the degenerate 
modern style of the 17th and 18th centuries. The monuments of Petra, 
nevertheless, are strikingly imposing, as almost all of them are hewn in 
the rock. Grseco-Roman forms are blended with those of native art. To 
the latter belong the truncated tomb-pyramids, the gables on the portals 
of the tombs; the urns which ornament these portals are characteristic. 
It has even been thought that traces of the influence of Egyptian art may 
be found. The capitals of the pilasters are partially of rough workmanship. 

The valley of Petra ow^s its name of Wddy MUsa to the fact of its 
being the scene of the story told in the Koran about Moses striking the 
rock (Petra), whereupon twelve springs burst forth. This is the account 
of Yd,kdt, the Arabian geographer, and even Eusebius hints at a similar 
tradition. The modern Spring of Moses rises near the village of Elji^ 
descends the valley towards the W. , and uniting its waters with those 
of another valley forma the brook of Wady Kdsa. 

Of the Buildings of the ancient town there are few traces left. 
Following the left bank of the brook from the W. , we come to the 
remains of a large building, popularly known as the Kasr Fir^aun, 
or Pharaoh's palace. The enclosing walls , with their openings for 
beams, are preserved nearly entire, but the columns of the N. fa^add 

AmpMtKeae^rc. ^^' ^^. Route. Uj 

have di8apipe«« A • ^^^ents ofbotlf Jt^^^^LL^'^'^P^i Arch Tt. 
MoMteoitiTO\oTVTX<=>^^^^r. \^^ t>otli struotiires date from thp Tf , ® 

the arch ^itli t;lx€. <^^^^ or the palace. Following tJiP k i "* °^ 

"towaids ^^^« :B:., we perceive tiie ««bstrnctioif ,*f\\^^.^^^ 
to the TigM tb.« ^««xain8 of a T^rr^j>le. Jn the pUin sUn^^it' '"^ 
of a chtiTcli nea.Tr «, solitary colnmn named Zidb Fit^aun 2 .IT^ 
the W. ate luinLS of" a castle. • ' "" * ^'^1 to 

The I^bobote»<:>:i:-:m:s claims our deepest interest. Altho 
rocks are of soxnei-w-Xiat soft consistency, tlie elaborate eleo-arTnA *I\f 
which theyha-^re* T>een chiseUed must Jiave required extraonr 
perseverance. 1P»-t ahove the ground , in every direction ar^ "^ 
entrances to toxnt^s -which are now inaccessible, and we mxist th 
fore infer that -tlx^ sculptors used ladders to enable them to It ~ 
their work. Ttket T^irecipitous rocks on tlie E. and W. sides of T?f^ 
valley haveheei:*. x^x-incipally used for these tombs, but the cliff f 
the numerous sxAefc— -valleys have been similarly hewn. °^ 

Proceeding farom the ahove-nien ti on ed column (Zibb FiV 
towards the gox^e^ on the S.W. side , we observe in the rock 
markable unftiiis:ii.e»cL tomb, which shows how the Petraans s^ l^' 
tured their roclt--fcoxici.hs from the top downw^ards, probably after tb 
had sketched tli.e x»lan on the surface. Some clumsy capitals o i ^ 
are visible in -tli.e x-ocky wall. In the g-orgre we perceive sevJ i 
monuments en^iietly detached from the rock, which recall the J«w- ^ 
tombs of the valle^y of Jehoshaphat (p- 97). :Here also the surroimT 
in^ yrali of rooV. Yx&.s been hewn smooth. Some of the small ro^k 
stsdreases ascoTLdxTx^ to loftily situated entrances are in exftpiiffl 
preservation. *"eiient 

The small valley on the S.E. side also cont&ins several tomhs 

and a roclL-stM.xca.s©, The most remarkable part of theplace, howpvpr 

is the gorge tlxxo^gix ^hioh the 'Ain MHaa fiows. Entering it fl^Il 

the ^., yrQ se© s^^^^xal tombs on the left, and farther on, where the 

valley turns tio -tlxe E. , we come to a magnificent Amphitheatre It 

is entirely he-w^ix Xrx the rock, and is 39 yds. in diameter; 33 ^igj 

of seats rise ^^^ a.l>ove another , and the whole could accommodate 

thiee or fo^ "tlxoTisand spectators. Above the seats there are small 

chambexs \\^^ a.xolieg hewn in the rock. The highest tier commands 

an aAmliabl© ^le^ of the valley and the tombs. The brook now 

iVo^B ^^^^'^^r'a iif ^**S® ^^ *ie amphitheatre. — The gorge soon 

©outtacts , »^^^ t;ix^ cliffs become more abrupt. The facades of the 

tombs V^^l^^l ^^ery possible variety of design. Opposite the 
theatre thete is a i^^^^ ^^^^^^^ .^ ^^^^/ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ j.,gin^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

heeu ^e^» * *f > apparently with irreat difficulty. ^^^^^ ^^^ ped- 

Vmeut oMj^ ^^r^e square door fastens descend iug from the 

middle to tfte CO j,^^^^ wk ^^.fw>n seen, one above 

^^^^^'^ 'Ct^^^i^^ «^«i°^Pler stvt .r^ fnrfohed with columns 
and pedi^^^''*^. ^.rther on, V ^ a'StThere .mailer valleys 

^ :10* 

148 Route /2. PETRA. Khaznet Fit'aun. 

descend fiom tlie right and left , and towards the E. we enter the 
Stk. From the W. cliff suddenly projects the so-called Khaznet 
Fir^aun, 'treasury of Pharaoh'. 

As the facade of this monument is about 86 ft. in height, it would 
seem to have belonged to a temple rather than to a tomb. The details 
are admirable, and having been sheltered by an overhanging rock, the 
sculpturing of which had not been quite completed, they are in excellent 
preservation. The beauty of the monument is enhanced by the rich red 
colour of the stone, and the striking picturesqueness of the situation. The 
capitals of the porch , which has five out of six columns still standing, 
the cornice above it, and the pediment adorned with a Roman eagle, all 
betoken careful workmanship. The second story also rests upon columns, 
but has broken pediments. Between these rises a slender round tower, 
resting on columns, with a richly adorned frieze, and terminating in a 
dome. On the keystone of the dome stands a huge stone urn, which the 
Beduins believe to contain the treasure of Pharaoh. The niches and wall- 
spaces are adorned with beautiful sculptures , chiefly of female figures, 
and the ends of the pediments with eagles. The sculptures of the lower 
story have been injured by the vandalism of the Beduins. — The portal 
leads into a spacious chamber, about 12 yds. square, and 25 ft. high. The 
rocky walls of this and the three adjoining chambers are smooth and 

In ancient times, the Stk formed the sole approach to the city 
of Petra. It is a narrow chasm, flanked by rocks which are at first 
150-200 ft. , and farther on, 80-100 ft. in height, some of them 
artificially hewn. The bottom of the ravine is overgrown with 
oleanders. In the clefts of the rook grow wild figs and tamarisks. 
Water was brought to the town by means of conduits skirting the 
bed of the brook, and still traceable in many places. The floor of 
the defile was paved. Near its extremity, the defile is spanned by 
a picturesque arch of a bridge, about 50 ft. in height, under which 
are two niches adorned with two pillars, hewn in the rock. In a 
lateral valley to the W. is a pyramidal tomb; farther W., a tomb 
with a rock-staircase. 

We now return to the outlet of the gorge. On the right rises 
a monument resembling the Khazneh, called the Tomb with the 
Vm. The square terrace in front of the monument was approached 
by steps. A kind of colonnade is formed by two rows of Ionic 
pilasters, five in each. Over the door is a window, above which 
are three others. The urn stands on a pedestal ahove the frieze. 
In the interior is a quadrangular chamber about 16 yds. long. To 
the N. of this monument, beyond a few less important tombs, is 
the Corinthian Tom6, borne by a substructure of eight Corinthian 
columns ; but its execution is less elaborate, and it has been more 
exposed to damage : it contains one large and two smaller cham- 
bers. The rocky wall on this E. side of the town is indeed remar- 
kable for the abundance of its monuments. The grandest is the ad- 
jacent facade in three stories, each of the two upper of which is 
adorned with 18 Corinthian columns. Part of this facade consisted 
of masonry, as its height exceeded that of the rook. Below, are 
four portals. The interiors of these rock-chambers are generally 
destitute of enrichment. Some of them contain altar-niches, show- 

^trA i^- Route. 149 

/«f*i'**«<'riave also been ^ ^^ 

Pi^vit*f"^ ""ith the Latin S^^d /or Christian worship. Farther N. 

FloTentm„^_ On the N. mf^^cription, that of Qnintus Prstextus 

Frr^'r^*^'tectnr*l omatt,^^^/the rocky t.«.in are tomb-chambers 

gorge reseiiii.,.'^-^'';^^*^.."*©!. '" , j-ea of the town a very steep 

mountains 7^n«^ ^^"^ ,* ^8«, ^^^^^^tfidly into the heart of the 
the side^^ ' M many piace^ ^^nds W ^^^^^ .^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

in 1/2 hr. ta'^fter maiiy wi^^^teps ^^f\^ advisable) the path leads 
pinnacles }^^ ^^^ (monast J^^g^s ^ €lYlv sitnated below the highest 
"majesty, ^l rook. Moun|. ^^y^, Jof«i ^^tself opposite in isolated 
ueh, b,it ^J^is monument ig ^*^6r ^^^JZx proportions than the Khaz- 
^elowtijg **^6 style is Ove^^^^gr»i*^j^^ peonliar bulbous outline, 
served ij. ^^obular terminal ^'id. - ^^tiire w-hich is frequently ob- 
nientsr*^^iiodern edifices. ^ is a .^^is look as if metallio enrich- 
giveg ^ ^ onoe been attaclie<j ^^ o*P* The wildness of the situation 
^^^W^ ^^'^^ffl^^* * ^©rv ^^**^^***rtie appearance. In front of it 
a^e bj/®> artificially ^©velj^ .^an^^^^i The walls of the interior 
opposiJ' *»d coutain a ijiot P'** -^ for an altar. The lofty rock 
/ °^^0lu,^ ^® ^er has a Jeve^i *^ ^r^*^^ ^^^ ^*^ ^''"'™'* "^^^^ * ^^"^ 
«{. ^^se are the most ii^^ ^ rt>oUUinents of Petra. Th^it 

Wtnatlon in the midst of the ^^^*»* ^atly enhances the impression 
they produce. On the comr.?^^^^ ^^iiction and desolation of the 
place, compare the prophecy ^*es ^^^V j^ C%M^' 1^» ^'^^ . . « „ 
, In the neighbourhood ofV^^ J'eremi»^J^ geverftl otber interesting 
places with antiquities. Thuf ^^ifl there *^f„d i?^^^^*'' (3 Urs. :«. ot 
^etra) are extensive erottop. ^ «^* iPl^BeicU* »^> petra. — In tbe WM 
^^«, to the 8 of Pltra I ^^^^^>^^^tixoBe ofj^^ ^ich was probably 

'^^ from !>»»**** 

«eDer) the ^onte un triVr; V"^^ ^AAcaJya, Cti^^^^^'f to I'etra occupies fotii 
days (guides, etc Ll ® AS^^ by ^A <^>*^'*^^^e interesting route lead( 

aad day the fort of SwiSL^'l * Roxoan foa^ ^* ^e pi**£.^ dL*^^ end oi 

*>« met Witt ..?"* of 'he hiu and ev-en bero *»^ ^.ppear. i? s«>Jl Jj 

hL^illB runninl * ^^^lying cliff, whicli ^^"^er- worn 1^*^/ ' 3^t50 ft. in 
*^ht, wh?."^.?^'oss the vallPv These _ ^^f ® aJ^o consist of ^^^^ ^'^^^^^^ 


XbO Route 12. MOUNT HdR. Routes 

or hardened clay. The slightly salt springs promote a luxuriant grow^tli 
of tamarisks, nebk trees, and stunted palms. In *U hr. the road readies 
a brook, tolerably free from salt, issuing from the spring 'Ain el-^^riks. 
Beyond the Ohor are seen the WAdy et-Tafileh and Wddy Oharendel, 
which last has been named after the considerable ruins of the ancient 
episcopal town of Arindela. After 1 hr. a point is reached where the 
line of cliffs crosses the valley, which is about 2i/s M. wide, towards tlie 
left (£.). After 1 hr. the valley turns S. , and Hount Hdr near Petra 
becomes visible in the distance. After 3 hrs. the route reaches the un- 
dulating ^Araba, an extensive desert, with a few scattered shrubs (ghada). 
The soil consists of loose gravel and stones, and is furrowed by water-cour- 
ses. The only green spots are near springs (towards the W. ^Ain el- Weibeh^ 
p. 151, to the N. ^Ain el-Ghuwireh). After 2 hrs. 40 min. the Wddy el- 
Buwirideh is reached. The road turns more to the S. £., and in 1 hr. 
40 min. reaches springs with vegetation. The route now crosses the 'Araba 
towards the E. The watershed which here intersects tiie valley is at 
its lowest point 788 ft. above the level of the Mediterranean, so that it 
is impossible that the waters of the Dead Sea and the Bed Sea were 
ever united (comp. p. 168). The valley, which is now a dreadful wilder- 
ness, doubtless served as a route for traffic at the period when tiie 
ancient town of Ezion-Geber, near the present 'Akaba, was the principal 
seat of the maritime trade of the Edomites and' Israelites. To the W. 
rises the outline of Jebel et-Tih^ and to the E., the mountains of Esh- 
Sherd (p. 151). After 3 hrs. the road has crossed the valley of ihe 'Araha, 
ascending towards the S. E. The heaps of stones frequently encountered 
owe their origin to a singular custom. When the Beduins vow to slaughter 
a sheep in honour of Aaron's memory, they bring their victim within 
sight of Aaron's tomb on Ht. Hdr, and then kill and eat it, piling stones 
on the spot on which the blood has been poured. — The road now threads 
its way through the winding Wddy Rubd% passing round Mt. Hdr on the 
S. This valley is flanked with hills of coloured sandstone and chalky 
limestone, and contains several caverns. At the bottom of the valley 
grow tamarisks, the caper shrub, and a magnificent 'orobanche'* with 
large yellow and blue flowers. 

ICount HAr is composed of sandstone, in which brownish-yellow | y^( 
and reddish streaks of different shades alternate. From the principal 
mass rise several peaks of different heights, in the interior of which the 
coloured layers run concentrically. The mountains here are furrowed by 1. ''i 
perpendicular chasms. Mt. Hdr, which is ascended by an extremely steep I :;Wy 
path, consists of two peaks. On the £. peak, 4360 ft. above the l~'\ 
Mediterranean, is situated the Iamb of Aaron (Kabr Hdr'An)^ to which 
pilgrimages are made. Near the summit a ravine is reached in which 
steps ascend. There are a few ruins here which perhaps belonged to an I ^Vn ,| 
old monastery. The tomb of Aaron, a modern Muslim sanctuary, is a I3''lir. 
miserable square building containing a modern sarcophagus. At the N.W. I ^'iev. 
corner a passage descends from the chapel to a subterranean vault (light I ^ '> rtj, 
necessary). The tradition that Aaron was buried here (ITumbers xx. !^), f ^rtiiicl 
is certainly ancient, and is mentioned by Josephus. Many Arabic and I 'WaD 
Hebrew inscriptions have been written here by pilgrims. The view hence 
is very curious, including the necropolis of Petra, the gorges and chasms _ 
of the mountains, and to the W. the desert of the 'Araba. The practice I 13, i 
of burying their dead on the tops of hills is still common among the I > 
nomads of the desert, as it was in ancient times. — From the beginning 1 !!|^'oiirc 
of the 'Araba to the N.W. corner of Petra is a journey of about 3 hrs. J .'^- - j 

From Petra to Hebron (42 hrs.). The traveller may ride direct over | '"'kv^ 
the 'Araba to 'Ain el-Weibeh (18 hrs.). A longer way leads through the 
plain of SutHh Bida (8 hrs.), and in 3 hrs. more to the summit of the I j 
Jfemela Pas's^ ' which commands a fine view. In >/4 hr. the route reaches I l^ 
the foot of the hill, the porphyry composing which now gives place to I J^t tdg 
limestone. The path descends into the 'Araba over stony slopes (2 hrs.), I. --^tliD 
and in 2 hrs. 20 min. the Wddy es-SehdUn is reached. This valley is now I \ ^^J^ 
followed to a point where it forces its way through several hills of gravel I ^C[^^ 
which run across the 'Araba. The route proceeds towards the W.K.W. |<, ^i 

over tr==^ ' SEMt^-^. ' 12^ ^^^^g jf 

\i^\^ ^ <^>^''?h"^w'*^T'^**®'°««« of gravel, reaches rS*/* h™ wk« nr^ 

^ -^^^^A.^TJ?'"'^ A^ here 2Mr;.ide.^ Ai tre^oinTrerftr rd'^' *^ 
o/jri>-^2i?^^/.^. ^»"?'.?"'* «0"*»i'»a a little sulphur '*" *^'^® "P'^"^ 

tetie S^^->. A9?/®i ? 5 *^« traveller is conducted either ud to thi. ,.« 
ifi^tr^ ^^i ^ ^ ^^^l Iirs.> and thence to tlie TFiSdy l^VAreA (TV, hr^ V J/f S? 
the p^^^::^ i" •Z'^"* ?y» h'«- across tl^e paaa of ^^JTAaX "nd' the 5^?J 
Jevel ^^ ^^'•s.^, to the pwa of S»-SaJ'ct' O/9 hr.). In 1 hr th? ««^ -^ 
mdy ^^»8^ ^f reached It affords a view o£ afrx indescribablfwi dernp^"'*.^.,: 
The rci.'^^^* reached in 2 hrs. is called ^^f-2'«rdt6M In 2 h« 1^ T5 
intotS^^^ ^eme» is reached. To tli© left lie the ruins of Jr«m«ft r^ !5. **! 
^.-.-iT^^^*- ascends tlie heiVh*« ^^ .k-«^z>A^/ ^sZ-^awZ r9i/. ».-rr"**'*l(*niin.. 

ofcuLS^^^*«<5e"<l« the heights of JCt^I>t>et ^l-Baul {^U ^^t^^A^wJ^^'A 
W^^^^^f^^^ o^'^^^raUroe^', 1 Sam. «x. 28Vwhe?e>rhr ^T.''^ 
/ Ar ^.- "^-tion are seen. - in 35 mln., tlxe ruins of EUKm&l^ tiH.i^ 
rr^Jn^^^K. ^-^" ^*^^ ^^olada. Josh. :x:v^. 36 5 ISTeh. xi. 26). 'On the left of?' 
//.//,^-<«<>^ min., is the ruin of MaJtn^Z. ^fter 2 hrs. I6 min. is seen' r5?/-^ 
^ Joshua xxi. 14). To the left, after 1 hr., lies Mm with L^'" 

In 20 min. we reach Bemu'a C^^^^^^^^^^^^ Joshua xv. 50'- 1 w J 
ith ruins of an Arab castle. Orx a Irill 5 min. to the S W nf f>f 
5 are the remains of a tomh laaonxxxnent of the early Byzantine rli^-^^^ 
3 right lies (3/4 hr.) Ydta Cp. 1A33. Tlxe road now (1 L ) reaches Th^ 
el-KhalU Cvalley of Hebron), axid O/a hr.) the Village of ^U^^ 
I which it ascends the Uill to the right (s/, h,.). Fields Wi' 
ind the traveller at length reaches C^V* hr.) the beautiful orchards 

OM Petra to El-Kerak C28 lira.), escort necessary. From Ppfi.^ >.„ 
(6V» hrs.) Shobek, the principal I>i?^« «f the district of ^,;i.^2rd^ 
aldwin erected the castle called J£^i Regalu, or Mont Royal tL 
* castle is of Arabian origin , o^rxA here also are the ruins of o 
rs' church. After 61/2 hrs. tlie '^^^J® J"S»«l»es the ruins of Qharmdel 
^ -, well-preserved Roman road . ,-^"%f ^^'1^^ '«ad reaches B^l 
j:Boara, Gen. xxxvi. 33; Jerem. :s:lx3C. l^)> >» the district of /«6d;^p 
— ae). The ruins are insignificant. «^*- «• 

^«c7i CTopTiel, Deut. i. 1), 2V4 **»•«- farther is a large villaee wUk 
i30 houses, 'the shSkh of wHicfa *« .?«'^inally thi chief ^ofthJ 
ofJebal. The environs are a.l>un<i»?^"y.^atered and fertile. tJp 
ids hence towards the N.TVT. , I>^^S-^tJjL 'If^^ ot^Aimeh, the ruins 
trr (1 hr.), the spring 'Ain, ^t-^c^sr-^^, ii^^ reaches (21/; hrs) th^ 
-Al^a, which is callld JT/^^^^j ^".-VentTV^"^'^- Here be *^^ 
>rict of Kerak, the territory <>^, f'^f " rf!*"?;^- ^° ^^^ K. aid! o? 
«y the road ascends, and in ^^/t>,« tnn^J^S ^^<*^^ireh, (1 hr f 
^1 hr.) Ketherahha. After V* l*""- . ^^^^IJ^ *^^^*" comminds a 
Slew. The valley of Mm -^^«^/* /^^ "^Tf tif?,^"'^^^, and beyond u 
- is reached in HA hr. — The villa-^®*^^^,^ *J^" district resemble ih^ 
^8 much more nearly than do the peasants in the coun?^ to the 
** Jordan. 

18. Prom Hebron to BS* Jibiin and Gaza. 

is tour can only he made under ^^^^^^f * ^oAn«!!^*^(P- **xiii). Guide 
^le. - A. carriage road is in process of construction from Hebron 
to Gaza. 

1. From Hebron to B:6t Jibbin (43/^ hrs.). 
taking the route from Hebron to :^^^^}^^'^ oak (p. 139;)^ ^^ 
^/jr^r-^%e to the right after 22 min. , »i^<i i^^ri , ™'"-^ *^® remains' 
t./ ^'^ aqueduct. We then (5 min.^^a^-^/?^* Path to the right, and 
i/i ^fcr.) descendlnto the WSdj/ ci-^^VctWl^aiiey of the Franks), in 
O 11^ in. we reach a spring, a little l>eyond which, to the left, ig the 

152 Jtoute 13. BtT JIBRIN. From Hebron 

village of D6ra (Adoraim. 2 Oliron. xi, 9: Noah's tomb is shewn 
here, see p. 335) and TaffHh (^Beth Tappuah, apple house, Josliua. 
XV. 53). Descending the valley, "we come in 25 min. to the spring 
'Ain el-Vff. After 35 mln. we reach a broad, green level. On 1:Iie 
hill to the left, in the midst of olive-trees, lies the village of Tcrfcti— 
rmyeh (anciently Trikomias), with a few relics of antiquity. Af-ter 
1 hr. 40 min., we avoid the village of JB^fDcfc^^n. We then ascend. 
a small valley to the W.S.W., and reach (12 min.) the olive-groves 
of B^t Jihrin and (20 min.) the ruin outside the village. 

Bfit Jibrln. — HisTOEy. An attempt has been made to identify £&t 
Jibrin with the ancient Libnah (Josh. x. 29: 2 Ki. xix. 8). The identity 
of this place with the ancient Betogdbra is certain. A town of that name, 
though in a corrupted form, is first mentioned by Josephus, but Ptolemy 
gives its proper name. The ancient Betogabra is identical with Eleuther- 
opoKs. That name, signifying 'free city', was probably given to the town in 
consequence of the privileges bestowed upon it, as occupying an important 
central situation, by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus in 202, on tlie 
occasion of his journey in the East. The names of some of its bisliops 
have been handed down to us. The Crusaders found the place in ruins. 
Under Foulques of Anjou, in 1134, a citadel was erected here, and its 
defence committed to the knights of St. John. The Franks called tlie 
place Oibelin. In 1244 it was finally taken by Beibars. The fortress w^as 
restored in 1551. 

BU Jibrin (House of Gabriel) lies between three hills, the Tell 
Bumat on the W., the Tell Sandehanna on the S.E., and the Tell 
Sedeideh on the N.W., the summits of which were probably once 
fortified. The village now contains about 900 inhab. (Muslims). 
It occupies about one-third of the site of the ancient town. Ruins 
of old buildings are incorporated with most of the houses. Num- 
erous coins , some of them bearing the name of Eleutheropolis, I i^L 
are offered here for sale. A portion of the ancient wall, bnilt l^^ofj 
by the Crusaders, perhaps in 1134, still exists on the N. side. To i.vt* ' 
the N.W. and E. were forts. That on the E. side has been con- J L>5\^^ 
verted into a Muslim cemetery; fragments of columns, a fine J^-^Wcj 
large portal, and a reservoir still exist. The other fort stood on f "Jf ^7 
an eminence, and the ancient substructions are still easily distin- 
guished from the later work. Over the door is an Inscription dating I ^^?"tte*^ 
from the year 958 of the Hegira (1551). The fortress was flanked i'ft^ ^i 
with a tower at each corner. The interior contains a handsome cis- 1 iJ^^^ 
tern and many vaulted chambers now used as dwellings and stables. I '^^p!^/? 
On the S. side runs a gallery from E. to W., which was originally fx^^'Holi 
the aisle of a church. On the left and right are five pillars, formerly I -^^ of 
enriched with columns in white marble. Six of these, with Coriu- J |?*g^^^'' 
thian capitals, are still in their places. The arcades are pointed. Out- I '"^WenenL 
side the enclosing wall are two similar columns. I ^JjJ**; uj. 

The chief objects of interest here are the rook-caverns Cor^ or J ^4reh'^'<7: 

'ar&k)j which begin near Bet Jibrin, and extend far into the environs | * *^' 
(comp. p. 160). St. Jerome informs us thaithe Hor?wi, or dwellers 

in mountains and caves, once lived in this district, and that the 1 X 

Idumseans lived in caverns throughout the country from here to | i^^ascen 




to Gaza, BJ^'x^ 

^^KIN. ^^' Route. 153 

petra, in order to escape fro^Vh 
little doubt that these caven^g^ t;:iie intensity of the heat. There is 
similarity lead to the inferen,»^^>^ very ancient. Their number and 
has sometimes been suppose<J ^^^^^at they -vrere used as dwellings. It 
used as churches, as they h^ ^^^ many of tliese cayems were once 
crosses are frequently ©ngrav^^^ apses turned towards the E., and 
contain the crosses generally^ ^ti their -v«ralls. Those caverns which 
stone, a kind of grey chalk . "^^^ve Muslina inscriptions also. The 
art with which the chamber ^^ ttioderately soft; the regularity and 
The caverns consist of rouu-? "^^ave been excavated are admirable, 
meter, supported by detachft? » Vaulted cliainl>ers, 20-26 ft. in dia- 
Eacb cavern is lighted fro-, ^Hjars Xliey are 30-40 ft. in height. 
Syria there are tomb-chami^ ^"bova i>y a. well-like opening. In N. 
of these caverns are now n ^^^ of similar form, but smaller. Many 
cattle, which now, as in an^? «^ stables for goatfl and for the homed 
plains of Philistia. ^^^ ^Ut tim es, a^e e:i: tensively reared in the 

The following walk in *^ 
tbe fortress to the S. E., Ba«^^ ^ost intex-estii*^ here We descend from 
in 5 min. we observe cav?^* ^lie ^nrni^ arTa a.aoe»d a small water-course, 

i^ them (five rthebaci^^^^^^ aS> J^^gl/Xst^tcit^* *l^^^ 

T»8ed as sepulchres TiTa l.*^e on pach sideZ^, * fh« ^ once have been 

^^ter the falling in of the ok""® v^®®" J^**^ S»ve aAso been fonned ontt* 
11^^ in front of them, with^^°^J?^l iS^^'^iW*^^ ^^ *^« g'oupfl^f cham 

O^'^ grottoes, in which numernn- w-i*i «i^eo»a ^*^^ **^S" °P *^e« ahode 
Aa^^ of them' contains a wetr^nlat ^e%r^l P^f ^^f,f ! «'°r*^ «««°d« 

/^gj-^^^^ed crosses, and, curiouslv enoiieli insca-iP**?^*^"* i!ff/'^n» the early 
^nP^f of Islamism (in CuficThaLrr?)f are ^^^T^^luty tTrt fr.^^4 
^^^^^^^jom one cavern to another we ascend tl»?^^ tSe vi/wp t* ^'''''f^ 
jall^^^^, which in a straight line is only 1 ^C- f^^ tL subsL.*-'' '"" 
this ^^ by the natives Mdr ffannd, or ^^^^^^^Sf^t ^T ^o^^^tT ^^ 
'lite^^^hurch date from the 'ByEan'tine 'period, ^«* rflide-apsH^^ 
^'5''^i!3' ^y *^« Crusaders. The principal apje ^^^^^ ^re carefully hlwn 
tod *^^ed. The window-arches are round, ^he st<^^ ^^^ pilasters Tn^' 

Mde^^:^e walls are massive. On each side of tUe ^Y^* cinarch is the cavern 
'W'^^J^^.^ the N. aisle is a crypt with vaults. _^®*L tl»e passage of Bt-snk 
"^^^•^^^e/ Sandehanna; not far off, to the vv., lo .» 

iT^^^ ^ds. long. ^ „ „-»x -r. ».-.*»• lies J^erdsh {MaresaJi^ 

i^»V '^^X^t 20 min. straight to the S. of Bet fibrin ^ cliai» of hilig of MSr 

^Mnvk'*^>'^ 44). a shapeless mass of ruins. The w^o' ^^^ q ^d W. aides. 

'J^ewr^?*^ honeycombed with caverns, especially f^T^icnes or columbaria, 

'laged^^-^d of some of the caverns are full of Bin»l^J* g^g is not clear, as 

SerL ^fJ?,iilv along them; but what their ^^^ ^^ for keeping stores 

orLt^?^ Wgh froSf the gronnd to have been «^/ecep*»<^Jf^i«' «J^^ls 

'>'5fiw^ ^Sta They were perhaps employed »^ JT^er of l^»"d8o«»e old 

.^^^^^^ u^s.- S^ This hni tbere are'alL a ij^^f ^Je^erved. Some of 

^^' ^^^^^rxL some of which winding stairs are s*»^^ ^ 

^^.Jf iso contain such steirs. 

^rr 2. Fbom B:^ JiBBiN TO Q^^^ uhotit ' ^^ The top of 

4ii^T3endthe W. raBge ofhillsby ^,^ centr^L^. Afier35n.i„. 
^"-4 hr.) commands a last vie^ ^^ ^j^^ vjl^**^ 

t54 Route 13. OAZA. From Hebron, 

we observe iu the fields to the right the wely of the 8hWi 'Am^r, 
and ill the distance Tell es-Safiyeh (p. 160). We now leave -tlie 
mountains of Judah behind us and gradually descend their 1&&1: 
spurs to the plain, in a W. direction. On the left, after 1/2 lir. , 
rises Tell el-MansHra^ with some ruins, and 1/2 hr. farther we reacli 
Tell el-LdJehj , with caverns which have fallen in (^Ardk el-Men," 
shiye ; the village lies 1/2 ^r* to ^^ N.). The hills (tell) we see in 
the plain are probably artificial constructions. — Oui route ne:x.t 
crosses the plain towards the S.W. On the right (*/2 hr.) lies 'Ajldrh. 
^AJldn is the ancient Eglon (Josh. x. 34, 35), one of the cities of Judaic 
in the plain. In the Greek translation of the Septuagint, Eglon is con- 
founded with Adnllam, and Eusebius places them both 12 M. to the E. of 
Bdt Jibrtn (see p. 133). 

In about 2 hrs. from 'Ardk el-Menahiyeh we reach the ruins of 
Tell el-Hesy. 

HiSTOEy. Tell el-Hesy is the ancient Laehish^ an important frontier- 
fortress in the direction of Egypt, and, according to the prophet Micab., 
(i. 13) it was also a chariot city, where, in the midst of a grassy plain, 
the Jewish monarchs stationed the horses they procured from Egypt. It 
was besieged by Sennacherib , and the name is said to have been found 
in Assyrian inscriptions. According to Jeremiah (xxxiv. 7), Lachish was 
one of the last cities taken from the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar. 

The extensive and highly interesting excavations which the Pa- 
lestine Exploration Fund has undertaken here in the last few years, 
have brought to light large fragments of very ancient town walls, 
numerous clay vessels, etc. 

From Tell el-Hesy we proceed towards the N.'W . About I1/2 M. to 
the N. of our route lie the ruins of Umm Lakis (more correctly Vmm 
Latis)^ formerly erroneously identified with Lachish (see above). 
In 47 min. we reach Burtr; the first palms occur here. We now 
enter the Wddy Simsimy and to the right, after 40 min., we perceive 
the village of Simaim in an olive-grove. Tobacco and sesame are the 
principal crops here. We soon cross the Wddy el-Hesy, proceeding 
towards the S.W. After 1/4 hr., on the left the village of JVc/d. The 
road next passes (25 min.) Dimreh on the right, and (^4^1-) -Be* j 4 

HanHn. In 35min. more it reaches the top of a hill. After 40 min. ] ;'ii 

we reach orchards with palms, and in 10 min. more the town of — 

Graza. — AccouMODATioN. Latin Hospigb (Mr. Gat()^ comfortable. 
The Greek monastery affords tolerable accommodation, but an introduction I >ilie( 

from Jerusalem is desirable. The best place for pitching tents here is J ^%| 

near the Serai. — Turkish Post Opfice \ international Telegraph. I ' ij f^, 

HisTOBT. a. The Philistines. In the country of I^leshet, in the low ] :ii^ 

plain between 'Akka and the frontier of Egypt, we find in historical I 'Ujat 

times a nation which, judging from its languajge, belonged to the Semitic ^\ q 

race (p. Iv). These ^Pelishtim', Philistines, however, were uncircnmcised, %j[f^^ 

to which the translators of the Septuagint perhaps refer when they de- "^^^ 

signate the Philistines aXXo'tpuXoi, 'people of another racc\ The Bible 'tiZ'^ 

(Amos ix. 7 etc.) connects them with Ka/tor^^ which has been supposed to '-^i^^ 

be Crete. In support of this hypothesis it is maintained that Gherethites % ji 

in the phrase Gherethites and Pelethites (2 Sam. viii. 18 etc.) means '^i^r^ 

Cretan-Philistine paid troops. The Philistines must early have established \i*- 

a constitution; Jewish history, at any rate, shows us a perpetual league ^i'^ip 

of their five chief towns Gaza, Ashdod, Ascalon, Oath, and Ekron. In the %,^!^ 



to CfazcL. GAZA. ^^ 

last decsvdes of ^li.e jE>eario4l of *lie Judges, the Philiatinea 

Iiegexxxony of Pskles-txxxe ^witli. tlie Israelitea, and in fact rnlp 

for a long t.ixzi.e. ^rii.e tr-il^e of ^^a^» in particular. aitnktpH . 

middle of tlie ter^ritox-y of tlie I>liilistin6s, had much to SBUS'e 

In -wliat -way -tlxis g-txex-illa. -vira-r* was carried on, we may le 

lively and vigoro.vrs xiaxTrafcti^ve ot the hero Samson (Judges 

According to all a^ooornats, tlxe Pliilistinea far surpassed the 

culture £ and. in ^vira^r^olia^ioto a.i»<i cavalry they were superior i 

ites i± Sa,m. xiii. 5). Tlie . lieavy-armed soldiers wore a n 

lielmet, a coat of xo-ail, l>x-azen greaves, a javelin, and a Ion 

eacli bad a >vea-i>ox». &nd olkiold-l>earer, like the Greeks in \ 

poema. Tlio liglit-a.x-nae<i wea-e Mrcliers. The Philistines posfiej 

encampxnents 5 tli>ey str«ngtlieno<l tneir towns by surrounding 

lofty walls i and. tliey Icept tlio -fcemtory they had conquered ii 

l>y means of g**'^®^^*- ^fl **i?^.^in.?i*?,^°°*'^«f«*a"y enterp 

not only conai>et«d. ^witli *?^^ ^^^^'*"^™j' *>y sea^ but endeavou 

in tl^eir own Hands tlxe inland Jf^Vf/fi^r*'' *f*^^<^' »^d it wi 

important tUat tiiey slxoxrld *^«™^2?/ *Y g^^J* °»ercantile roi 

tbelreonntry »n<i » «'™»^^«^ IT^^^ilreatf^^^ 

^^*^^t Sfd ^it^ oc^pation therefore formed a constant sour 
portant, »P«\. J^^_ii^„-*^ to tlio g*-«a* ^"'l^Set of the Philistines 
between *^«»e '^^^ we^ «rol>«-l>ly exiled at this period. Ifte? 
tl.e I»Mlist«.efl^ t<^, we^^ P^^^ I>bilistines had disappeared, a^c 

captivity *^®^Jf,^^^^taSned some J^mportance After the time of 
tlieir towns only ^^*?*^iy gone- In *l\e wars between the Syrian 
tlieiT' nower ^^^^^-P .p"':^ _ _^,-/?», T»ecanae the scene of flpi.,.0 ««lfl..»x 

tlieir power I^*^* .r^*\^ aiain l>ecaJ»e the scene of fierce conflict 
tian i4*^o^"^^*i^rf*<rd^£o I»lxilistian-Hellenic coast t^wnsg 
the Maccat^eean ^ew^ enmity againjt the Jews, but the M 

proofs of tlieir ^^^^^ent^ snl>J«g*V°S *lie Philistian plain O 
ancceeded. in ? ^^^^fitSnts of tHat di»t"ct exhibited their in^eter 
Howeirer, tHo V;^*l*^**pJ^a.ting ii^ *1^« destruction of Jerusalem 
of tlie Jews l>y ♦^^ ill-fated- city. 

otHer enenaies ^J!,*?^-) w»9 tHo ^«^«s* fo^*l^em city of the Philis: 
1>. 43I-1&&S2A ^(^f«A cities, »»^ **^".^«'««»at Samson perform 
apolis, or fiv« itV ^oloits CJ^^^es, xvi ). The Israelites held t 
of liis remarH:al>l|» ^f P^^tVe ^ost flourishing period of their empir( 
of rtxe town only jf^^^^i^go, arid JP'^^.f^y chiefly of importance 
iv-. 24). Tl^« ^^^'^^l^otne writers mention that it possessed a seap 
m^rcial plaoe, t^'^^.s T^e 6*^. "^^^t i? .r' ^^*: Herodotus calls^ 
jS-«/«w«« »s la-*^ ^ t^e Oreat took it after a vigorous defence. In 
:^rfv<2»- Al^^*'^^^ «.^ destroyed by Alexander Jannceus, as th" 
^ was kgain *«-^^?;^*^ wi^ *^® enemies of the Jews. A century 

rrw*ae^olopo^ 1*? ^tfitSSngli I>^ile-on w'as CiSa™tSe*fl« 
*^"V-^ ^ iTte 1>«"^^ V-ffi time of Constantme the town was one of 
^^^^^ »own *o *^^^, ad tj^i^i^gj^ijf god Marnas, whose sta 
of <3^»'^-,^-V^ of l>»'Sa'^*®™'a.r AOO, ^^^^^ **»ey were destroyed bv an 
strongHol ds 01 IJ ^^^'^t^ile^f tHe principal temple a larJec 

temples ^^^ On *^« er^ted t^T ^udoxia, wife of^tL Empero' ^ 
the eroperoir. ^^^y^g ereo ^^ j^^ ^^^^^ under 'Omar and 

*^^^SS^ ^^o town ^tint pl»<^« ^7i^"?.^«i«°»«'»«Ha.Xim;Mu^^^ 
In 6a4 *^€.^ i^«»^£l^ once traded with the place, had died k 
regardea a.» ^^i^o ^^r^gaders found Gaza in ruins. In 1149, Bale 
g^andfattjer , ^^Tlxo ^^^'^*nd committed its defence to the Temp 
buried tHere.^^^ l^^J^iU' tUe town, though unable to reduce the i 
erected. » «P* ^Imxn.a.o*'^** 
IITO, Sal»axxi. I* 

156 Route 13. GAZA. 

in 1187, howeyer,the whole place fell into ^^^^ ^*?f.«^|\%i^^^^^ 

short period that Eichard Coenr de ^lon established a loowng ^^^ 

1244, the Christians and Mnslims were defeated ^7 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^e. I» 

Gaai. Since that period Gaza has been a place of no imporiance. 

1799, it was taken by IJapoleon. i-"He 

Whether the modem inland town of Gaza oconpies t*^® ^J*^^ ^ 
ancient town is uncertain. At present the town has some ^P;^" . j^ 
habitants, among them a number of Greek Orthodox ^^l^^^^^^^^^^^ 
a church. The English and the Roman Catholic missions have stawox 
there. — Gaza is the seat of a KS.immak^m. Mnslim 

The town is of semi-Egyptian character; the veil ot *Sf ^""^.^^^ 
women, for example, closely resembles the Egyptian, rr ^ 

immemorial Gaza has formed a connecting link between ^^JP^ ^ 
Syria, and to this day, although the caravan trafac is almost ^x^" ' 
its market is not unimportant, being in particular a^^*^*5ir; J ^^^r 
with dates, flgs, olives, lentils, and other provisions. ^?^® {'^t^ ^^ 
too, has an Egyptian appearance. As the town lies <)n a '"^^* , 
100 ft. high, in the midst of orchards, it is difficult to ^^^ /^*^*^^ 
where it begins. Owing to the abundance of water oontainea oy ^ 
soil the vegetation is very rich. At the present day, tne j2r" " _ 
neither walls nor gates. It consists of four quarters: W . , ^ar 
Tuftn; E., Hdret es-SejdHyeh; S., Hdretez-Zmn; W., ^'."^^ «* 
Barej. The iast of these is reached by steps, as the ^^^^.^^/r^' 
Of late years five new quarters have been added. The anciem tow 
was a good deal larger than the modem one, and to the S. ana Ji*. ei 
vations of the ground are visible, marking the course of ^e town waix. 
One of the chief buildings is the Serdi, on the E- ?J^®.J\^^ 
town, the residence of the Kaimmakam, but greatly dil^i<iatea. 
It dates from the beginning of the 13tli cent. — To the E. or tne 
town, not far from the Serai, rises the large mosque Jami ^^--^^Pr 
Visitors must remove their shoes. The court is paved v^th maroie 
slabs; around it are several schools, and on the W. si^® V^^^®. ^^ 
a kind of pulpit. The mosque itself was originally a Clmstiau 
church consisting of nave and lower aisles, built in the 1 2tli ceni- 
V the Crusaders out of ancient materials and dedicated to St. JohtJ- 
The Muslinis erected an additional aisle on the S. side, and, i^ 
order to mak© ^^om for a minaret, built up the apses. Over tli 
three square pillars and two half-pillars which hound the »*^®J^^^ 
pointed arcades. The columns opposite the nave obnsist of shaft^ 
and consoles; above them is another row of columns -with heautifu 
Corinthian capitals. On one of the columns CN.E.") is a has-relie* 
representing the seven-branched candlestick, ^iih a Greek an<^ 
B^ebrew itxscriv^on. The church is lighted by small grated windoy ^ 
in the Pointed style. The W. portal is a fine specimen of ItaUan Gothio- 
To the ^'^' ^^ *^is mosque is situated a handsome caravan^ 
serai, called ^^^ ^^^** ««-^c« foil kh^n^. Proceeding to the S. W. 
through the 7^^^^* C2.zg<i2n we next come to a mosque partly bmlt 
With flnely- Iie^n stones, situated on the road which is traversed bjT 

GAZA. 13. Route. 157 

fflTa'Tn!" f"*.^™ Egypt. The houBes in the aubuibB are built of 

^noEe m the ,o„u partly of gtoue. 
whenrTir'"' *"''"** •""' "" "•* S-*- "^e of the towo, the pl.oe 
to the wfllvlf oT^ **■* ^- »"d'"'ll''iig Monil the town, we come 
6m been ""^ammed'a grandfither, ia buried. This bulldiug 

old mstpri^ w ^""^"S *'" P™sent century, bnt partly with the 
towi. tI . * "*"'■" '*y tlie cemeteries to the E. side of the 

is ,17^'. * ^- *' *''« Seril is a small modern building, which 

said to contain the Tamb of Samson. 
Mutu™. (o?3 '' *"■ '" *''^ ^- ^' "f <5*^a f'^iRS UB to the hill of Ei- 
TMnn^ ^f **■ ^^"'^ '^* sea-level), which is covered with tombs. 
lim Mk^'t I'^f -'""«'. is popularly believed to have been a Mua- 
the ftniM -^. i ■"*" ''«=""' 'epaya the ascent: to the 8., beyond 
S H !f ''"'^' "«' «"« "'"Sy d«»«rt; to theE., beyond the 

jeiioi s«nAt, ""s^^ "^ ■''"^'=»; " *« "**'- '•«y°"^ '*'^ '•'"»^' 

jeel of All < I ' ^*"^'°''e" the aeaj bat the most piotuiesque oV 
mantle '"'"' "^*''> P*ep*ns ^oth from its beautiful green 

imiiila^tS;" '? '""*1tiii (about iO hrs. ; to El-'Arith 13 h«.). Ttiji 
*o Tell «/--J/fl,™.'f «'MB03lh6dMeclof£l-r(A. From Qm» in 1 lir. Smln. 

E. of TeU el-'Ajfll neat Tell Jan'a are tho 
le 0«rar of Gen. ii, 1). After 11/, lir. D»r 
9 moeqne J^Ani' il-JTAidr it&nds on the site 
■h {I br. 37 min.) fffiili ranaJ, wlUi a Dne 

r. '17 min 

■.irbil el-Borj nni (3Vj 1 
if Egypt' of the Bible |Ni 

£ % is » miniature Egyptian temple (a 

"" o " r banlslmienl, and unfler Uie uama 

S 'I** tie flwt centnries of onr era. B^ld- 

,™ J'J.a TbE Hnior flirdaitll, or stone ol 

5^ mSib rebr!, 1799, Napoleon took El- 

"* o. i°*°{ El-'ArSsh, in pursuance of wblcb 

.e»*'i.i.ded bere. 

"Ifpajii-rtL *tK^^« ^ jn«» tain to the left, following the 

We hnJ is wJ °6^^ ^,0) ilB-*^' # «^ tbe left aie batreu eana-hUla. 

y<^(}-mC>i^X' ^O^^f t^^min.ltheWadv'?-!^^- 

-''"<'t^^tf^^6^V^pl^,^^„ssl^^j^^,„„„p,rtof the Wady 

158 Boute 14, ASOALON. ^- ^-- 

same side we ^'^I'^ell^^^^^^^ Barbara, We now diverge 

Jirji, beyond whioli we reach 1/4^^^^ .3^ . -. ^^cjj^ g-nd by 
to the left from the main road ^^^^f^^^^^^ l^ (^35 min.) — 

El^jera (whence a guide «^;;^^^„^;^^^^^\ipal to Ja of 

ABCalon. — Hibtobt. f'^^fJ^^^Zl^^i^ of the goddesfl Derketo, 
the Philistines, and the c\iff «^^*J,^*JeU I^^^^^ fed in 

in whose honour fish, ^^f^^f^^Sy Iperiod the town was a strong 
tanks, and never eaten. At *JfJJ„!'*j'*'*during the IU)man supremacy 
fortreis, but it attained its |;«^f ^^^^e^^cTu^^^^^^^^ to be emhellished, 

Herod the Great was born *^?'®' ^^fj_g He erected baths and fountainfl, 
although it was not ^ithm his dominions^ i^ee gardens. In the war 

tnd surrounded t^em with colonnades ^^^^^^^ ^ gain possession 

against the Romans *be ^^ws made a iru ^ ^^^ ^ j^.^^ ^^^^ 

ofAscalon. At that P«^°^ *^« ^nuierafnty^^^ The citizens, like those of 
dependent republic ^^^^^^'f^Vi^tfaX down to a late period. On the 
GaL, were bitter ^VV^^^irit^fCl^visix^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Fatimites of 

arrival of the Crusaders Ascalon was in pos ^^y^^^^^ victory under 
Eevnt. On 12th Aug., 1099, the Franits S*7^":J*i_-der8 nrevented them 
fh^^alls of Ascalon, but t^e jealousies of th^^^^ ^^^te MusUm garrison 
from following it up by ^^^^""^.^^^JZAeri and it was only after a 
accordingly continued to ^^^^'I'^^^J^'^^r^ff^r^^^^ ships had been 
siege of five months by sea a^^ land , ^a ai compelled the 

dispersed by the Egyptian fleet, *bat the Franks awe^B Xscalon^in 

plaSe to capitulate. ,^nother great victo^^^ ^^^^^^ of Hattto, 

Urr, when Baldwin IV. defeated Saladin,Du^ ^^ Crusade 

Ascalon was recaptured by *?f,. Jfi^'^.\??f;antll^^^^^^^ 1192, Richard Cceur 
Saladin caused Ascalon *« be P^ti^^^^^^ ^ the jealousy 

de Lion began to rebuild the fortress, but ™ "" .^^^ ^he Muslims it was 
of the other princes, and in a subsequent tr^^^^ "^i* 1270, Beibars caused 
agreed that the place should remain ^nfort^fled^^ then Ascalon has been a 
the fortifications to ,be demolished, and sinjetnenA^^^^^^ 

ruin. At the beginning of the present '^e*^*^'^ **^® Jf'^^ from Ascalon to 

caused many ancient stones and «oljJ,^ii«,*« ^^'^^^^^^^^^^ 

his residence at Acre, where he employed them for buiiaing pury 

William of Tyre, the historian of the Crusades, rightly descnDes 
Ascalon as lying within a semicircle of ramparts, the diameter 
which was formed by the sea on the W., and in a kind of bollow 
sloping towards the sea. This semicircle with its walls is partly 
natural and partly artificial, and affords an ^^^^''^^''^ .^l^V,^ 
the ancient site. Near the S.^- corner lay the small and bad nar 
hour of Ascalon. In the construction of its ^iil^^J^^^^^^^^^'v.^^^^ 
nmns of ^,ey granite had been employed. Of the ^?«*^^^^^^^^^ 
defended u a few remains stiU exist. In the direction of the sea 
f.^'^ ^ sate, the site of which ^^ still known to ^^^ '^^^^^^^iX 
^^^^ and irMch is called hv them B^6 tl-Bohr Csea-gate> The w. 
7." ^' conSnued along l^to-^ ^^^^^ ^^ tl^^ ^oast. Large fragment 
.0^ * Aave ooeasionally VliL^'^l^ut the dnraMlity of the <5ement n ed 
in its construction is stin" ^'V^remarkable. - In the S. P^^ o^ jj« 
^".".^^ Ascalon another J!'^ called that of Gaza, is s*^!! ^J^*^^: 
guishable/*^d there a^e**!*^' remains of towers; but qnantito of 
«andhave'b^^^ Dlown over ll"^/ side of the town. Theramparteon 
*^« E. Side ^ore the molTj^^ Jiy fortified, the walls there b«ng 
'^^^miyYlnd upw^rls^^^^/v, ft. thick fragments of colnnnns 

tmilt into them afe « SDUD- ^^. Houte. 169 

Wely Mohammed ^^^^1^^. 
tolerably T>rfi««,J.^^lc]n. ? 

of Jerusalem 
to the 

is not easily vifi h a tCf TJ^^^^ Th^ ?/*'''• ^^« ^«*'** 
both outside and S *« th« ''"^^^^- ""J^ \ f'**^ o^«ierainparte 
fragments of coin ''^^^e th^^ *'^ concealed by luxuriant orofiard., 
portant 0/ a]] J?»^«, t^Z^ ^«"»- Among these orcliards are found 
date and cAa, ^^ ciatp!'*^*^as of Christian churches, and, most im^ 
^ tlie rDiflBTr^^^f Of th of excellent water. With regard to the 
hedges or thnr^^^h^^^^ remainfi, there are doubts as numerous 
^^^^ SOO inh C^^aha^^' ^ie orchards, enclosed by prickly cactus- 
fi^rtile so,/ . *°', aU.* ^^lons to the inhabitants of J6ra, a village 

r^e^rtile aoili^'f si*,?' ^^hng to the inhabitants of J6ra, a village 
crJ^Vfis, znaav , *^^Ost A'^d to the B. of the ancient Ascalon. The 
iFi th^ favn,; ^^*t-tr« ^ ^eet deep. Sycamores abound, and vines, 
loi^i^. nf^y^^ dist^^y *«d an excellent kind of onion, also thrive 

*ie fr^^*- This last i^as called by the Romans Asca- 

) the left (If.), 
20 min. to — 

distant, Of a Jater ?^«^ ^ere (Acta ^i»*- T^^e possessed a seapo'^i^M. 
ancient ^lldor'^^ Z f^'^od. The town Z^TtKo ruins of a fort. With 
stands on tlj^^^ itsejf l^*«e now exists ^x^ep^^^^^. The modern village 
which the a^ «Jope ^J *^« ca«e is hardly fi\f ^ stiU Mgher emmence on 
the 8. side, ir^Poiisi^^Ml, comman^«*i^^^e*trance to tbe viUago, on 
and variou; \^ the rSl^^^bj^ stood. A* t^f ifnan, with g^^J^^t^'^XSe 
a\.o detected cli«toibep?'''«f a large mediee^a^i^^^^^^gxtiente of columns are 

11/, br. to tk^^n the r^^^^nd moea^^^* j^gs ms to ^^^^^t IV*^' to-- 

&e««ne tie A^^^ ^'^^ populous ^^'^aestinxctx^^o^^ ,abbiaioal scW 
flon^J ]? *^\r^a. Even before tlxe **J| » ^^^lectually the centre of 

flonmlied liere,^' *f the Jewish Sanjj^^'^f'y'as *?^ fime of tHe CrTxsadets 
\^^ wiu&Vixacy ^ ^d iU tnvm wa^ ^^^f7^ Xrx tl*^ * <^ <7a«;i was situated 

UeaUli^ T I-^li/ ^-^Ji^ ^irv tjra-ce o*^,i J^^^^T^e purpose of keeping 

rJS^^BDjwJIk \iP>^^^^ fox-*f^f i*^ ^i*?^^ia situated on the 

J'^^^/^.W7J^^^^ J ^^Xlon. }'J^%lJS. f* vi. 4) and contains 

160 Boute 14. 

T:EL.Tj ES-SAFIYEH. From AmcclUt^ 

%. From AscAiiON" to Jbbusalbm (151/2 l^'s.). 

Fiom Jora Cp- ^&^) *^® ^®*^ ^®*^^ *^ **^® ^•^- *^ ^^^ minO 

Mejdel (possibly Aftgdai-Gcui, Josliua xv. 37). The mosque is pa^^^^ 

built wittL ancient materials, and has an elegant minaret. \v a.ter 

is abundant. — Aftei 7 min. we turn to the E. from the main road- 

Tii 10 min. we come to the end of the olive plantations, cross xne 

r40min^ WcWi/ AfafckAs, and (10 min.) leare Mi» on the riglit 

\^\ We then Teacb (55 min.) the village of Es-Sawdflr, aad tlien 

fS min.) anothei of the same name. A third Sawaflr lies tartlier 

\i and one of them perhaps answers to the Saphir mentioned. \>Y 

Micah (i. 11). We next reach (1/2 hr.) the well-watered Wddy es- 

Sdfiyeh, The Tell ef^Sdfiyeh soon appears like a gleaming wZiite 

line in the distance*. The road passes (1 hr.) a water-course, and 

then (3/4 ht.) returns to the Wady es-Saflyeh, hut does not cross 

it. The plain here is always marshy after rain. In 20 mi^ we 

reach the foot of the — 

Tell es-BlilLyeh Histokt. Tell e»-adftyeh la sappoeedby some to 

te the ancient Mizpeh of Judah (Joshua xv. 38) , and hy others I^^>V;^ 
('the white'-, Joshua x. 29): but the latter conjecture is the less proto»Die. 
In 1138, King Foulques of Anjou built a castle here, which was intended to 
complete the girdle of fortifications around Ascalon, and was named -»*»»«<» 
Chuarda^ or Specula Alba, from the conspicuous white chalk rocks. In ix»i, 
the castle was taken by Saladin and destroyed. Some of the gallant ex- 
peditions of Richard Gosur de Lion extended thus far. 

Tell es-Sdfiyeh commands the outlet of the great Wddy es-Sant 
(valley of mimosas; prohahly the valley of Elah or Terebinth Valley ^ 
1. Sam. xvii: comp. pp. 114, 136). Of mediaeval buildings there 
is now little or no trace here. Ascending the hill from the W. we 
observe a cavern (probably an old quarry), and then traverse the 
miserable modern village. Farther on we see the tomb of a saint 
built of ancient materials. On the hill (10 min.) a few substruc- 
tions only of well-hewn stones now exist. The view towards the 
W, embraces the gieen plain between Gaza and Ramleh as farss 
the sand-hills and the sea, and towards the E. the mountains of 
Judah. Numerous villages are visible in every direction. 

Here we re-enter a region of rock-caverns like those with which we 
became acquainted at BSt Jibrin (p. 152). Some of these are at Direl- 
^«/tfm, 20 mm S.E. of Tell es-S&fiyeh, othws at Der Dubbdn, »A>'- f"*^®'' 
others again at JOtirbetiiaJbdr; Vi hr. to the W. of D8r Dibban. 

u.,1 ^^ ^'; after Tell es^S^fiyeh we leave the village ot'Ajur on the 

^"^i ^L V}^^^^ and !oou obtain a fine view of the large Wddy 

t'^'if'^^Loh-'' V4 hr vre observe to the left (N.) ZaU¥iyth, on a 

.hi T>lliisti'' ^^Afmer^upposed to have been the site of Qaih of 

% »^^T^^^' WSl ^ /nd into the valley, its broad floor is green, 

*''f , 1^ .. i*^ ^heat ""Ifter 1 hr. we pass a small valley and ihe 

7fLf!to'^^^'^r^^^^^ ^g^t- OnthehiUtotheleftisB^tHettlf 

^"^ UJ^ ^^^ntL^fb the ancient Netov^ah, Ezra ii. 22 • 

^u ^^Itai d^^" ^i^e ro^ T the base of the eminenc; on which this 

villagre stands, or (afte^^J^ ^iu.) cross the water-course and ascend 



toth.TlIl.e. C'/»,l"0rHi«l0j, l^.Sni,. let 

several reinark»Wy fine ttiks. j, 's beantifoij 

habitants. The view from the tn^« riiJtge ton^f*^"' '"'^ "">" »" 

aid a llttl. toward, tl, W ..-f T, L^i'^. "•» ."• W* .1- 
anolentoav.™. C«>»i, .,ilT>,,,v, ,.J''",^f' t"'?""''' 
To tl. W. H.. i)* ■^i/S; , H Jorr ,V ?»»"*'«». •"» 
CTi™»,«, Jodg» ,!,■«'■ •• '1. » S'"' "■ f" i< '•»• "II. I). 
«. 19-30; 1 iSi,,, °i "' ■•l™ffl,£'f»,,«fflf 7 !'•,'?"' 
It 181 and Zm-o^ ^' To tl.= f. t^ "''• * Sam. 

%^; »' '^* *««« T'  'Pol ) Ir. to the S. or Si™jW, 

., V «-«Marr, and .^ ^<^eeai ju 25 min. to the outlet oltbe 
diverj, „ ,jo ,,„ 1, y^ 1,. „ th. min =' • l.hi„. w 

,?'„"■'• '••olli. ;° »• Wtdy ,,-I^ham . • ■»"'«de-,.ll.,. 

**"««» «d back to 'C.^.^sv.rS-* 

pwrfded *^'To 'ii.SKP f. »t '^?„ witiZ. 
,srv to 9"„t^A,'Z fl^rt iS "oar bo (lis. 


162 BouU 15, BETHANY. From Jerusalem 

may generally be found at a rate of 40-50 fr. for each of a party of several 
persons for the three days, unless tents are to be taken (somewhat more 
about Easter). — The circuit may be made in either direction. Owing 
to the heat of the climate in the viJley of the Jordan, the excursion should 
be made as early in spring, or as late in autumn as possible. Travellers 
should not forget to take drinking water with them when visiting the 
Dead Sea. 

1. Faom Jebusalsm to Jbkicho (6 his.). 

To Qethsemane, see p. 87. The road gradually asoends opposite 
the city. It toms a cornei, about 8 min. beyond Gethsemane. A 
little above this point, the spot is shown (but only since the 15th 
cent.) where Judas is said to have hanged himself. The Mt. of 
Offence is seen to the right. The road skirts the Mount of Olives 

and leads round a gorge. Here is shown the site of the flg-tree | 

(Matt. xxi. 19) which was cursed by Christ (6 min.). In 18 min. I 

more we reach — J 

Bethany. — The Arabic name is EW Azartydk^ from Laaarus, or M :^"^ 

Lazarium, the Arabs having taken the L for an article. Its site corresponds  -^^ Ta 

with the ancient Bethany, the distance from Jerusalem, 15 furlongs (John I i^ixey 

xi. 18), corresponding with our 40 minutes' ride. At a very early^ period m 

churches and monasteries were erected here, and spots of traditionary I ^^ ,^ 

interest pointed out to pilgrims. The Roman lady Paula visited a church I ^ b ^ 

on the site of Lazarus' grave. In 1138, Milicent, wife of Fulke, fourth king I . jf "* 

of Jerusalem (p. 88), founded a nunnery by the church of St. Lazarus, f .^^f^^s 

and in 1169, the building came into the possession of the Hospitallers. I .-'^ps 

El-'Azariyeh lies on a well-cultivated spur to the S. E. of the I '^^ i 

Mt. of Olives, to whose somewhat barren slopes it presents a pleasant f m ^"^ ^ 

contrast. It consists of about forty hovels , containing Muslim in- I ''%. i 

habitants only. The water here is good, and there are numerous I ^1 v 

fig, olive, almond, and carob trees. The most conspicuous object f '^<^e, 

is a ruined Tower ^ which, judging from its large drafted stones, 1 1^^^ 

must be older than the time of the Crusaders. About twenty paces I rHr, V 

to the N.E. of this so-called 'Castle of Lazarus' is the Tomb of i'%. x 

Lazcurus (Kdbr el- Mar), The door looks towards the N., and to the W^h of ^ 

E. of the tomb rises a mosque with a white dome; for the Mus- l^^n is 

lims also regard Lazarus as a saint, and have taken possession of Iv^^^castl 

his tomb. As they prevented pilgrims from visiting the place, the 1 *^iock 

Christians in the 16th cent, caused a stair leading to it to be con- I •'^^44^ 

struoted from without. We descend by 24 steps into a small square I '^ to tj^^ ^ 

antechamber, which is said once to have been a chapel, and is a l^'cagfi 

Muslim as well as Christian place of prayer. Proceeding to the E., I ^^^^ ^ 

we descend three high steps to the so-called tomb-chamber of Laza- I '% i y^ ^' 

rus. On the E. side is an entrance now walled up. The poor-looking I % ^J^ 

chamber is lined with masonry, and its whole appearance is un- I^'''jr» ^'^ 

like that of a Jewish tomb. The tomb of Lazarus was formerly I'^^eif ^' 

shown in the church above, and this vault was probably called the I 'it j^^^P 

penance-chapel of Mary Magdalene. The Latins sometimes celebrate I •V/y-^^ 

mass here. l^iD "^^ 

About 43 yards to the S. of the tomb of Lazarus tradition points I ^-^^^ ^^ t 

out the site of the house of Mary and Martha. The site has been I ^inJ'^^^c 

^^r EL-KELT 

mn in . 

said to have n ^**"* Pl*»«". «nd ,t „„. « 

««ent beW . !i^° «ePMate honsw tL * ^*' *« listen, were 

^eper (M.tth. xrri fif ** *'»^l«on as m .tfV^' ^^^ The time 

believe to be thl *'^- Tie cha„»i , ^'"'^ ^^^'"ed a chapel on 

'Axariyeh »hil^'"'«-pWe, so „ f '"*" *''« '^'^''j' «'-fl8rf or 
^ater is not vet r*.*"- ^« »mSi ^V'^ '^^'l between this and 

perhana ."f* oavc dninir '7^^'tlei-' ,««°. '• Since the loth cent. th«» 

:'«a«nel t<Xo °"^- '"C!.' J^'^?' ^11" ^' " "'""^'^hat barren 
'"'* tree, .»L „' ^^'^ 52 I^ '" «"« n«W*e small WMy el-Jemel 

TadtUr, Wif^i? ?" "e ^ft ^ ^2 min. a small valley called Scfb 
-erieho. TbUA- ^^^n n ^^ 23 i»*n- ™°re we reach the Kkan 
parable of tt» "l.'sWot jg '^ly erected and Ues about halfway to 
"»« kh4n f.T °^ 8«iD. r'te dMfirted, »nd tradition localises the 
«i«'»I cVl'V*'" on. **tao A^ est- ^""^^ »• 30-37). Above 
<" tie «^ t- ^*« »a«le S', M V^«"». with niins' of a me- 
OP of ^aT' **« 'ed to ,?> Mfi, 5. ^nt)»t>ly *«« to the red colour 
A to 1 '"'"*»' aol'^« 8„ "^ ^ ? „ that the spot is the 'going 
oJ . '* ^^it iead?."' V "PPOsi**"," /-r-). After 20 mln. more a 
^Imf'^"' «4e pJo C- 7; Xvli^-iJ^r, which was probably 

,7*rt <^/^^ *f'iHi . " ( V ,5 *^ rtOJ**^%,art of the road is called 
°"»«Ia»e!rXVeL!° uI*V^^^J»i« ?rtd the mountains here 
> tie dS 7*^«4eai** o/f, tight- ,^9' o win a view to the left 
" ''« Af^'^i' e^^e- . ''« i<"'*'^r ^^ tll'>T'*»^«'' of which are 

164 Route 15, JERICHO. Prom Jerusatem 

Shertf. The view gradually develops itself, and, at length, we pex- 

oeive the Dead Sea with its daik-blne waters. 

A pretty foot-path (dangerous for riders!) leadB from BSt esh-Sherif 
along the N. side of the Wady el-Kelt past a monastery Mdr Yuhanna. 

After another hour, we again have the Waidy el-Kelt below us, 
and in 20 min. more, we obtain a complete view of the vast plain 
of Jordan. The two ruined houses, called Bet Jeber (the upper and 
the lower), perhaps occupy the site of the ancient castles of Thrax 
and Tauros which once defended the pass. On the right, farther 
on (10 min.), is the ruin of Khirbet el-KakiLn at the foot of the 
hill. We now reach the plain of Jordan, called the Ghor. On the 
right of the road, to the E. of Kakiin, we perceive the ancient Birket 
Mxlaaj or Pool of Moses, with walls composed of small unhewn 
stones. It is 188 yds. long and 157 yds. wide, and belonged to the 
ancient system of reservoirs and conduits which once irrigated this 
district and rendered it a paradise. This is perhaps the remains of a 
pool constructed by Herod near his palace at Jericho; for this, it 
appears, is the site of the Jericho of the New Testament. The hill 
rising like an artificial mound from the plain is Tell Abu 'Aldik 
('hill of the bloodsuckers'). After 25 min. the road leads beneath 
a handsome aqueduct with pointed arches, where the Wddy d-Kelt 
is crossed. Travellers with tents here turn direct to the N., without 
entering the modern Jericho (Erthajj and pass the artificial Tell ea- 
8dmerdt, to the Sultan's Spring (p. 165), to which other travellers 
also should make an excursion. The vegetation has by this time 
become very luxuriant. In 7 min., we reach the village. 

Jericho. — AocomfODATioN: ^Jokdan Hotjsl (landlord V»ffar}\ Hotbl 
DES Etsanoess, clean; Russian Hospicjs (p. xzxiv), or in a Russian pri- 
vate HOUSE (good and clean: price 3 fr. for each person without board, 
which travellers must provide for themselves"). 

HisTOBT. The ancient Jericho lay by the springs at the foot of the 
hill of Karantel, that is to the W. of modern Jericho, and to the N. of 
the Jericho of the Roman period. This is proved both by the Bible and 
by Josephus. The town was of considerable size and enclosed by walls, 
and the vegetation was very rich. It is sometimes called the 'city of 
palms'*, and down to the 7th cent, of our era date-palms were common, 
though they have now almost entirely disappeared. Around the town lay 
a large and flourishing oasis of corn and hemp-fields. The Israelitisli 
town at first belonged to the tribe of Benjamin, afterwards to the kingdom 
of Judah. In spite of many conquests Jericho continued to fiourish. It 
was specially noted for its balsam gardens, the culture of which probably 
dated from the period when Solomon received rare spices from S. Arabia 
(1 Kings X. 10). The plant has now disappeared entirely, although the 

Slants of South Arabia and India would still flourish in this warm climate. 
[ere, too, flourished the Henna (Lawsonia inermis), which yields a red dye. 
In the time of Christ, shsidy sycamores stood by the wayside (Luke xix. 4). 
Antony presented the district of Jericho to Cleopatra, wha sold it to 
Herod J and that monarch embellished it with palaces and constituted it 
his winter residence, as being the most beautiful spot for the purpose 
in his dominions. He died here, but directed that he should be interred 
in the Herodium (p. 134). — It was at Jericho that the Jewish pilgrims 
from Pereea (E. of Jordan) and Galilee used to assemble on their way to 
the Temple; and Christ also began his last journey to Jerusalem from 
this point (Luke xix. 1). As early as the 4th cent., the couacils of the 

io Jericho^ JTJERIOHO. 

»*i^ ^^ — ^^^'"^ ^«"es in a monoto 
oix lixs eruard against thieves. -^Th 
oil in Jericho; Interesting relics tl l>iiiH; a era all oKnxoli in Jericho ; interesting relics tl 
of a lar^e l>iiliain« Q^€^±Yi.A^^ a church) with piers and mo 
ment, liave l>e©n aiscoveroa in the pnest's garden. The < 
curiosity in *lie Arilla^e Is a ^uilding on the S.E. side, r< 
a towex. It i^xol>al>ly aates »oin the Frank period, wh. 
erectea foir tlie j^iotection of tlie crops against the incnrsic 
T»^-.„^__ rr'T*^. ^-itf^^xHT from tlie t>a*"einents is inteTPaHn*. 

. i;lie i^iotectxon ox -^ii® «rops against the incnrsic 
Beaulns. Xlio -^iew from the ^attlemente jg interesting. 
15tli cent. tHis l>iziiain^ l^*fj>«f«^id to occupy the si 

Tite g«tra«mx« ^^^'^^^^^rywSere tlie ground i^'^^^^^^y^^^^l an 

supply of S'^^'I^^^l.^rtSkJ^g tl^e ^o™» of trees, 8urhSth«V^*^ 
undeT^ood, so^^^*J™,1?. Jr^i^# and 5frfr of the Arabs? /hi f^*?^ 
»nd ^. *?>rf*»« <^*-*|5*i?Y« wolf fla^oiiredwheSripe^^^^^^ 
CJii.lixl>es% ^'•*^- ^^^from wl^icj Ohrisrs crown of thornsTflgi^ 
of tlxese ^l^a^'^^^^^^fl' «s^a l>y *^® Beduins in the constructini 
beeiE composea, _»;^^,^^?^ceB. A=*«^g *he other plantaTccni^^ 
almost «»«'I>F*'^**^.^i^ cllel> rated for its g„m and^the delfS^^ 

or-it* flowe>-s, *J1^ * or Salm ?^ ^^*^»^^itl^«mMl leaves Hke 

pseudo l>*l«*~-ij^t^C ^«.31 ^'^^li^ '^?^"^*/.V.f'«'n which the Arab, 
Sod frxiit reserol>l^J^e ^™^lj^,xB oil , quantities of which are bo 

crrlxns. Til© *^^^ ♦S^-r S-, on *^® ^*°^« o^ the Dead Sea fp 141 
bat is fo^«*3L fartlbL^r t>.^^ gorgeous scarlet Zora„<A«., the Xada 

A. pleasaTi* ooo g»l^^t„g'^, M which Jericho was once sv 
Snlt&xr C'S«l*»»^^„s forth ''opjonsly ftom the earth and Is co 
wltl^ -*»-»*«»■- I* ^r^ long B.r\A OV2-'V2 yds. wide). Close by s 
7!?*_ ^rxd C^^ y^™tu"f of the water is 80O Fahi. The earii 

iSifl«^ T1E.O *«--I> 

166 Route 15. JEBEL KARANTEL. From Jerusalem 

grims found a tradition already existing here that this was the water 
which Elisha healed with salt (2 Kings ii. 19-22), whence it is 
called Elisha^ 8 Spring by the Christians. Remains of a payed Roman 
road have been found in the vicinity. Above the spring, the site of 
the House of Rahdb (Joshua ii.) was formerly shown, as it was in- 
stinctively felt that the ancient town must have stood on this spot. 
The tumulus near the spring is an artificial erection. 

Taking the road to the W. from here we reach the ruins of build- 
ings popularly called Tawdhtn es-Sukkar (sugar-mills), in reminis- 
cence of the culture of the sugar-cane which flourished here down 
to the period of the Crusaders, and might still be profitably carried on. 
Three such mills may be counted, and numerous relics of aqueducts 
are visible. Going N.W. from the third mill (20 min. from ^Ain es- 
Sultdn) for ^2 ^^r., we reach the springs of the well-watered Wddy 
en-Nawd'imeh : 'Am en-Nawd'imeh and 'Ain DUik. Near the springs 
are remains of a fine aqueduct. Here probably lay the ancient castle 
of Docus (1 Mace. xvl. 15), where Simon Maccabaus was assassinated 
by his son-in-law. A path made by the Greeks takes us from the 
third mill in about 25 min. to the hermits* caverns on the Jebel 
Karantel. The grotto in which Jesus is said to have spent the 40 

days of his fast (Matt. iv. 1) is used by the Greeks as a chapel. 

Among the cliffs higher up (40 min.) there are the ruins of a 'Chapel 
of the Temptation^ as well as several rows of hermitages, some of which 
have even been adorned with frescoes. These, however , are only access- 
ible to practised climbers. The hermitages on this mountain are of very 
ancient origin, the weird seclusion of the spot having attracted anchorites 
at a very early period. Thus St. Chariton (p. 133) is said once to have 
dwelt here, and the hermitages were enlarged by Elpidius. The name 
Qitarantana (Arab. KaranUl) was first applied to the hill in the time of 
the Crusaders (1112), when'the monastery on the Quarantana was dependent 
on Jerusalem. 

The summit of the hill, which can be reached in 20 min. from the 
hermitages, commands a noble prospect^ To the E., beyond the broad 
valley of Jordan, rises the wooded Neby Osha' (p. 177), to the S. of which 
is the Jebel et-Tiniyeh. To the N. towers the Sartabeh. In the valley 
below (N.) are two beautiful pastures. On the S. side the Karantel is 
separated from the hill NkSb el-KhSl by the deep Wady D§n^n. On the 
top of the hill are traces of fortifications, which probably formed part of 
the girdle of castles by which the Franks endeavoured to defend the E. 
rontier of their possessions. 

From Jericho to Beis&n. 

15 hrs. — This excursion, for which an escort is indispensable, can, 
on account of the heat, only be made early in the season (March). — The 
Jordan valley contains a number of artificial hills (tell), in the interior of 
some of which bricks have been found. We cross (55 min.) the Wddy Na- 
wcPimeh (see above) j on the left the rock ^Usksh el-Ohurdb (ravens' nest, per- 
haps Ore&, Judges vii. 25) with a little valley Afesd^adet '/«d ('ascent of 
Jesus') which previously to the 12th cent, was said to be the mountain of 
the temptation. Then (50 min.) the Wddy el-'AuJeh^ the (35 min.) Wddij 
el-Abyad, the (*/4 hr.) Wddy Reshash^ and the (1 hr.) Wddy Fasdil^ or Mit- 
dahdireh. At the foot of the mountains lie the ruins of Fasdil, the an- 
cient PhasaeUs, a town which Herod the Great named after Phasaelus, 
his younger brother, and presented to his sister Salome, by whom it was 
bequeathed to Julia Livia, wife of the Emperor Augustus. Pahns were 

fo 'ht liead 8ta. OILGAL. lb. Route. 167 

-Toul ucSDded 

I (p. 361). 

r Abyat. The 

ttucli-fiMnflnled hlih-roid ucsd 
• '- "- --mppl (p. 361). 

hu iT™ .t ™°* ■''*"■' floWi into the Jorfm, there Is t, ford -AbiTa, whlcb 
'*™ "Ppo-M to be C,«i4orfl (hoa.8 of tie ford) of John i. 38ip. 169), 

 *'«0M Jsaiog^ j^j^HH KoBDOFJoaDiHCl'/ahrO- 
Jordun ,1. "'^"d ni«t.„„^hfl (onfnay 'fom Jencho to the ford ol 

ocorrifn,* ^^"l 1 ^^' S^J^i a-meb, by a Urge Bqn«e pool 

168 Route 15. THE JORDAN. From Jerusalem 

was in existence as early as the time of Jastinian, and, according to 
tradition, was erected by the Empress Helena oyer the grotto where 
John the Baptist dwelt. It was restored im the 12th cent. ; a num- 
ber of vaults, frescoes, and mosaics are still visible. A Greek mon- 
astery now occupies the site. — We turn hence towards the S.E. in 
order to reach (^2 hr.) the bathing-place, cross a lofty embankment 
thrown up here by the Jordan, and descend to the river with its 
wooded banks. 

The Jordan, usually called by the Arabs simply Eah-Bhertay the 
watering-place, is the principal river of Palestine (comp. p. xlv). 
Before reaching the Dead Sea , its waters form the lakes of H<ileh 
and Tiberias. In a straight direction the distance from the sources 
to the mouth is not above 137 miles ; but the meanderings of the 
stream across its broad valley greatly increase its actual length. Thus, 
while the Dead Sea is in a direct line only 65 miles distant from 
the Lake of Tiberias, the length of the river is three times that 
distance. "Whether the Jordan derives its Hebrew name of Yatdtn 
from its rapid fall is uncertain. Its fall is certainly very consid- 
erable: from the Hlsb^ny spring (p. 263) to the Hiileh it de- 
scends 1699 ft., thence to the Lake of Tiberias 689 ft., and from 
that lake to the Dead Sea 610 ft., i. e. 2998 ft. in ail, of which 
1707 ft. only are above the level of the Mediterranean. The 
Arabs call the valley of the Jordan El-OhSfj i. e. the depression or 
hollow, while the Hebrews gave the name of 'Ara6a, or desert, to 
that part of the valley between the Lake of Tiberias and the Dead 
Sea. Most of the N. part of the valley is fertile, and from theKarn 
Sar^abeh, on the route between Nftbulus and Es-Salt, a number of 
green oases, interrupted by barren tracts, extend southwards. 
Numerous brooks fall into the Jordan on both sides of the valley, 
and some of them are perennial, such as the Yarmiik and the 
Nahr ez-Zerka, both on the E. side. The character of the districts on 
both sides is essentially different. The £. region is better watered, 
until it reaches the desert lying still farther to the E. , and politically 
it has always been distinct from the country W. of Jordan, as the 
deep valley formed a natural barrier. Most of the paths descending 
into the Jordan valley are wild and rugged. The width of the valley 
varies very much, being greatest between Jericho and Nimrin, where 
it takes about 3 hrs. to cross. The Ghor is the ancient basin of a 
vast inland lake ; but neither that lake, nor its residue represented 
by the Dead Sea, can ever have been connected with the Red Sea since 
the continent assumed its present form, as a mountain barrier run- 
ning across the 'Araba valley to the S. of the Dead Sea (p. 150) ren- 
ders such a connection impossible. In this vast valley the river 
has worn for itself two channels. Into the older channel, which 
takes Va ^^' to cross, we descend over a deeply furrowed an.d barren 
terrace of clayey soil, about 60 ft. in height. The present channel, 
which is the more recent one, lies deeper but is completely filled 

to the D«.d S«a. ,^te ^^ ' ii-R<mte. i69 

in April Dy the rivet ^^^^g ot **«n on »n avo, .^ 

which conceals tte J'**? "^^ View was on<^ ,X^«5«*^«-'*) 

UtodlflexentpaTWof J^"J* accordin^tothe^^f^S: ^^^^^^ 
ia clear where « emeiges « O^ j^^^^ "' ^""^^as, bot won «»„C 
a tawny colour from *''t„,*! "*ich it etiis up ,„ jj, ,j ' 

The wltex is not ^^^^^"^^^ for drinking, b„t 7, Xfrrh7„g 
from its Mgli tempeia*""- ^fce j^ptj, of the water varies greatly 
with tlie seasons. 1» a"™""! there are numerous fords. One of the 
most famons is that near the motith of the Wddy el-Kelt. It is called 
MakhAdet Hajla from tJJB ruin of the same name and is the bathing 
place of the pilgtims. * »rther S. ig another ford El-Benu. There is 
little ot no trace in the Bible of the existence of bridges over the 
Jordan, the rivei being always crossed at fords (1 Sam. xiii. 7; 2 
Sam. X. 17); hut David and Barzillai were conveyed across it in a 
ferry-boat (2 Sam. xix. Ig, %\\_ The miraculous division of the 
waters by the cloak of Elijaij is also localised at this ford by tradi- 
tion {_1 Kings U. 8). St. Christopher is said to have carried the in- 
fant Christ across the river somewhere in this neighbourhood. 

Pilgrims are chiefly attracted to the Jordan by its »?soe\»*i«n ^i* 
John the Baptist and the hantisffl of Christ (Marki. 5-ll> Thetwo 
monasteries of St. John aKproof that the baptism of Christ was 
at a very eariy period belie7^,*f;vebeen performed here. Wehave, 
however no due to the IZlt site of Beihabofa (John i. 28). Bap- 
tism xn Jordan was as eariT ^L time of Constantino deemed a spe- 
cial privilege. In the ftT'y as ^^ l^iniis fmmd a great concourse of 
pilgrims here. He 1^* cent., ^CbanksXepaved with marble; 

that a wooden cross r!***^"** that totj^ *?*vj!llam; and that, after 
the water had l^X^^ in the middle ?4*«^f*^^^s ^^^,^ », 
eacb wearing a Ce^J^ssed by tl'^^Frwas carefully preserved in 
order afterwards to ?.'' garment, ^'^^-^ Jsheet In the middle ages, 
too, baptisms tn«i ''e Usp,i oa a wlodmg-s^^f • " , bathing 

and baptism was 1 1-laceln the J*'*''*"' ''.tv slnce the i6th 
cent, the time ^t Ji«lier%" near *^^,Tom the EpiP^^ny *» *« 
pleasanterseasn!^^ ^ai>« ^' « cb»"8ed ""'^ ;'l„,iently took place 
here. From a^ '»*&"' ^^iB^^^'^'' '"""^L SoU, ox rather 
hurried into tl? ^*«y t **'■. ?^« Vllg""'* 7 «Tiffles accompanied 
by the pasha") ^ ^atl ^^™* *J* In g^i^^u*^-"? n« were not uncom- 
mon. Downi «'l<i cf*l>y Bed«"* the C^^f/"^ T^eat impoxtance 
to the bati > *k6 >»««!« »'^"'tbe Greeks ^^^^^^. The great 
caravan ull ^^Or^^^^sent tio*® Jf^^tion of a pil^ ceremonies 

of Easter ."! for.»i as the t^'*?' inedi'^*«lX /*tne torches on the 

P""" >t to>campJ»e»« t »nd " 3. m the stie 
"«. wo«,e« '"Ito ^»«sents ^^^^fsf *^^,S;ptoach in then whit 
' *j,i^ft water *f/^ey »?* 
^ «.hildren »» 

176 Route 16, 


From Jericho 

Fboh MIb Saba to Bbthlbhbk (2 hrs. 50 min.). A tolerable path 
ascends to the N. from, the upper tower of the monastery, affording several 
fine retrospects of the Dead Sea and the wild monntain scenery. After 
25 min. the monastery tower disappears. In spring, all these heights are 
covered with good pastures. Far below, in the Wady en-Nir (p. 173), 
are seen the huts of the natives who live under the protection of the 
monastery. After 20 min. the Mt. of Olives comes in sight on the right. 
(A path with finer views diverges here to the N. and leads past the ruined 
monastery Dir Jbn 'Obid^ or Mdr Theodoiius^ Dir /)d»l, to Bethlehem.) 
In 10 min. we gain the top of the hill, whence we have a fine view, the 
Frank Mountain being also visible towards the S. After 4 min. we descend 
into the Wddy el-'Ardis (10 min.). After 30 min. we have a view of Beth- 
lehem, and on the right rises Jikr Elyas. In 40 min. we reach the first 
fields and orchards of Bethlehem. The monastery of Mar Saba also pos- 
sesses land here. Most of the gardens are provided with watch-towers 
(Isaiah v.). We leave the village of Bet SdhUr to the left, and passing 
the Latin monastery, reach (25 min.) Bethlehem. 

16. From Jericho to Es-Salt and Jerash. 

An escort (1 or 2 khaiy&l) is obtained by applying to the dragoman 
of the consulate at Jerusalem. Payment, see p. xxxlii. 

HiSTOBT. Gilead, in the wider sense of the name, embraces the region 

inhabited by the Israelites to the E. of the Jordan from the Yarmuk (N.) 

to the Arnon (S.). This hilly region was divided into two halves by the 

brook Jabbok (Zerka). At the present day, the name Gilead is applied to 

the mountains S. of the lower Zerka (Jebel JiFdd). — GileaA was a pastoral 

fusion and supported numerous flocks. The W. slopes, particularly towards 

tne JN.W., are wooded. The land is fertilised by a copious supply of water 

*°5 ^avy dew-fall. The S. half, now the district El-Bdld between M^ib 

and Wady Zerka, was formerly held by the Ammonites (Judges xi. 13), 

3^°/*J'rfed on perpetual war with the tribes of Israel who had settled 

■a- ot the Jordan. Jephthah compelled them to withdraw into their own 

i?^n 'I' ^*^^ fought against them (1 Sam. xi), and David, who had ori- 

♦h«?j^ ^®° ^J^ eood terms with their King Nahash, afterwards destroyed 

ctlY S^/7®' ^^ ®*°*- ^)- They do not disappear from history till the 2nd 

^nr«' i: IT The Gileadites afterwards belonged to the northern king- 

maT^J'^o i?.®^ suffered severely in the campaign of King Hazael of Da- 

S Jew/i*^rF. "^^ ^' ^■>- ^^*e' tl^e return from the captivity, a number 

der Ta«T.l i^ '° Gilead in the midst of a heathen population. Alexan- 

_ i <'<*an8eus ireauent]v xra.ett>LA -wi-in. «« -Kav,»i< ^« n{ion.rl. TTnAer Herod and 

deeo ronrr« >..,,*'* '°'^^ prove that Boman culture aiierwarus vuu«. 
pastures o/^'j^f^- "" The Bednina, who thoroughly appreciate the rich 
extinction o?l„.' ?^<i^py ttie whole of this region, to the almost entire 
" wi s&ncuiture. 

The J ^' ^^^^ •^^^f^OHo TO Es-Sa^m (71/4 hrs.). 

^Vsir^rtoif f" *"*^^e jiea.]r tbe "V^ddy en-Nawd'imcA is reached in 

direct 'to\ke iVp\*''i^ ^^^^Be, 3 piastiesy Beyond the liyer we go 

^eieave the ha' • ' ''®*^*^^en tam*^®^^ *^^ acaoias. After 60 min. 

resiching the m^ ^^ *^® '^^^tdan eit^^^'^ tummg more to the N. and 

*ience up tie v./f^ ^^^^A-w^ tL^Xy ca-^^^Tcm^ i^ ^ ^i- iO min., and 

T^a/j Toute E x iJ ^^ *^ ^^is-^^ u or -ta-ltlug (lilhet longer) the cara- 

^i'mraoftiZ'^^r «fld x-««^^r''' 4« »U ^' '^^^ TcU Nimrtn (Beth 

^' «« Prob^yr ^\^ iSe sot^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^Kion). Among 

A «»CO«AUC «»tlU VJJ t Ct». Arf 

im«A V^XA. 


toEsSalt. ES-SALT. 16. BouU. Ill 

the inins is a tomb adorned with the flgnre of a rider with a sword 
hung over his head. (From this point to ^Ardk el-Emir^ see p. 188.) 
Ooi route next ascends the Wddy Shc^ibj or Wddy Nirririn., (1 hr. 
20inin.) reaches a spring, (25 min.) leaves the valley to the left, 
and traverses a hilly tract towards the N.£. After 1 hr. we observe 
% Shcfib on the hill to the left. (Shn'aib, the diminutive of 
Shalb, is the name given in the Koran to the Jethro of the Bible, 
Siodus iii. 1.) In 3/4 hr. we pass the spring ^Ain Hazeir on the left, 
aboye which there is a Khaln, and in about 35 min. more reach — 

Es-Sal^. — HiSTOBT. It has not been satisfactorily proved that Es- 
Salt is identical with Ramoth Oilead , which Ensebins places 15 Boman 
miles to the W. of Philadelphia CAmm&n, p. 186). The name is perhaps 
derired from the Latin word saltus (wooded mountains). Salt first became 
a place of some importance during the Crusades , when ;Saladin estab- 
lished himself in the country E. of Jordan. The fortress was destroyed 
by the Mongols, but soon afterwards rebuilt by Sultan Beibars (i3th cent.)* 

Es-Salt is the capital of the district of Belkaf and as such is the 
residence of a Kaimmak4m, and possesses a Turkish telegraph station. 
It contains about 7000 inhabitants, among them 250 Protestants 
(English mission station, church and school], 400 Latins (church and 
school), and about 1500 Greeks. The Muslim Arabs and the Christ- 
ians live harmoniously together, and concur in their cordial detes- 
tation of the Turks. As at Kerak, the villagers here have much in 
common with the nomadic tribes in their customs and language. 
The place lies 2740 ft. above the sea-level and enjoys a healthy 
climate. Agriculture and vine-growing are the chief resources of the 
inhabitants , but some of them are engaged in the manufacture of 
rosaries from hard kinds of wood. The market is much frequented 
by the Beduins. The fields, situated at some distance from the 
town, yield a considerable quantity of sumach, which is exported 
for dyeing purposes. The natives are generally hospitable. — Es- 
SaH lies on the slope of a hill which is crowned with a castle. The 
latter presents no attraction. On the S. side of it, at the foot of the 
rocky castle-hill, is a grotto in which rises a spring. In this grotto 
there seems once to have been a church hewn in the rocks. It still 
contains some remains of sculpture and a passage descending to an 
artificial grotto below. On the hill-side opposite the grotto bursts 
forth the famous spring of JHUr, which irrigates luxuriant gardens 
of figs, pomegranates, and olives. The raisins of Es-Salt are famous. 
On the hills around Es-Salt are numerous traces of ancient rock- 

From Es-Salt a very interesting excursion may be made in rather 
less than 1 hr. to the Jebel dslia'. 

The mountain (3590 ft. above the sea-level) affords a magnificent view, 
embracing a considerable part of Palestine. The Jordan valley, for a great 
distance, is stretched at our feet like a carpet. The river, of which a 
white strip only is visible at a few points, traverses the vast, yellowish 
plain to the Dead Sea (which last is visible during the ascent). To the 
8.W. the Mt. of Olives is visible. Ebal and Gerizim opposite us present a 
very fine appearance. Mt. Tabor and the mountains around the lake of 

Palestine and Syria. 2nd ed. 12 

178 Route 16. NAHR EZ-ZERKA. From Jericho 

Tiberias are also visible, and tbe Great Hermon to the N. terminates the 
panorama. The scene, however, is deficient in life, Jericho and a few 
tents of nomads being the only human habitations in sight. — A fine oak 
affords a pleasant resting place on the top of the mountain. Not far from 
it is the wely of the prophet Osha^ (Arabic for Hosea). It is uncertain 
how far back the tradition connected with this spot extends, but it is 
probably of Jewish origin. The prophet Hosea belonged to the northern 
kingdom, but he may have been bom in the country E. of Jordan. In 
chap. xii. verse 11, he speaks of Gilead. The building, which can hardly 
be more than 300 years old, contains a long open trough, about 16 ft. 
long, which is said to have been the tomb of the prophet. The Beduins 
kill sheep here in honour of Hosea (comp. p. 150). Adjoining the build- 
ing there is a small trickling spring of bad water. 

2. F&OM Es-Salt to Jebabh (81/2 hrs.). 

Two routes: o. (tbe sbortei, but stony) direct to the N., through 
the mountaius of Gilead (Jebel Jil'dd)^ eastwards of the Jebel 0»ha\ 
past (1 hr.) Khirbet Zeij consisting of a few ruined buildings and 
broken columns. In l^g hr. more we reach ^Alldrij where there is 
a spring and several rock- tombs. After 1/2 hr., to the right, is 8hi~ 
hdrhj and after ^/^ hr. more, 'AlakHni on the hill to the right. We then 
descend to the Nahr ez'Zerka (*/2 hr.). We cross the river, ascend 
the hills on the other side to Hernia (1 hr.) and, passing DibMn, 
reach Jerash in i^/^ hr. 

b, A longer but more convenient route leads along the Wddy 
Sha^ib, diverges after 10 min. into a lateral valley on the left, and 
after 12 min. ascends the steep Jt^d Amrtyeh. From the top 
(13 min.) the road leads E. over rocky heights, descends after 
25 min. into the Wddy SaidUn (10 min.) and makes the steep as- 
cent of the other side (10 min.). We proceed £. along the plateau ; 
after 25 min. the road to Hesbdn (p. 189) diverges to the right After 
15 min. the road divides again, the road straight on leads to'Amm^ 
(p. 185); we take the road on the left, and passing a little lake 
(Birket Tawla) come (10 min.) to the beginning of the large plain 
El-Buke(^a. The plain is partially cultivated, and was formerly the 
bed of a lake, the overflow of which was carried away N. by the 
Wddy et" Tanantyeh into the Zerka. We skirt the plain towards the 
N.E. ; after s/4 hr. we cross the Wddy et-Tanantyeh and ascend in 
the N.W. comer of the plain. After 8/4 hr. we cross the head of the 
Wddy Seltha and then go almost direct N. to (50 min.) the Wddy 
Vm er-Bummdn (below, to the left, is a Turcoman village bearing 
the same name) ; thence, in 21/2 hrs., to the Nahrez-Zerka, opposite 
the influx of the Wddy Jerash (or Kerwdn). The Zer|^a, or 'blue 
river", is the Jabbok of the Old Testament (Gen. xxxii. 22; see 
p. 176). The banks are bordered with oleanders. The brook is gener- 
ally well filled with water, and in rainy weather is often difficult to 
ford. — Crossing the river we first proceed along the Wddy Jenuh 
and then, riding direct N. along the hills, reach (I8/4 hr.) — 

Jerash (1757 ft. above the sea). — Histoby. According to Jose- 
phus, Oerasa was a town belonging to the Decapolis of Persea, and num- 

buUdii^a belong 
probibly ereclei 
benti wu Blill 

16. Btnite. 


an by Alei.nde. 

; J«- 

owne a( Arable 

.er., .nd )ta >■ 

T. ' In the" l" 


<d BtTODgeat ton 


win II. mods Ic 


onod by aartbquakes am 
Merlila for tbe bousea el 

180 RouU 16. JEBASH. From Jericho 

ings, to the great injury of the latter. Destraction by the hand of man 
is making rapid progress. 

A careful inspection of the place occupies more than a day. Tents 
had better be pitched in the upper part of the town. 

The ruins lie in the Wddy td-Dtr^ on both banks of the copious 
brook ITenrdfi, or the * brook of Jerash', which descends to the 
Zer^a. * The brook is bordered with oleanders, which form the 
only vegetation in the district. The right bank of the brook is 
higher than the left, and the level surface on the former is broader 
than that on the latter; the most remarkable buildings are on the 
right bank. The town-walls, following the slopes of the hill , are 
partly preserved, and are about 1 hr. in circumference. Towards 
the N. the valley is enclosed by hills, and although it opens to- 
wards the S., no view is obtained except of the pilgrimage-shrine 
of Mezdr Abu Bekr on one of the surrounding hills. 

We begin our inspection of the ruins on the S. side. The 
remains of buildings and heaps of large hewn stones extend fully 
a mile beyond the S. gate, but the ruins of dwelling-houses, tombs, 
and public buildings situated there are hardly deserving of notice. 
The first structure of importance is a well-preserved and handsome 
Qateway* in three sections, resembling a triumphal arch. Its 
whole width is 82 ft. , and the height of the central arch 29 ft. 
Above each of the smaller side gateways are corbels projecting from 
the wall, and over these is a niche resembling a window. The cen- 
tral arch will, it is feared, soon give way. The structure is re- 
markable in this respect that the columns on the S. side have a 
calyx-shaped pedestal of acanthus leaves above their bases. This 
peculiarity and the tripartite form of the gateway indicate that it 
is not of earlier ]date than the time of Trajan. — To the left of this 
gateway lies a large basin, about 230 yds. in length and 100 yds. 
in width. It is now filled up with rubbish, and its surface is used 
as arable land. This was a Naumachiai or theatre for the represen- 
tation of naval battles, as appears from the well-preserved channels 
which conducted the water hither from the brook ; and it was pro- 
vided with rows of seats still partly preserved. The basin is 
enclosed with excellent masonry, and has an ornament in the form 
of a wreath at its upper end. On the hill to the N. W. of the 
naumachia, part of the Necropolis of Gerasa seems to have been 
situated , and sarcophagi of black basalt, finely executed and eo- 
riched, were found here. 

All these ruins lie outside the town gate, which is now almost 
entirely destroyed , but appears to have resembled the outer gate- 
way. On each side it was once evidently connected with the town 
walls. On a hilJ, a few pa^e^ to the W. of the town gate, stand the 
ruins of a Temple, the situation of which overlooks the whole, 
town. Its walls, which »re 71/2 ft. thick, contain niches and a num,. 
ber of windows. Que column only of the peristyle, at the S.K 
corner, is preserved, but the bases of the columns, 71/2 ft. distant 

^^*vMV-^f and uj^ '" ''""'^'"S *8 tasteful j,^,^ 

^^W^^ C :"; *•"* opening Uard« t^rw. , ~^;,';^ 
-^Wvt ^,iifl4lng^ "e enjoyed an «lm)r.ble view of the !,„", * " 
*^U,W8<,l«thei, city. There .re tw«„ty-ef^ht '^fc 
"'sli, tbey He divT^"^ ""^ poasibly be buried beneath the "k 
"long which n^^"^^^ tnto t«o senttoiis by a 8eml<rfrei,Iar (.1, "" 
lery w»b »Pf [d.-J, "''^ eiRbt small ohamhera or 'todies'. Ti- "' 
nnrfer W^o t^n ^"^ **'« onteide by -sanlted passaffes 1 

rP«r ti"" -• — - - - 

e To, 


iCTBae «-^ ■» ■""■iraoie. me prof>r«niiiiii , onr^ nttea np „:,i 

-rable. Tht. ^.^^ , 

-^^v5v\K. ^^"'^'^nee. is in lulos. In the wall of the pior,..^,„u 
"^^'rfv'fea '^^^ ° '''^ apectatora, there were three portalj 

'O rabbfah; the central door was of reotangnlar form, while 
»''" -,1,7^'' yete vanlted. Along the ineide of this wall ran a ww of 
'^"'^ ' '»n colnmns, aitending to the side of the doois, and be- 
^■^ '™9e oolnmns were seen the richly adorned niches of the 
' rvBti^""^ Wall. The theatre also poasessed side-ontrannes (pre- 
to-w .V "^ **'^ W, airie), and entraniiea from oorridora ranning bo- 
ooiiw ""'"dins, »nd probably naed by the anters. The theatre 
I "wonunodata 6000 spectatota, and is still remarkable for the 
oaa«i "* PreaaiYation of Its rowg of seats. Unfortunately, the Cir- 

£"" aiatl theniBBlves of It as a conventent qnarry. 
coinZ^*""? the theatre, we proceed northwards to a somidrole of 
coinn,""' "''Ote there are some mins and several reserroirs. These 
side "* '<*niBd an oval lornni, which was perhaps open on the 8. 
»re BH^* *»» about 120 paces In length. Fifty-flve of the columns 
ture Wit*'"'"'"B. fflost of them being still connected by an entabla- 
thri-i. ^yP'Wsnta very striking appearance, distant y resembling 
twLtv .? "' St. Peter at Itome. On the left C^-fJ"^ ""^^ "« 
■»'"&'"'''»", on the Tight eighteen and thi«een ™iumn« 
Te ,E'*'"« '" ^iff«fent gronpa. The capitals are «'l I""'"- 

'o the N, of thio t Z, t.^Mns the Colomian* by whinri the 

^^o « town ^ll^ZlZ Thfcolun^na have a h^'^^ "PP^Trh ' 
"8 alttioat all the! V i»^iv buried in tlie earth , but tha 

182 Route 16. JERASH. From Jericho 

nevertheless very impiessive. Here agaiu many columns are 
overthrown, apparently by earthquakes only. In consequence of 
this, the entablature which the columns supported has been thrown 
to a distance in several places; in other places, the blocks of which 
the columns are composed have been displaced; and in some 
instances, these blocks lie in parallel rows, as if awaiting the 
process of being put in position by the builder. Many of the co- 
lumns, however, are still so admirably put together, that it is diffi- 
cult to detect the joints. The columns are 5 yds. apart, and the 
street, whose pavement still exists at places , was about the same 
width. The height of the columns, exclusive of the entablature, is 
also about 15 ft., but as some of them are much higher, we infer 
(as at Palmyra) that an open gallery ran above the columns , and 
that behind them was a passage from which the adjacent houses 
were entered. The fact that these columns are not all in the same 
style, affords a presumption that they were erected at a comparatively 
late period, and were constructed of materials already existing. 
Along the main street about a hundred columns are still standing; 
of numerous others the lower parts only remain, while in most ca- 
ses several fragments at least are preserved. These columns consist, 
like the other buildings, of the limestone of the neighbourhood, and 
there are few traces of basalt or other more costly material. 

Beyond the thirteenth column on the left there are several higher 
ones on the right and left, and the ends of the cornice of the lower 
rest against the shafts of the higher. Behind the columns there 
are remains of masonry at places. We soon reach a small space 
where four huge pedestals, which were probably once vaulted over, 
so as to form a Tetrapylon (p. cxv), are still preserved. They are 
6V2 ft- in height, and have niches probably once filled with statues. 
The cross-street which intersected the main street here was also lin- 
ed with columns, a few of which still remain. The cross-street 
descends to the right to a broad flight of steps, and to a Bridge aoross 
the brook, consisting of five arches. The bridge is a very substantial 
structure, but somewhat damaged. Near it the brook is crossed by an 

Continuing to follow the main street towards the N., we pass 
seven columns on the right, then seven on the left, and two larger 
columns on the right and three on the left. On the left side here 
is a building, the tribuna of which is beautifully preserved. Above 
the three round and two square windows, now built up, runs a cor- 
nice with broken pediments, executed in a remarkably rich style. 
The interior of the building is filled with large hewn blocks, scat- 
tered in wild confusion. In front of the tribuna are three large 
Corinthian columns. On the left, adjoining the colonnade, runs a 
wall which belonged to some handsome edifice. We then pass a 
column and the broken foot of one on the left. To the right of this 
Mas situated a TemplCy of which a row of colutans between two walls 

toJerash. JERASH. 16. Route. 183 

and the apse are still preseryed , and which lay in a line with the 
great temple (see below). At the back of the apse, a street descend- 
ed to a bridge, which, howeyer, is not now passable. 

On the left side of the street lie the ruins of grand PropylaeOj 
of which, however, the front part only is preserved. The great 
portal, whose architrave has fallen, stands between two window- 
niches with richly decorated, broken pediments. To the N. of this a 
palace seems once to have stood. — Farther on, In the main street, 
there are three columns on the right, three on the left, and then 
the Tetrapylon (p. 182). 

The Great Temple, which was probably dedicated to the sun, 
the most important building at Gerasa, is situated on the top of 
a terrace of considerable extent. The principal part of it forms 
a rectangle, 26 yds. long and 22 yds. wide, and faces the E. The 
interior of the cella has fallen in and is choked with rubbish. On 
three sides the walls, which are undecorated, are still standing. 
On the sides are six niches of oblong form. In the wall at the back 
is a vaulted passage with a small dark chamber at each side. On 
the outside of the wall in front, there are still remains of a iltefie. 
The temple was a ^peripteros', i.e. enclosed by a colonnade. The 
portico, approached by steps, consisted of three rows of colossal 
Corinthian columns. In the front row were six columns, one of 
which has been overthrown; in the second row four, all standing; 
and in the third row four, of which two are standing. These 
columns, 38 ft. high and 6 ft. thick, are the largest at Jerash, and, 
like the whole building, recall the temple of the sun at Pal- 
myra. They are older than the columns of the main street, the 
acanthus foliage of the capitals being admirably executed , and the 
shafts being jointed with great skill. The temple stood in the 
middle of a large court (atrium) enclosed by numerous columns, 
a few of which are still unbroken, while of the others there are 
numerous bases and fragments. A little to the W. of this runs 
the wall of the town. Towards the S.W. several smaller temples 
(and perhaps a church also) appear to have stood. Nothing, how- 
ever, is now to be seen except a few columns and traces of vaults 
deeply buried in the earth. — The great temple commands a beauti- 
ful view. 

Below it, a little to the N., is situated a second Theatre, smaller 
than that already mentioned, but with a broader stage. It faces the 
N.E. , and possesses sixteen tiers of seats. Between the tenth and 
eleventh tier, counting from the top, are Ave arches, between each 
pair of which is a large niche with 2 (or 3) small shell-shaped 
niches. Under the lowest row of the extensive tiers are dark vault- 
ed rooms. The proscenium is buried in rubbish and overgrown with 
grass; it lay very low, and was adorned with detached columns. The 
stage commands a view of the columns of the great temple, ris- 
ing above the highest tier of seats. The general arrangement? 

184 Route 16. J£RASH. 

seem to indicate that the theatre was intended for oomhats of 
gladiators and wild animals, and not for dramatic performances. 

This theatre was reached from the main street by a side-street 
flanked with columns, of which three are preserved. Here, too, 
was a tetrapyUm^ at the point where the streets intersected each 
other; but this was round in the interior, and square outside only. 
The rotunda of this building was once decorated with statues. From 
this point also a street descended towards the brook. On the 
right (E. of the main street) stand the ruins of a very spacious 
square building (about 65 yds. square), which seems to have been a 
bath, being provided with an aqueduct. In front are traces of a row 
of columns. The chief entrance was vaulted. On the N. and S. 
sides there were square vaulted wings with side entrances. The in- 
terior consisted of a suite of large apartments. 

The main street continues to run northwards. On the left (W.) 
side a number of Ionic columns, bearing an entablature, and on the 
right two columns are preserved. The flnest view of this N. part 
of the street of columns is obtained from the N. gate of the town, 
itself a very plain structure. The direction of the wall, and the 
place where it crosses the brook, are distinctly traceable here. An 
oblong building, which rises to the W. , inside the gate, seems to 
have been a watch-house. 

On the left (E.) side of the brook there were bat few public 
buildings, the ground being less level than on the right bank. The 
hill recedes to some distance from the bank, and the plain thus 
formed is covered with vegetation in spring. The most northern 
building still in existence here was a Temple, about 50 yds. square, 
but part of the wall, a vaulted gateway, and one of the columns of 
the interior are alone preserved. The sculptures, if we may judge 
from their remains, must have been admirably executed. By a 
Spring farther to the S. there seems to have been another handsome 
edifice containing altars. Part of the water of this spring ran into 
the brook, while the rest was conducted to the naumachia by 
means of a large aqueduct. Along the bank of the brook there are 
also remains of columns. Beyond the upper bridge lie the ruins of 
a large building, which must have been either a Bath, or more 
probably a Caravanserai, Here, too, lie scattered fragments of 
columns, some of which are fluted. On this E. side of the town 
the wall runs along the slope of the hill at a considerable height, 
and within it are the ruins of numerous dwelling-houses. Outside 
the wall lay a burial-ground. The wall is best preserved on the N.E. 
corner of the town , whence it again descends in a wide curve to 
the brook and the S. gate. 

From Jerash to El-Mzer^b, see p. 197. 

17. From JeroBh to 'Amm&B, 'Arik el-Emlr, Eesb&n, 
Hedeba, and El-Kerok. 

1. Fbok Jiuueii TO ■AhmIs (B'/i tii.). 


y Wn-lmej. »d 

nrt, .ee p. 118. W 

WddB Jeraih In 

Ihe Ztrta (1>A 

Bida a 

.nd proceeil in » 8. di 


■• 'oalii T\sU) 


A ei-Snll lead! 

at 3 bj: 

!. we arrive .t the vMn . 

S. ind 


, spting 

■nd tbt 




.1167 M 

f« » the iBflii 


ri vallsy, where 

Iba 8. ( 

meli after Vt br 

V6 Ui, 

to ths 

rijlil, ff*.>l^" 



, puBiog tbs cm 

n 0847 feet shove llie sea-level), — 'Amm- 
I Raibalh Anmot, tbe capital of the Ammon 

[. 2). Ptolemj II. CPhila^elpbQS) of Bejpt 

186 Route 17. 'AMMAN. From Jttash 

rebailt it and added the name PMladetpMa^ and for several centuries it 
was a thriving place, belonging to the Decapolis of Pereea. It never quite 
lost its original uame, by which, alone it was afterwards known to the 
Arabs. The destruction of ^Amm&n is chiefly to be attributed to earth- 
quakes, but notwithstanding all its misfortunes its ruins are still among 
the finest on the E. side of Jordan. The town lies in a fertile basin, 
commanded by the ruins of a castle. 

The citadel of 'Amm3,n lies on a hill on the N. side , which towards 
the S.W. forms an angle, and towards the E. is bounded by an artificial 
depression. The citadel consists of three terraces, rising from E. to W. The 
gate is in the middle of the S. side, opposite the town. The enclosing 
walls stand a little below the crest of the hill. They are very thick, 
constructed of large, uncemented blocks. On the uppermost (W.) terrace 
the traces of a temple (bases of the columns of the pronaos) are still visible, 
and there is a well-preserved tower in the 8. wall. All these buildings 
date from Roman times, but there is a very well-preserved and interest- 
ing specimen of Arab architecture on the uppermost terrace. For what 
purpose this building was erected , cannot now be determined. It can 
hardly have been a mosque. The details of the work in the interior are 
magnificent. — The citadel commands a fine view of the entire field of 

The most important ruins in the valley below are as follows (from 
W. to E.). 1. On the left (N.) bank of the river, near the influx of a 
lateral valley, which descends from theW. of the citadel, is a mosque of 
the time of the Abbasides ; near the river is a beuilica in JSyzantine style, 
and close by it are the ruins of an Arab beuaar. — 2. A little farther to 
the E. are the remains of Thermcte. The 8. wall is well-preserved, "and con- 
sists of a handsome apse connected with two lateral ones. Columns arc 
still standing upright, but without capitals, by the walls. At a great height 
are richly decorated niches, and holes for cramps indicate that the build- 
ing was once decorated with bronze ornaments. These baths received their 
water from a conduit running parallel with the river on its north bank. — 
Immediately 8.E. of the baths is an old bridge with well-preserved arches, 
and close by are the ruins of the landing place; a little farther down the 
stream, on the left bank, is a fine portico. — 3. Starting from the mosque 
(see above) we may follow the course of the ancient Street of Columns^ 
which ran through the ancient town parallel with the stream and on its 
left bank for a distance of about 935 yds. Only a very few columns now 
remain standing. — To the left (!N.) of the street of columns and in the 
middle of the village are the remains of a Temple (or possibly a forum) 
of the late Roman period. The fragments at the E. end of the street of 
columns seem to have belonged to one of the gates of the town. — 4. On 
the right side of the brook, well stocked with fish, lies the Theatre only, 
with its back to the hill, a most impressive ruin, and in excellent pre- 
servation. A row of columns runs from the theatre to the Odeum (sec 
below). Another colonnade seems to have run from its W. comer north- 
wards to the river. Eight Corinthian columns of the first and four of the 
second colonnade still remain. The stage is destroyed. A chamber now 
filled with stones was probably an outlet. The tiers of seats are inter- 
sected by stairs, and divided into three sections by parallel semicircular 
barriers. Of the first section, five tiers of seats are visible, the second has 
fourteen, and the third, sixteen tiers of seats. Between the second and 
third sections, and particularly above the third, are boxes for spectators. 
Words spoken on the stage are distinctly heard on the highest tier of 
seats. The theatre was constructed for about 3000 spectators. — K.E. in 
front of the theatre, are the ruins of a small Odeum (usually called so, 
although it was not covered). There are many holes in front for cramp?, 
by which ornaments were attached. The proscenium had towers on each 
side: the one on the 8. is still preserved. — 5. Descending the brook, the 
traveller comes to the ruin of a mill. For a distance of 300 yds. the banks 
of the stream are flanked with handsome Roman walls, and the water- 
course was once vaulted over here. The blocks lying in the water form 
convenient stepping-stones. — Farther on, a dry lateral valley enters from 

17. RouU. 

188RuuI(IT. 'AllAK EL-EmIr. FromJerash 

hoen artHlclilly widened. lesd Ihenco Inlo k Bumber of melt- 
lliE rings in the wslli. Cm Ihase hive been rock-dwell ings , or wore 

Fhom 'AbJe el-EhIh to Jebichd {b'/t hn.). The ra&d le&ds to Ibe 
N.W. oTer 1 low pess (V. hr.), and acHxs s flit plMosn to (l/i hrO ITAfy 
en-Aifr, inlo nblch Ibere li & sleep cteicenl (5 min.). It then ersdniilLy 
ucends (the ruin of Bar rem&lnlng to tbe S.) to Ills top of Ibe Jmdn 
ci-SOf (V> br,), descends t steep rocliy slope (10 min), and leads throngh 
tbe WM) Jerfa, a slde-ralley a( tbe Wtdy If/mrtn, lo (1 hr.) KMrbil Nim- 
Hn (p. ITS), near tbe point where the valle; qalts the monnUins. Oross- 
in^ IbeWIdy Mimrln, wo noit Irnveise the Jordm valley in I'/ihr. lo 
tlio Jordan Bridyt. p. ITS. Thonce lo Jericlio Mj, br. 

FKoii 'AitiK kl-KbIk to Eb-S*it (B hrs. 40 min,}. From the brook 
El-Sir (p. m) the route ascends the ¥.. hill, high above the Wddf d-SoMI, 
to the right, skirting waleflrcncbei wbicb are conducted over the fields 
From Ihat valley. After li/, hr. tbe valley divides. Our ronle ascends 

MEDEBA. 17, Route, 189 

to Kerolc. 

-^>^^^^ ^.JS-, tlra.^rer3ing oak w^ooda, and (V4 hr.) reaching 

the WUy E«Ma 't<^ -*^^-4*^ tlae va.lJ^7 w destitute of water. The road then 

a spring. Y^Tttxe^^^--,^, ^^'^ ^-^S^-^T-E- to ti»^e spring oi 'Ain Nutafa, and then as- 

leads in lilt, io "•^^'-tp^J^ — -* fiPora. tJti^ w»dj to a tabie-Jand. After o min. we 

cends to tixe \eCt ^>^^^^^^«' JS^r wbic^ ia perhaps identical with Jazer in 

see to the left JC T^^ ^.^giiii. ;| j ^ixis plo.ce afterwards came successively into 

Gilead OSumhers ac: ^^ ^^ ^o^r>itaa rlsai'^^ ^^*- *^ *°d ♦J'le Ammonites (1 Mace. 

the poBsession of t>^»=*- ^-- -nen*i ?»«iieS'«<i by Judas Maccabseus. — • The route 

▼.8). It was rato^ ^^*^^ ♦? ^ t^Tn towards the N. , passing on the right 

continues to trav^^*"^ ^^. T^^ -PiSi^ es-J3emak^ on the left KMrbet el-Kurxi, 

(V4 hr.) a pool aii«3- ^-^^^^trbet ^T^^ ^7>w»» el-'AmUd. We then ascend the 

and (5 min.) on tX:». ^ 'J>Ii* ^f'^^Z pa,B8 Khirhet DaMJb on the hill to the 

flat Wddy DaMk^ «fc.«m<3 after V* '^Si'ove's, being enclosed by wooded hills 

left. After 10 min. -, -fciie v&llSy ^^^clx *!»« *op of tl^e hill, and in 1/4 hr. 

iJehel HemmAr)-^ inm. ^^4 hr. t*^^ 'It, r^in Bemmdr. Crossing a table-land, 

more begin to de»<:5^jc»d stee-p^y to ***® ^®f* ^^ which is a deep valley, 

we next reach (20 ^arxM.^:m:M.^ a s^S^^^^V* rt>- ^'^^^- Skirting the latter for 1/4 lir., 

and to the right thes x> i<ain of ^«*^^* f^r ^^^''^ *°^ ^^ ™*^) *l»e brink of the 

we arrive at (8 miacn.^ the sryri^^ '*&& -veith that from 'Amman to Es-Salt, 

Wddy Saidltn, wher^ *iie road «»»»** 

V4 hr. from the latt;exr. ^ ^ 

•"" ^ ^^ lirs.) AND Medkba (i»/4 hr.). 
3. Pkom 'AMisam^^jsr to ilKf^^*' ^^^ as the ruins of a bridge (V4 hr.), 

We go up the vaJl^y ^f&ft* ^^^ plateau is crossed in a 8.W. 
and then ascend ttae -faiJJ to t**^ /^ ic^**' either B, or W.), and in about 
direction (several roacJ^ jaxs»rv ^^ •♦^ikt^^ **"* *° isolated hill (the ancient 
4 hrs. we reach X/i4ir'^^^ Jz^Al ** o^ Reuben, Numb, xxxii. 3 , and was 

£Ual€, which belonged Ac3 ^lie *''*^^s»'i*** xv. 4). Hence, along an ancient 

afterwards taken hy tiae JM:Jtal>i*^^' *7% 

Homan road, we come ±w:m -ii^^-rtai**- ---islii^^S *^**y ®^ '^® Amorites at the 

Hefbia. — Hethbo^^ -^p^^Ss * fl<>^^jS^uJiib. xxi. 26). It was allotted to 
period of the Israelite S -r-m-^ -m^^K^T^^^^^Y^^ possession of the Hoabites (Jerem. 
Benben, and afterward. a --- -^' ^'*"* J* iiito * TiCji.ccabee8 it had been recovered by 
xlviii. 46), but in Hie, ^T^^l o? *^^ 

the Jews. '"■'""■■ -rtiatii^s the whole of the plain. The 

The site of Hesbftn <;Q»^MI>r:^ ft 3 ^'^'IV^ "^^ ^^ **** Wddy Ilesbdn, and on 
ruins lie on two hills, l><z»-«r^^^Aed ^'^ *^^ -jj.a.«iy cistern-openings 'among them, 
the E. by the Wddy McT^n,^ ^^Ther® a^^ ^exx^^ii^" of a tower and to the S.E. 

In the middle of the i^". " -»-^ :fi^ii »r© *^*^ ^iid there is also a square enclosure 
of it a large pool, hewn :i.:»^fc. ^^iii.e toC^' %t of the ancient town was built on 
built of large blocks. Tt^ ^^ i^eafc*®*" ^riere there is a large reservoir. On 

the saddle between the t-^»%^^--^ Uill^^ -v^** ^^ possibly a tomple, with shafts 
the 8. W. hill are traces ^z^-«=- cAt^^ ^-a. Beduins resides here during the 

of columns. The h\A\\x <::» ^ 5t^« c^a-**^**^ 

greater part of the yeax". <iir«c* to the S. to — 

From Hesb&n we rid^ «^ ,^_^ l»/4 **^'-i ^el>' "^ MeStni waa originally a town 

Medeba (4940 feet al>c» -^^^^^a^^tUe o^^'^ST afterwards allotted to Reuben. In 

of the Moabites (Josh, xii :i _ ^x\ I* ^^^asro. again came into the possession 

the middle of the 9tlx cei».-fc_ ::^S O-, ***^ it Is called a town of the Nabateeans 

of the Moabites, and at a 1 «». -«=,.«3i' pe*^*^iVi after a siege of six months. Dur- 

(Arabs). Hyrcanxis captuzK-.^ .^i3_ tlie ^^^^^t of a bishop. 

ing the Christian period :«. -fc --^^a^ tlx& ^^^pied by Christians from the Latin 

The ruins of Medeba c^-x:-^^ no^^ *^ r>uilt numerous shafts of columns, 

monastery of El-Kerafc , -^?*f- :bj^ <> l**'^?. i^ouaes. The modern village lies on 

capitals, architraves, etc. ^:m=m^-^x> t*^®*^ for a considerable distance around. 

a small hill , Taut the Tia.-5. :«-»_ ^ ®^*®^ of a temple with some broken pillars. 

In the U. of the town are -t»=*- ^ *^V*«. ,.einarkable round building, possibly 

To the S.E. of it are the tc-^:«. ^. »s o± ^ ^-einains of a gate, and to the S. of 

a temple. E. of this , th^ -m^m. ^^^^9^A ^«vith rubbish. Another and smaller 

the gate a large pool, alnca.<z»ea -fc. ^^^T^^ of tlie hill is covered with ruins. On 

pool lies farther TJl.E. — T^'tm.^^ S. ®**Vaj. yda. long and 103 yds. wide, with a 

the S.'W. ia a third, colossa.:!. P<>**ll,i W- (on a smaller hill) are the ruins 

tower in its "N.B. corner. On *»^ 

190 Route 17. MKAUR. Frorti, Jerash 

of a basilica. The two pillars, wMcli once belonged to tbe vestibule, 
are worthy of notice. — A very fine piece of mosaic pavement has been 
discovered in the honse of an Arab trader in the S. oi the village. 

Ht. Nebo, ftrom which Hoses beheld the whole of the promised land 
before his death (Dent, xxxiv. 1-4), is believed to be one of the 
mountains to the N. W. of Hedeba and Hesban. We cross cultivated 
fields and (li/s hr.) reach the Jebel Nebd (2243ft.), to the 8. of the springs of 
Moses. The view hence is very extensive, including the mountains to 
the K. of Hebron as far as Galilee, the Dead Sea from Engedi north- 
wards, the whole valley of Jordan, and beyond it even Carmel and 
Hermon. To the N. a view is obtained of the Wddy ^Ut/HnMHsa. This 
valley contains luxuriant vegetation, but the descent into it is steep. The 
traveller may ride from the springs to Hesblln. 

From Msdbba to Jbbicho dibect in about Ohrs. 

4. Fbom Hedeba to El-Kbbak (about 26 hrs.). 

A ride of IV2 hr. over the plain along what appears to have been a 
Roman road brings us to the ruins of — 

Ma'^in. On the plateau are found a number of dolmens, formed of three 
or four large stones, and doubtless very ancient. Ha'in is the ancient 
Beth-Baal-Meon (Joshua xlii. 17), or house of Baal Heon. It belonged 
to Reuben, and afterwards to Hoab (Ezekiel xxv. 9). Eusebius informs 
us that this was the birthplace of Elisha. The ruins are extensive, and 
cisterns lie in every direction. 

From Ha'in we come in i/s hr. to the edge of the table-land near the 
Jehel Husneh. We descend into the deep valley of the Zeria MaHn and 
go down the valley for about 6 hrs. till we come to Pammdm ez-Zerka^ 
where the site of the ancient Callirrhoe must be sought. Remains o^ a 
conduit are still to be found. The bottom and sides of the ravine are 
covered with a luxuriant growth of plants, including palm-trees. The 
flora resembles that of S. Arabia and ^ubia. At the bottom of the valley 
is seen red sandstone, overlaid with limestone and basalt. Within a di- 
stance of 3 H. a number of hot springs issue from the side-valleys, all of 
them containing more or less lime, and all rising in the line where the 
sandstone and limestone come in contact. The hottest of these springs*, 
which send forth clouds of steam, and largely deposit their mineral ingre- 
dients, has a temperature of 142" Fahr. The Arabs still use them for sani- 
tary purposes. In ancient times they were also in great repute, and Herod 
the Great visited them during his last illness. 

[About 3 hrs. to the S. from here is IDEanr, the ancient MaeJiaertu, 
which is said to have been founded by Alexander Jannseus. The castle 
was destroyed during the Pompeian wars, but was afterwards rebuilt 
by Herod the Great, surrounded by walls, and defended by towers. He- 
rod also founded a town here, within which he built himself a palace. 
From this point to Fella, towards the N. , extended the region of Pe- 
rcea. Josephus informs us that Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and 
Percea, offended by the reproaches of John the Baptist (Hatth. xiv. 3), 
imprisoned him in the fortress of Hachserus ; and here, therefore, the 
Baptist must have been beheaded. After the destruction of Jerusalem, a 
number of the unhappy survivors sought refuge in this stronghold, but 
the procurator Lucilius Bassus took it by stratagem and put the whole 
garrison to the sword. The very extensive citadel covering the hill, 
where a town and a large cistern are still preserved, is interesting. The 
view from Hkaur embraces the W. shore of the Dead Sea, Engedi to 
the S.W. , and above it the whole of the mountains of Judah , extending 
from Hebron to Jerusalem and farther N. Hkaur lies d675ft. above the 
level of the Dead Sea, and 2382 ft. above that^ of the Hediterranean]. 

From Callirrhoe the road leads direct to the S.E., and in about 3 hrs. 
we reach 'Attdr^s (Ataroth, in Gad). On a hill to the N. lie the ruins 
of an old castle , near a large terebinth tree. The view from the rains 
of the town is preferable^ it embraces Bethlehem, Jerusalem, Ht. Gerisim, 

to El'Kerdk. EL-KERAR. 17, Route. 191 

and the plain to the E. The hills are planted with terebinths, almond- 
trees, etc. — 1 hr. to the S.W. is Kuriydt {Kerioth^ Jeremiah xlviii. 47), 
a great heap of ruins ^ thence along' the Roman road S.£. for 27* hrs., and 
crossing the Wddy Meddn, we reach — 

Dib&n, the ancient Dibon^ which was taken by the Israelites (Numbers 
}L]&i. 30) and afterwards rebuilt by Gad (Numbers xxxiii. 34). According 
to Isaiah (xv. 2), it fell into the hands of the Moabites, and it was here 
that the famous 'Moabite Stone** of king Mesha was found (p. Ix). 

[2i/2 hrs. to the N.£. lies Umm er-Resds, another large heap of ruins. 
A number of arches are still preserved there, and also the ruins of several 
churches. About V2 hr. to the N. of the town is a very curious tower, 
not unlike a tomb-tower in the Palmyrene style (p. 873). From Umm 
er-Besa§ it is a journey of 3 hrs. to the Hajj route, on which lies £hdn 
Zebib, evidently standing on the site of an ancient town, as there are 
many architectural remains in and around the present building.] 

About i/s ^'* from Dibdn across the plain is ^Ar'dir (Aroer^ Joshua xii. 
2; xiii. 9 J afterwards a town of Keuben, Joshua xiii. lo), now a heap of 
ruins. The road hence to (1 hr.) K^h (Amon) is steep, and a competent 
guide is necessary. The ravine is aiOOO feet deep \ the hills on the S. side 
are 200 feet higher. The vegetation is luxuriant. Traces of a IU)man road 
and bridge are observable. Above the bridge lie some ruins. — In about 
11/2 hr. the road ascends to the S. to the ruins of Muhdtet el-BaJj ^ and 
thence in 2 hrs. to the dilapidated village of Eriha. 

1 hr. to the right (W.) of the road is the Jebel Shthdn^ with the vil- 
lage of that name. In the S. part, and at the foot of the hill, there are 
a number of enclosures of basalt, probably dating from an ante-Boman 
period. The name is perhaps derived from that of tiihon, king of the Amo- 
rites (Kumbers xxi. 21-30) , whose territory once extended from the Amon 
to the Jabbok, but, on his defeat by the Israelites, was given to the tribes 
of Beuben and Gad. The land of Sihon is also mentioned in 1 Kings 
iv. 19, and Jeremiah speaks of a place of that name (xlviii. 45). — On 
the top of the hill are the ruins of a temple and a burial-place of the 
Beni Hamideh tribe. The view is very extensive, embracing the Dead 
Sea, the mountains of Judah in the distance, and the ravine of the Mdjib 
to the N. — From Eriha the Roman road, most of the milestones of which 
are still preserved, leads to (1 hr.) the ruins of Bit el-Karm^ near which 
are the ruins of a temple i.Ka$r Rabbd). The columns look as if they had 
been overthrown by an earthquake, and large blocks are strewn about. 
On the left (£.) rise the hills oi Jebel et-Tar/Hyeh. On the left (Vihr.) are 
the ruins of the old tower of Misdeh^ adjoining which are the ruins of 
ffemSmdt. On the right of the road (i/s hr.), a small Soman temple^ after 
*}0 nxin., Babba, the ancient Rabbath Moc^^ which was afterwards confound- 
ed with ^r ifoab, and thence called Areopolis. The ruins are about IVs M. 
in circuit. A few only of the ruins, such as the remains of a temple (W. 
side) and some cisterns, are well-preserved. Two Corinthian columns of 
different sizes stand together not far from the temple. 

From JRab&a the road leads towards the S. across a plain and past 
the ruined villages of Mukharshit, Dtuceineh^ and E»-SutoeinSyehy in 4 hrs. to 

Sl-Xerak. — Histobt. El-Kerak is the ancient Kir Moab (2 Kings iii. 25 ; 
Isaiah xvi. 7, 11; Jeremiah xlv. 31), one of the numerous towns of the 
Xoabites. According to all accounts, this people closely resembled the 
Israelites, and this would be expected from their origin (p. Iv). They 
appear to have been of a warlike disposition. During the period of the 
Judges the Iftoabites compelled the Israelites to pay them tribute (Judges 
iii. 12-14). Saul and David fought against Moab; the great- grandmother 
of David was a Moabitess. After Solomon''s death Moab fell to the northern 
kingdom. After Ahab's death the Moabites refused to pay tribute. Their 
king at that period was Mesha, a monument to whose memory, probably 
dating from B.C. 897 or 896, was found in 1863 at Diban (see above). Jeho- 
ram,, allied with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, invaded Moab from the S. , 
through Edom, but they were resisted by the fortress of Kir Harateih (Kir 
Moab), Hesha on this occasion offered his first-born son as a sacrifice to Baal 
Cliemosh on the wall, whereupon the Israelites withdrew (2 Kings iii.)« 

192 Route 17. EL-KERAK. 

At a later period, Moab was sometimes dependent, and sometimes indepen- 
dent. Its position was probably similar to what it now is, tribute being 
paid or noL according to the presence or absence of a military garrison. 
The land of Moab is described as having been very prosperous in ancient 
times (Jer. xlviii.), and, to judge from the numerous ruins, must have been 
very populous. At a subsequent period, £1-Kerak was the seat of an arch- 
bishop , but he derived his title , as at the present day, from Petra De- 
serti. The place has often been confounded with Shdbek. When the Cru- 
saders established themselves in the country to the E. of Jordan, Kerak 
formed the key of that region, as it commanded the caravan route irom 
Egypt and Arabia to Syria, in consequence of which it was a much dis- 
puted fortress. The Saracens made desperate efforts to take it, as the 
Franks extended their expeditions thence down as far as Aila ('Akaba). In 
1183, and the following years, Saladin began a series of furious attacks 
upon Kerak, which was held by Rainald de Ghatillon, and in 1188, he 
gained possession both of Kerak and Shdbek. The Eyyubides extended 
the fortifications of Kerak, and frequently resided there. They also trans- 
ferred thither their treasury and their state-prison. At that time, tbe 
place prospered. Later on, it became an apple of discord between the 
rulers of Egypt and Syria. Owing to the strength of its situation, how- 
ever, the inhabitants generally contrived to hold their own. 

To this day, the trade of El-Kerak with the desert is of considerable im- 
portance. The merchants of Hebron are among the chief frequenters of 
the market of El-Kerak. Like the Beduins, the natives of El-Kerak wear the 
striped 'abayeh (cloak), and they all carry arms. The environs are very- 
fertile. ^Butter seller** is regarded as an epithet of opprobrium, as the 
owner of flocks is bound to use the butter they yield for himself, and 
particularly for his guests. The influx of European travellers , and the 
large sums expected from them in payment for hospitality, have already- 
demoralised these people and excited their natural cupidity. The inhabi- 
tants are, therefore, justly in bad repute. Strangers are still treated here 
with great insolence. — The population of the town and environs consists 
of about 6000 Muslims and 1800 Christians. Accommodation may be found 
in the public inn (meddfeh)^ or in private houses. Application should be 
made to the Christians, who have a shSkh of their own, and, on the 
whole, are more trustworthy. Station of the English Church Missionary 
Society. The Catholics also have a chapel. 

The View from El-Kerak, which lies about 3370 ft. above the level of 
the Mediterranean, particularly from the castle, embraces the Dead Sea 
and the surrounding mountains. In the distance the Mt. of Olives and 
even the Russian buildings beyond it, are visible. A survey of the valley 
of Jordan as far as the heights of Jericho is also obtained. Although the 
surrounding mountains partly command the town, its situation is naturally 
very strong. It is still partially surrounded by a wall with five towers. 
The most northern tower is the best preserved, and bears an inscription 
and figures of lions of the kind common in Arabian monuments of the 
Crusaders' period. The lower parts of the wall, to judge from the stones 
composing it, are of earlier date than the upper. The town originally 
had two entrances only, both consisting of tunnels in the rock, but it is 
now accessible on the N.W. side also through breaches in the waJl. The 
tunnel on the N.W. side has an entrance arch dating from the Roman 
period (notwithstanding its Arabic inscription). This tunnel, about 80 
paces long, leads to the tower ofBeibars (M.W.), whose name is recorded 
by an inscription adjoining two lions. The walls are very massive, and 
are provided with loopholes. The vaults are now used as store-rooms. 

The most interesting building at El-Kerak is the huge Castle on the S. 
side. It is separated from the adjoining hill on the right by a large artificial 
moat, and is provided with a reservoir. A moat also skirts the N. side 
of the fortress, and on the E. side the wall has a sloped or battered base. 
The castle is thus separated from the town. The walls are very thick 
and well preserved. The extensive galleries, corridors, and colonnades 
constitute it an admirable example of a Crusader's castle. The upper 
stories are in ruins, but the approaches to them are still in good preserva- 

HAUBAN. 18. Route. 193 


titm. A staircase descends into a subterranean chapel, where traces of 
frescoes are still yisible. In the interior of the fortress are numerous 
ciiiter.n8. Although the springs are situated immediately outside the town, 
large cisterns have been constructed within the town (particularly by the 
tower of Beibars). — The present Moiqut of Kerak was originally a 
Christian church, of which the pillars and arches are still extant. A 
sculptured chalice and several other Christian symbols have escaped 
destruction by the Muslims. — - The Christian church, dedicated to St. 
Oeorge iElr-KJddTy p. Ixxxix), contains pictures in the Byzantine style. In 
one of the houses are remains of a beautiful Boman bath, including a 
fine marble pavement. 

From £1-Kerak to jRsIra, see p. 151. 

18, The Haur&n. 


A journey to the Jebd Hawrdn can only be made when the state of 
the country is unusually quie't, and had better be undertaken with a Druse 
escort, information respecting which may be obtained of the consulates 
in Jerusalem or Damascus. A soldier will be sufficient for the plain of 
the Haur&n, unless the tribes are actually fighting. There are still numer- 
ous uncopied inscriptions to be found here, — Qreek, Latin, Xabatsean, 
Arabic, and some in the so-called Sabeean (South Arabian) characters. A 
ladder should be taken, as the inscriptions are sometimes high above the 
ground, and a strong iron crowbar will also be useful. 

LiTBBATUSs. Wetzstein's 'Beisebericht iiber den Hauran und die Tra- 
chonen' (Berlin, 1860), which no traveller should be without. De Vogti^'s 
|Syrie Centrale, Architecture Civile et Beligieuse' contains numerous draw- 
ings of buildings in the Hauran. Schumacher^s 'Across the Jordan' (Lon- 
don, 1886)5 'The Jauiau' (London, 1888) j 'Northern 'AjlAn' (London, 1890). 
Map of the Jebel Hauran, drawn by Dr. H. Fischer in the 'Zeitschr. des 
Deutsch. Pal. Ver.\ 1889. 

HiSToST. The northern boundary of (jlilead towards the district of 
Bashan was the Yarmfik (p. 195). The Bible mentions an Og^ King of 
Bashan, whom the Israelites defeated at Edrei (l^nmbers xxi. 33-35). This 
Ungdom with the capital Edrei was then allotted to the tribe of Ma- 
nasseh. The district also included 'Argob', the slope of the HaurSLn range 
of mountains, where the Israelites found sixty cities with fortified walls 
and gates in the midst of an extremely fertile tract. Its pastures and its 
flocks were celebrated (Ezek. xxxix. 18). The oak plantations of Bashan 
also seem to have made a great impression on the Israelites (Ezek. xxvii. 
0; Isaiah ii. IS). At a later period (Ezek. xlvii. 16-18), the name of Hauran, 
which originally belonged to the mountains only (the Ahadamus Mons of 
the ancients), was extended to Bashan also, as at the present day. In the 
Roman period, the country was divided into five provinces : Ituraea^ Oau- 
hnitit, to the E. of these BaUmcua (a name also applied to the whole, 
like Bashan), to the N.E. Trachonitis and Auranitis^ including the moun- 
tains of the TCaur&n in the narrower sense, and the present plain of En- 
^ukra, or 'the hollow*. The HaurUn in the wider sense is now bounded 
on the K. by the Jebtl el-Aswdd towards Damascus, on the N.W. by the 
district of J^dHTy on the W. by the Ifahr el-*AUdn towards the J6Un (N.), 
and by the TTdtfy esh-Shelldleh towards ^AJlUn (S.), on the S.W. and 8. by 
the^B^d and the steppe of ElSammdd, Towards the N. E., and beyond 
the 'Meadow Lakes" (p. S84), extends a remarkable district, inaccessible 
to the ordinary traveller, consisting of a series of extinct craters, in the 
centre of which is the Sc^d (p. 334), with the ruin of the 'white castle'. 
To the S. and E. of this' lies the Harra (Hebr. 'KharSrlm'), an undulating 
plain, entirely covered with fragments of lava, where the sharpness of the 
stones renders riding and walking unpleasant. This is one of those dreary 
^demesses of which Arabia contains so many. — The rock formation of 
the ^aurUn itself is entirely lava. The prevailing stones are a granulous 
dolerite and a brownish red or blackish green slag, blistered and porous. 
The dolerite consists of thin slabs of crystal of greyish white labrador, 

Palestine and Syria. 2nd ed. 13 

194 Route 18. HAtJRAN. History. 

with small grains of olivine and angit«. This formation mns thronghont 
the whole of the Hauran, and in every direction are seen extinct craters and 
traces of violent eruptions. The soil in the district of the Haur&n is extremely 
fertile, and consists of soft, decomposed lava. 

The ancient dwellings of the country, however, form its chief attrac- 
tion. In the first place, there are numerous Troglodyte dwellings which 
certainly belong to hoar antiquity. Most of the villages of the Hauran 
consist of stone honseSj built of handsome, well-hewn stone beams (do- 
lerite), and admirably jointed without cement. Wood was nowhere used. 
The houses are built close together, and have lofty walls. The larger 
villages only are surrounded with walls, and these are provided with very 
numerous towers. The courses of stone in tile towers are often connected 
by means of the peculiarly shaped tenons known as 'swallow-tails\ The 
doors of the houses are low, but larger buildings and streets have lofty 
gateways adorned with sculptured vine-leaves and inscriptions. The gates 
and doors always consist of large slabs of dolerite, and the windows, on 
the upper floor only, are formed of slabs skilfully pierced with openings. 
— It is generally the best preserved only of these houses that are now 
inhabited, but many others are in such good condition that they seem 
merely to be awaiting the arrival of new tenants. Behind the doors of 
some of the houses are blocks of stones, which were placed there by their 
occupants to signify symbolically that they were ruined. On the ground- 
floor all the doors are of stone, and the window -shutters turn on hinges 
of stone. As in the modern houses, a stair led from the court to the 
gallery of the upper floor. The stairs and galleries consist of single 
slabs placed one above the other, and let into the wall, and were in 
some cases probably furnished with balustrades. The windows and 
doors of the upper floor were open. Some of the rooms contain stone 
cupboards, stone benches, and even square stone candlesticks. The 
ceilings also consist of long stone slabs, smoothly hewn and closely- 
fitted, above which was laid a kind of cement. The roofs rest on hand- 
some, wide arches, not immediately, but with intervening supports. 
In the more important buildings the ceiling and its supports were 
enriched. The round arch was much used, and the undecorated walls 
sometimes rose a little above the somewhat depressed arches which 
supported the building. 

Beside these dwellings, there were also numerous public buildings 
in the Hauran. Several temples are preserved, dating from the period 
when Syria was a Roman province, but in a mixed native and Roman 
style of architecture. The mausolea, generally standing at a little distance 
from the villages, recall the sepulchral towers of Palmyra, except that 
the walls opposite the doors are here covered with shelves for the re- 
ception of sarcophagi. The open reservoirs, square or round in form, 
are in some instances natural, in others artificial, and are carefully en- 
closed with very massive masonry. They generally have well-preserved 
stairs descending into them. They are filled by the spring rains, and 
afford drinking-water for man and beast throughout the whole year. These 
pools are unquestionably very ancient. They are now being restored and 
brought into use again by the government. 

The last period of culture in the Hauran was during the centuries 
preceding the rise of Islam. The majority of the buildings were erected 
by tribes from S. Arabia (Jefnides or Ghassanides), who raised the Hauran 
to a state of great prosperity. They distinguished themselves by build- 
ing numerous conduits. At length, when the nomad tribes of the interior 
of Arabia began to pour into Syria, the empire of the Ghassanides was 
overthrown, and the last of their kings died at the Greek court at Con- 
stantinople. — During the Muslim period we hear little of this region. Ac- 
cording to Arabic inscriptions, it seems to have regained a share of its 
former prosperity in the 13th cent. Nothing more is heard of it until 
1838, when Ibrahim Pasha endeavoured to penetrate into the Lej&. He 
did not, however, succeed in conquering this bleak plateau of lava (the 
W. *Trachon'), nor did Mohammed Kibrisly Pasha fare better in 1850. 

The Arabs settled in the J^auran were idolaters, and worshipped Dha- 

InhahUanU, HAURAN. 18. Route, 1 95 

sara, perhaps identical with Dionysus. They embraced Christianity at 
an early period, and as far back as the year 180 we hear of a king 'Amr I. 
who erected numerous monasteries. They were also influenced by the 
Groeco-Boman culture, as is proved by numerous Greek inscriptions. These 
are not always spelled correctly, but are interesting from the fact that 
they are evidently contempoi^aneous with the buildings themselves. The 
capital of the Hauran was Bosra (p. 201). 

Both the "S'.W. district of the Hauran and the 'JebeP itself are now 
chiefly occupied by Beduins. but the slopes of the hills and the plain 
are inhabited by peasants who form the permanent part of the popu- 
lation. For several centuries past, the ^auran Hts. have been colonised 
by Druses, and particularly since 1861 so many members of that pecu- 
liar people have migrated thither from Lebanon, that the district is some- 
times called that of the Druse Mt$. A number of Christians, chiefly 
of the Greek orthodox church, are also settled here. Apart from 
religious differences, the natives of the Hauran present a tolerably 
constant and wellodenned type, which distinguishes them both from these 
settlers and from the Beduins. The peasant of the Hauran is generally 
taller and stronger than the nomad, although resembling him in customs, 
and like the Beduin he usually covers his head with the keflFlyeh, or 
shawl, only. — The climate of the table-land of the Haur&n, lying 
upwards of 2000 ft. above the sea-level, is very healthy, and in the 
afternoon the heat is tempered by a refreshing W. wind. The semi-trans- 
parent ^hard wheaf of the Haur&n is highly prized and largely exported. 
Wheat and barley in this favoured region are said to yield abundant har- 
vests, but the crops sometimes fail from want of rain or from the plague 
of locusts. The fields are not manured, but a three or four years"* rotation 
of crops is observed. The dung of the cattle is used for fuel, as the *oaks of 
Bashan% which still grow on the heights, are gradually being exterminated, 
and no young trees are planted to take their place. No trees grow in the 
plain, though it bears traces of once having been wooded. Fruit trees are 
only planted near the villages. Thanks to the energetic action of the 
government, the villagers are no longer seriously oppressed by the Be- 
duins. Along with the language of the Beduins, they have inherited many 
of the virtues of the natives of Central Arabia. Here, as in Central Arabia, 
every village possesses its 'menzflr, orpublic inn, where every traveller 
is entertained gratuitously, and the Haur&nians deem it honourable to 
impoverish themselves by contributing to the support of tbis establishment. 
The inn generally consists of an open hall, sometimes roofed with branches 
only. As soon as a stranger arrives he is greeted with shouts of 'mar- 
haba\ *ahlan wasahlan' (welcome), or 'kawwak* (God give thee strength), 
and is conducted to the inn. A servant or slave roasts coffee for him, 
and then pounds it in a wooden mortar, accompanying his task with a 
peculiar melody. Meanwhile, the whole village assembles, and after the 
guest has been served, each person present partakes of the coffee. Now, 
however, that travellers have become more numerous, the villagers gener- 
ally expect a trifling bakhshish from Europeans. A sum of "^ji-i mej., 
according to the refreshments obtained, may therefore be given. The food 
consists of fresh bread, eggs, sour milk, grape-syrup ('dibs') , and in the 
evening of ^burghur, a dish of wheat, boiled with a little leaven and dried 
in th« sun, with mutton, or rice with meat. 

1. Fbom the Valley op the Jordan by Mk^^s to El-Mzi6bib. 

There are 3 routes from the Valley of the Jordan to Mkh: one 
from Jisf el-Mejctrnfa (p. 223) to the S.E. to EshShiXni (3/^ hr.), 
thence N.E. over the heights to Mkes (1 hr. 35 min.). — The other 
Toadg start from the efflux of the Jordan to (1 hr.) the SherVat el- 
MenSdireh. HieromyceSj the Greek name of this river, is a corrup- 
tion of Yarmdk, the name given to It in the Talmud. It derives its 


196 BouU 18. MEtS. Haurdn. 

modern name from the Bednin tribe 'Arab d-MenSidireh. It descends 
from the Hanr&n and J6I^n, separating the latter from the Jehel 
'AJl{ln to the S. Near its influx^into the Jordan it is crossed by a 
bridge of five arches, and its volnme is here nearly as great as that 
of the Jordan. The deep valley through which it flows penetrates 
rooks of limestone; but, after the channel had been hollowed out, 
the valley must have been covered with a stream of volcanic rock, 
extending also farther S., through which the stream had to force a 
new passage. 

Hence either across the ford MdkMdet tWAdetft^h (guide neces- 
sary) and then up the slope to the S.E. direct to MiLes (1 hr. 25 min.), 
or up the wild valley (50 min.) to the famous Hot Springa of 
Hadaraj or Amocthay now called M^Hammi^ the sanatory properties 
of which are highly extolled by Eusebius and many other ancient 
writers, and which are to this day visited by many persons during 
the season (April). The principal springs are situated in a small 
open space on the left bank of the river. Around the large basin, 
which is partly artiflcial, are traces of vaulted bath-houses and per- 
haps also of dwelling-houses. The water (11 9® F.) smells and tastes 
of sulphur, and though clear in appearance, deposits a sediment on 
the stones which is used medicinally. The Beduins regard the bath- 
ing-place as neutral ground. — About 1 hr. from the springs lies — 

lEk68. — HisTOBT. Mki$ occupies the site of the ancient Qadara 
a city 'of the Decapolis, the capital of Pereea. Alexander Jannsens took 
the place. Pompey restored the town to please his freedman Demetrius, 
a native of the place, and a synedrium existed here. Augustus pre- 
sented the town to Herod the Great, but after that prince's death 
annexed it to the province of Syria. The town was chiefly inhabited by 
pagans. In the Jewish War it surrendered to Vespasian. Kumerous coins 
of the city of Gadara belonging to the Boman period are still found- 
Gadara afterwards became the residence of the bishop of PalsBstina Se- 
cunda. The town was famed for the excellence of its baths. The ancient 
name of Gadara is still preserved in that of the caverns of '■JadUr Mt£»\ 
and the name of ^Jadar** is mentioned by the older Arabian geographers. 

Mkea lies 1194 ft above the sea-level, on the W, extremity of a 
mountain (arest rising between the valley of the YarmiXk on the N. 
and the Wddy 'Arab on the S. Approaching from the E. we first 
come to tomb-caverns. Numerous fine sarcophagi of basalt lie scat- 
tered along the slopes of the hill. They are richly adorned with 
garlands and busts of Apollo and genii. The lids are drafted at the 
comers and sloped sharply upwards. Besides these, there are tomb- 
cavems with various chambers and doors in stone, still preserved, 
some of them with rudely executed busts on the architraves. Some 
of these chambers also contain sarcophagi which are used by the 
fellahin, an indolent race from the Gh6r who live in this neigh- 
bourhood, as xeceptacles for corn and other stores. — To the 'W. of 
these caverns we come to a Theatre, the form of which is preserved, 
while the upper parts have fallen in. A good survey of the ruins is 
obtained hence, and we also observe another and larger theatre 
farther to the W., about 360 paces distant. This theatre, built of 


IS. Route. 197 

4«a«,»(mftj4 -wr^*:*'*^* "well preserved, but tie s*.^ . ^ ,,^ 

t^^^^i*. hJ Ic^'-O. » nuiaber of arches "m ^" '"!^"^ '1* 
Wct^VV.JiVv; d.^«ply vaulted oh»mbew. The !S^J** ';f!^; 

rfh^n Jf^"*^ * r*^ plateau about Vs, hr. !« ^.jt^, ^j ^ 
1^1 !?r.^^* fcagments of columns lie scattered .bout. The 
wpitata «f the Uttaer were Corinthian. Sabstrnotions of bulldlnga 

„! «?, ^^, ' '^^^ ^ ^"ny P**"** *• 'nts of carriage wheels 
w sBji iMibie on the bawlt pavement. A spot where a heap of 
wnattaan ooluBMua Is observed seems to have been the site of a 
wmpte Still fajrklier W. lies a modem cemetery, and on the slope 
ot the ian hwe, -we enjoy a charming: view of the Jordan vaUey. 

.,> J^T ^I^ ""^ Ei-MztetB (about 9V2 hrs.l. "We follow the 
Mwslent eondurt f Xandt n^aun) which Is visible at intervals along 
Af.w v'"* 50™es by Vtfat from Ei-Sanamin. Aecotdlng to 
J>fcwA 7 i*"***"' " ""^ constructed by the Ghaesanlde king 
on the H;i.wtr*°. ^" '^'«' in l«n8tl»- After about Vs h'- ^^ P"8 
after 4ft 1,„^ >^«ined temple otEl-Kabu, with a magnificent view; 
f^ hr ^it'nr ''^^ '^«''*. « «*''^<1 o«k of ^eat antiquity. ' 
RHimet^^' ""^ °" l«ft. 1« tk* clean village of Malka)- i hr., 
v^wTt^t^tt''?' ""^ "olated heap of ruins, and blocks of stone 
6 mln /ftl, '^' f""^)- At thi*s point we diverge to the N., 
it tiUwetTm«^ *•'*" ''eswnd into the wadj/ Sa»n«- »nd ascend 
watosh^d t^^ ^^" CI Itt. 5 mln.) Khirhel cd-Dtr. We cross the 
M ?»« r»«f fv'''*' « old ruined tower, and arrive (60 mm.) at 

oftmpUs^LTch,^ 1"^ of *"« ^^■"P""^^ """^Vl ""wetts? S: 
Mte» fthe boBnrt.1^ 5^ ""» ancient bridge ; 20 ™"*- ' " Iggi The 
ravine, 990 teet P""^' ^^ descend steeply {p^^^ J 

(accommodation i^f? ^^ min. H^JJfe it is /2 ^^ ^ ^^ 

TtlUsh-Shihdb, on. ^^ «^«J^^^ dwelling; ^;^^^f,{' ^ of tlxeHauraii, 
and beautifuli; ^^^^^ fth^ largest a-^^^f^^^V^o^^^^^^ family of She- 
h*b (p. 293),. Ve\?\*^d. It formerly belonged to^*^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^i^ful 
Wft-Uiui to W^L^5^abit^nts are fanatical. ^''^'' 

Either along the ro^S'^^^lA \ Vat* 
Ttlmrt $/2 hrfl., to «?^ li?** by ^'^^ 

^- to ^;/ii,«, ci7 J^^i'^x^o ty ^^ 

of the Uiin priest .V^s ^^^ ^Vt JiVs^ , ?«^* v\'"'"i^/7 !»•• ^♦**** (important 
?Uce, newly Wt .* ^^^itif'^Oni J?5ifelc cWcU). iV* ^';). To the N.E. l>y 
^-^rfn'/itf to (1 br) i^et,t^ t,nd ^Jti^^^^"^ °^ 'ffibly the ancient Capi- 

^Aife?ff*,lee above ^o^^<?, (intcre.^^*»^^,.K7*Wr)-, 2 brs , 

'Si'MMMh (ii^^ ^*oixi ***^ ,^.n the rendezvous of the 

««--« o/i,iigri^^ ^^t, ^ tbe ^f;^:tBt baiting place from Da- 

198 Route 18. MONASTERY OF JOB. Haurdn, 

masoue. The pilgrims rest here for several days, and a great market 
is then held. A large castle (KaJ^at eWAWcaJ stands in the E. of 
the town and is said to have been built hy Snltan Selim (d. 1522). 
It is now in ruins j formerly it was nsed as a government store- 
house and as a shelter for the pilgrims; in the interior is a small 
ruined mosque. To the N.E. of the castle is a spring, which 
a short distance off empties itself iuto a large, clear pond (El^- 
Bejeh), ahounding with fish. On the island in the middle is the 
ftite of the former town, once tlie seat of the Mutesarrif of the 
0:auran (see below). It is now almost entirely abandoned, being un- 
li'e»l*liy : some old ruins are visible. The pool is a bathing place for 
tlie pilgrims and as such is sacred. On the N. side of tbe brook is 
situated the modern village of Ed"I>Mkin, where there is a market 
of some importance, especially for the Beduins. To the right of it 
are the ruins of the *new castle', KaVat el-Jedtdeh, 

2. From Eii-Mz^ntB to Damascus (about 16 hrs.). 

The road leads direct N. to (1 hr.) Tell el-AsVari (possibly 
AsMaroih of Joshua ix. 10, the capital of Og, the king of Baahan); 
thence N.E. (25 min.) to the ruined hridge over the WOdy el- 
Ehrir, On the riglit» to the N.E., Is the Tell ea-Semen, where the 
Beduin trihe of the Wuld 'AH encamp from the month of April on 
(a visit to the camp is interesting). From the bridge it is 8/4 hr. 
to the ruin Et-Tireh; 33 min. farther on is the village of 'Adwdn 
on the left; 18 min-, *^® ^^o^k 0^ government offices of Kl-Merkei, 
the seat of the Mutesarrif of the Hauran , with garrison, internatio- 
nal telegraph, large bazaar (liquors, beer). Poor accommodation in 
the lokanda. In tbe N.W. corner are the remains of the ancient 
Monastery of Job (I>^'r EyyiXb), now converted into barracks. 

Job, according to a popular tradition, was a native of J6l&n, and 
early Arabian autbors even point out his birthplace in the neighbour- 
hood of Nawa. Themediseval Christiana also had a tradition to the same 
effect, and used to celebrate a great festival in honour of the aaint. The 
great veneration of the Hauranians for this shrine indicates that it must 
have had an origin earier than Islamism According to Arabian authors 
the monastery was built by the Jefnide 'Amr I. , and it probablv dates 
from the middle of the 3rd century. 

To the W. of the place is a building called MaMm EyyUb, con- 
taining the tombs of Job and his '^i^^- 

About 12 min. to the N. of EI-Merkez is SMkh Sa'd, a wretched 
village inhabited by negroes, who were established bere by Sh^kh 
Sa'd the son of 'Abd el-Kader. The village contains ruins and anti- 
quities. On the S.W, end of the hill w the Stone of Job (Sakhrai 
EyyUbJ within a Muslim pUce of prayer. ^i» this stone Job'is said 
to have leaned, when he was first affected. On it is a hieroglyphic 
inscription of the time of Ramses IL — ^^ ™ {oot of the blU is the 
Bath of Job (Hammdm EyyiW), venerated by the Fellahs and Bed- 
uins for its healing virtue, Job beioS ^aid to have bathed, after his 

^?^ (1 hr. 5 ,^?n^ T^^^^^^^^^ !*'«« ^We of JT^waT tie anci/n? 
'^ins, but two annlnf if J]F*^® ^" ^®®^ entirely buf It /rom the 
iaii), possibly *,, ^'^^.'"^^^^ngs stiU remain : the AfeciareA (public 
The population is fa^natT**! ™*^^®^®"™» *°^ * tower, 49 ft. W^h. 

»**»• Sanamln ^fik^^Jf "^ f^^ ^'»**'^ ^* *« a^o^* ^ '^'^- *^ J5?-?«iia- 
^llage (p. 194^ ^® ^awA, Is an excellent specimen of a Hauran 

«We a vaulted ffate ®^"^*^"8 extensive ancient roins. On the E. 
rooms with a portir r.^ ^®***^ *o * square chamber And several 
jacent is a platform ' . '^'**W*n columns, and several arches. Ad- 
built of yellowish r ^^**^ * reservoir, near which rises a temple 
columns and a nichfl ™®^^'*®' ^i*^in the temple are Corinthian 
dows are well prelf ^\^^^ form of a shell. The doors and wln- 
cuted. Accordinir ^ • ' *°^ *^® decorations are very richly exe- 
stood here was dedf .^''^^^Ptions, one of the two temples which 
temples are several if *^ Fortuna. At some distance from the 
and black stones wi«. lowers in different stories, built of yellow 
were probahly ei-fto*!*?^''* mortar, and also richly decorated. They 

To the w: ofiTi ""^^^ *<>'^^«- 
broken by several hiii^^^^ extends the plain of JidiXr Cp- 193), 
form the boundarv of fu ^^^ heyond it rises Hermon. The E. hills 
^e of mdi on theJlJ^^J^eJd. After 20 min. we perceive the viU- 
next reach (li; . ^'^^J' and beyond it the long Tell el-ffamtr. We 
the right, after 40 min*^'^'*' ^^^'^ there is a large reservoir. On 
on the hiU, ^nd afti*,* i / ^^ ^^ *^® ^ezdr Eliaha* (chapel of Elisha) 

We next come 

ntin. On the r\Xl 't *^^0 ^^-^hidra' and C26 mln.) XT^dn Dc- 
(Hhe obstnioting^^^^^^^^ ^^^ l^n^and hUen Jebel d^Mdnr 

^\^ (Vjhr.) theimnc?- ^1^)' ^« now leave the lava district and 
of the river £z.X^? ^«^nt village of El-Kisuyeh, on the left bank 
descendsfrom j^X T^T^^io^ farther up is called the sabirdni and 
the Bible rgJ^^^^-Thie is perhaps identical with the Pharpar of 
^t ^« »ow ie^4^" ^^\^i^oss it by a bridge, by which rises a castle, 
^^«»«8 to BamlLl ^*-^r&n and enter the Wddy eZ-'A/^m, which 
**^« left, and .?S?- ^^^^ 1 ^^' 20 min we see El-Ashrafiyeh on 
'^^^^%i^ri^\^^^ hr we reach ^^-iT^dem, 

..^ The ereS o ^^'^'^dbet Alldh fp 3251. 

'^^ ^^ltu\^tlTt^ ^^V'« ™«^ JlSB'iSlMBllMrA (p. 223) TO DAMASCUS 

^om J<.^^?\?'*'*^^'^^^'^*^y interesting. 

oumacA (^on the lake of Tiberias) . - - • IV^ - 

IFrom Tiberiaa to Swaakh iVa hr.l* * ' ' 

Kkdn tUAkaha Cruina) .... , • • * ii/ ' 

Kifr Hart^ Cbea\itiful panorama of the lake of Tiberias) • i /« - 

IHence to KaFat el-Sosn, p. 254, 36 min.J 
Fik^ the ancient Aphek (1 Kings xx. 26, 30), with good g^ ^^^ 

water, and possessing many antiquities .••••"' 



200 Route 18. DER'AT. Haurdn. 


El-*ll (rxdns) 1 hx. 

Khis/in (the ancient Chacon, extensive ruins) l>/4 - 

[Hence a road more to the E. to KawE (p. 199) 5 hrs.]. 

Tell JdkhadAr 2 - 

Tell el'Farcu (crater of a volcano, good view) ^4 - 

Suwin (small village in ruins) ll^ - 

El'Hdra (at the foot of the hill of the same name) . . 8 - 

Es-Sanamin (p. 199) 31/4 - 

Total distance to Es-BancmUn 18 hrs. 

3. Fbom EL-Mz^Bifi TO Boska (albont 10 his.). 

The Tonte leads to the S.E. and reaches (2^4 his.) Der'&t, the 
aiieient Edrei (p. 193), and during tihe Christian period the seat of 
a bishop. It is the laigest town in the Hauian (4-6000 Inhabitants), 
and the seat of a KMmmal^im. In the bottom of the W6dy Ztdi 
lies a large leservoii, 64^2 yds. long, 59 yds. wide, and about 
6 ft. deep, which was fed by the Kandi Fi/aunj an aqueduct 
(p. 197) which ciosses the valley to the "W. of the reseivoii on a 
bridge of 6 aiches. On the W. side of the reservoir lies the Ham" 
mdm es-Sikndni (an ancient Roman bath in ruins) ; near it, the in- 
accessible mausoleum of Sikndni. At the S.E. end of the town 
stands a large building, 65V2 Y^^- long and 31^2 yds. wide, with a 
double colonnade running round it. This, according to the inscrip- 
tion , is a Ruwdk, or hall for prayer, erected in 650 (i. e. 1253) by 
Emir N&sir ed-Dtn 'Othm&n Ibn 'Ali, the vicegerent of Saladln. The 
building had eighty-flve columns and three gates. The columns axe 
of different kinds. In the court lies a sarcophagus with two lions* 
heads. At the N.W. corner rises a lofty tower. The apse of a former 
church is still visible to the S. The extensive and labyrinthine 
subterranean dwellings here into which it is possible to crawl , are 
very interesting. The entrance is in the W&dy Zedi. 

From Ber^t a broad road leads E.S.E. to Bosra (Ti/jhrs.). It 
crosses (3/4 hr.) part of the aqueduct beyond the above-mentioned 
bridge. On the right (40 min.) we see K6m Ohar*; to the N. lies 
N&hnth ; a little farther on , the village of Qharz lies to the right. 
We next pass (I/2 ^r.) Merkeh and (V2 hr.) Umm el-Mezdbil. On 
the right lies the large village of Umm el-Meyddtn^ then Ncu^h, 
Jatr, and Et-TayyU>eh, The road passes between (l^/^hr.) the vil- 
lages of Esh-Shirk on the left and Jizeh on the right , the first of 
which contains the ruins of a large church. Here we again cross the 
Wddy Ztdi. The Hauran Mts. tower picturesquely before us ; to the 
E.S.E. Bosra, and beyond it the Tell of Salkhad, become visible. 
The next villages are (40 min.) El-Harwdsi and (8/4 hr.) Ohcum. 
On the right lies Suhb and on the left El-Mu'arriheh, Farther 
distant, to the N. , lies the Christian village of Kharaba. We next 
pass (1^4 hr.) Hammds on the right. We now follow an ancient 
Roman load, which leads us to (1^4 hr.) — 



18. Route. 201 

Bosra. — Histobt. Owing to ita remarkably commanding situation, 
the town was probably a place of some importance at an early period. 
In A.D. 105, Bosra became a colony, under the name of Nova Trajcuia 
Bostra, of the capital of the province of Arabia, and residence of a ^con- 
solaris*. From the year 100 dates the so-called Bostrian era, whicb was 
long used by the towns of PersBa in their reckoning of time. The place 
probably owes its prosperity to an immigration from S. Arabia. It was 
also a centre of the caravan traffic. A road led hence direct to the Persian 
Qnlf, the Haur&n being everywhere intersected by numerous roads which 
are still traceable. In the time of the Emperor Alexander Severus (222-235), 
a Roman military colony was sent to Bostra. In the time of Constantino 
it was a very flourishing place. It was also an episcopal see. Under Dio- 
cletian the place was still the capital of Arabia (comp. p. Ivii). Bosra was 
chiefly important as a centre of the caravan trade of Arabia , and was 

ten imq^ 


aC alazaar 








■-jfi     "-f 

• at • nv <(/ n> 



|a I t e * 

1 . J%1» f CoUnayea^t 


' C a.« ile 



i ^warinr 



m m 





▼isited by Arabian merchants, including Mohammed''s uncle, who was ac- 
companied by the prophet himself (p. Izxzv). At Bosra dwelt the monk 
Bahira, who is said to have recognised Mohammed as a prophet. Even 
in the middle ages Bosra was very important as a market and as a for- 
tress. The Crustwiers tmder Baldwin III. vainly endeavoured to take the 
town. Saladin, who was obliged to employ the country to the E. of Jor- 
dan as a basis for his attacks on the Franks, was well aware of the im- 
portance of Bofra. The town at length fell to decay, partly owing to earth- 
Qoakes (especially one in 1151) , and afterwards in consequence of the 
weakness of the Turkish government. The Syrians have a saying that 
the prosperity of Bosra is the prosperity of the Hauran, and vice versd. 
This is quite true at the present day, for a strong garrison at Bosra would 
alone prevent the Beduins from oppressing and ruining the peasantry. 
Since about the year 1863 several attempts have been made to maintain 
a garrison here, but the good intentions of the government have generally 
been frustrated by the obstinacy of the Druse chiefs. Another name still 
applied to Bosra is Esii 8ham^ or Old Damascus. 

Bojro Is occupied hy some 30-40 families only. The town wall 





«0§^^* The to^^^ 

<>02 Bo^*^ ^^* *\.a S side also. ^ ^.n^ 

^ide. One of the ? ^ „e the i ^^^ «>'°*o*^i left fo«r 

vaulting of^^^^'Vrtetvo main »"**„•{ the street man « 

0? intersection o«^^*7^t ofl the cornet oJJ^ Tpital^l 

large Col«"J«'. ^^.^^miraWy ««;fi»gniftcent ptAUc ^ .tree* 
ai,ectlon.^ey^»^^,l„„ged to ^«»^ .Voppo^j** lU m»V l'*'^ 

ate remains of »;^°*^\o*„ade, of ^^^^J"°,^ three ro^s of « 

On the left is a gateway- ^^^ ^^g '^rfgLt had heen ?n» 

of the House of a J'^'^^,^^^ erected on the spot 

recovered it »f«^ ^^i^Omat. ^ , j^,„„e, the to^^f^f'one 
down by order of Kha'" deserted ^°'?':J. ,^ie ancient. " 

On the left we a^^* ??o,nar. The matenaU « ^gg, ^the 
which is ascribed to ^„^^^*„f theBostiiauexal- « ^^.^glehav^^ 
column bears the date 383 Co* J^® j^mns, *!»? , rest on antiqne oo 
entrance is a ilnd of porch veith co* ^^tes test o ^^^^^ ^^e 

a double open passage on two s»*®^- v,g of "wliit® "^YX,^ ^alls- A-* 

others are of basalt. A. handsome we* j^in»iet -witn ^^^ ,ie« 

*ie N.E. comer of tbe mosqoe »*»,", rewards tHe visrW- ^ t,ott 

sto„e door, the ascent of which tic^y J* i^, clothed ^^^, ^esj^. 

embraces tte iVu|cra., au undulating Pl?*^ian i» t^** **^o^«l4' K 

^^^tr2-- ^-^ -^l%Targ%^5- ..e .•^-^«' 
^"-««i%°S% ^^ ^^r*e intersection of 

Haur&n. BOSRA. 18. Route. 203 

we come to the quarter of modem Bosra. Farther on, the street is 
spanned by a Roman arch , to the right (S.) of -which are the ruins 
of a large house with many fragments of sculptures and columns. 
The street which diverges here to the left leads to the old * Church 
of the Monk BahiraH (PI. 4), a square building externally, but a 
rotunda internally. Tlxe dome has fallen in. According to an in- 
scription on the gateway, the church was built in 407 of the Bostrian 
era (i. e. 513). A building a little to the N. of this bears a beauti- 
ful Arabic inscription. Near the church thq Monastery of Bahira 
(PI. 5) is also pointed out. The roof has fallen in. On the N. side 
is a vaulted niche, with a Latin inscription adjacent. Still farther 
N. the House (DdrJ of Bahira (PI. 6) is shown ; over the door is 
a Greek inscription. 

Farther N. , outside the town, is the mosque of El-Mebrakj or 
the ^place of kneeling', where, according to tradition, the camel of 
'Othman which carried the Kor&n, or, according to other versions, 
Mohammed's camel, is said to have knelt. 

Outside the wall, on the E. side of the town, lies a large reser- 
voir, with tolerably preserved substructions. A larger reservoir near 
the S.E. corner of the town is in still better preservation. At its 
N.E. angle are the ruins of a mosque. 

To the S. of the town rises the huge Castle, which was erected 
by the Eyyubide sultans during the first half of the 13th century. 
Its form followed that of a Roman theatre, semicircular towards 
the S., which constituted the nucleus of the building. The build- 
ing is of an irregular shape. A bridge of six arches leads to the 
iron-mounted door of the fortress, whence we enter a number of 
subterranean chambers with pointed vaulting. The whole build- 
ing is divided into very numerous irregularly shaped rooms in three 
stories, one and sometimes two of which are below the surface of the 
earth. On the platform inside the castle are still seen the six tiers 
of seats which belonged to the Roman Theatre (PI. 7), but that 
ancient edifice has been so disfigured by the Arabian super- 
structures that its arrangements are not now easily traceable. The 
stage, 12 paces in depth, was bounded by a wall in two stories, 
with a number of niches of different forms, and 66 paces long. On 
each side, and on both stories, were doors leading into a passage 
at the back of the stage. The theatre was about 79 yds. in dia- 
meter. The tiers of seats are partly concealed by the later buildings. 
Between the lower double stairs are doors from which passages 
descend to the Womitoria' (approaches to the stage and the seats). 
Around the highest tier of seats ran a colonnade, a few columns of 
which are still preserved. Descending passages also ran below the 
landings of the stairs. — This very extensive theatre was situated 

so as to command a fine view. 

A tour in the Eastbrn HaubIn can only be briefly indicated here. 

From Bosrd to El-KurSyeh (large town) 2 hrs. 

[Hence* to ^ebrdn Vjt hr., p. 304.] 

204 Route 18. 'IKEH. Haurdn, 

From El-Kuriyeh to Salkhctd {Saleha. Dent. iii. 10, Joshua 
xii. 3, a very ancient town in a good state of preservation, 

with an interesting castle dating back l)eyondKoman times) 2 hrs. 

To Wrmdn (the ancient PhilippopoU*) l^Ahrs. 

To said 21/j hra. 

To BUttdn (view over the desert ; possibly the Bus of Job 

xxxii. 2) 2 hrs. 

To El-Muthenmf (temple) 1 hr. 

By Umm er-Rutodk and Tarbd to T^md (possibly Thetnany 

Job ii. 11 ; Jerem. xxv. 23 2V4 hrs. 

To DUmd (subterranean buildings with stone coffins) . . !/« hr. 

To Shakka (p. 309) IV4 hrs. 

To the E. of 'Orman an interesting excursion may be made to the 
troglodyte towns of Hibikkeh and T$U Bhcff. 

4. Fbom Bosba to Damascus (24 hrs.). 

From Bosra a Roman road leads due N. to (I/3 hr.) Jtmamin. To 
the N. of this village a bridge (near which stands a wat(^-tower} 
crosses the Wddyed-Deheb, called the Wddy Ztdi lower dbwn (p. 200). 
The road traverses luxuriant fields, and next reaches (I/2 hr.} a 
large, square, isolated edifice, called D^r «b>Zu5^, and probably 
once a monastery. Ireb is 1 hr. distant. 

Ireh lies on an eminence between two water-courses. The ruins 
are extensive, but insignificant. The place derives some impor- 
tance from being the residence of a Druse chieftain. The castle, 
fitted up in half European style, was erected by Ismail el-Atrash 
(d. 1869), the chief shekh of the Druses of the Haur&n. 

Leaving Ireh, we descend the hill to the N. and cross a small 
brook. To the left in the plain we observe Kendkir, to the right 
on the hill Sahwet el-BeMt, and nearer us, Resda. In 1 hr. we reach 
the thinly peopled valley of MujHil, near which, to the left, lies 
the building of Dir et-Trtf. "We soon (1/2 hr.) begin to ascend. On 
the left we pass the building of Der Sendrij and then reach (10 min.) 
Suwtda (p. 205). 

A longer route crosses the hills from Bosra to SuwSda. We ride towards 
the N.E., cross the W&dy Abu Bcemdka, and in >/« hr. reach the Wddy 
Rds el-Bedr. On the right lies 'Keris. Farther on, we observe Madhak 
on the right, and Kirift on the left. We then pass (^4 hr.) Ohoi'sdn 
on the left, DSr el-^AJyAd to the right, then Huihuz^ and (1 hr.) the Druse 
village oi^Aftneh. According to an inscription ^ound there, Trajan caused 
an aqueduct to be conducted hither from Kanawat, and the arches of 
that structure are still to be seen to the E.'of the village near a Roman 
road. In 8/4 hr. we reach ^ebrAn, a Druse village with only a few in- 
habitants. The hill commands a fine view. The level top of the hill is 
covered with fruit and other trees. To the S. of the village are the ruins 
of a castle, adjoined by those of a church. According to a fine Greek in- 
scription, the building was erected in~155 by Antoninus Pius, so that it 
was originally a heathen structure. In the middle of the village are the 
remains of another small church. 

A pleasant route leads in 40 min. from Hebr3,n to El-Kefr^ where there 
is a handsome med&feh, with stone walls, and open in front. The houses, 
and even the narrow lanes with pavements on each side, are admirably 
preserved. On the W. side of the little town is a handsome gate. 

Proceeding to the N. of El-Kefr, we soon reach (10 min.) the copious 
Ain M{tsa or Well of Moses^ which waters the village of 8nhwei el-Ahidr 

Haurdn. SUWIdA. 18. Route. 205 


aituated 31/4 hrs. below it. The ^«b, wMch rises 6640 ft. above the level 
of the Mediterranean, and is apparently, though not really, the highest 
mountain in the Hauran, may be ascended hence. The cone of this moun- 
tain contains a wide cleft, to which we ride across a plain covered with 
volcanic substances and thus reach the extinct crater, forming an exten- 
sive wooded basin. The actual sxunmit (1 hr. from the spring) can only 
be reached on foot, the branches of the butm trees frequently affording 
welcome aid. The outer side of this large' volcanic cone is quite bare. 
A little below the summit are several caverns, probably used for collecting 
rain water. On the small height to the left are the ruins of a temple. 
The formation of the crater as viewed from hence is very interesting, and 
so also is the view. In clear weather the Mediterranean is even said to 
be visible. Towards the E. the view is somewhat obstructed by near 
ranges of hills. 

From the base of the Kldb to Bp-iknoMa is a ride of 2 hrs. The Beduins 
CAgildt) who are in po'ssession of this district, as well as their dogs, 
sometimes molest travellers. 

Es-Snwdda is inhabited by Druses and a few Christians. Nerva 
constructed a nymphsBum and an aqueduct here. — Starting from the 
Med&feh, we first come to a small TempU. A street leads hence to 
a Gate resembling a triumphal arch. Farther down, near the centre 
of the little town , lie the ruins of a large Basilica of the 4th or 
5th century. We next come to a Mosque^ occupying the site of an 
older public building. Near it is the so-called Mehkemehj or court- 
house, with a Greek Inscription. Ascending the hill we reach a 
large semicircular reservoir. Beyond the N. valley, on the road to 
Kanawtit, we cross the valley by means of a Roman bridge and ob- 
serve an interesting square building. It rises on a basement with 
rude Doric half-columns. An inscription informs us that this was 
a Tomb. The monument is assigned to the first century of our era. 

A road leads from Suweda to the N.N.W. over the spurs of the 
Hauran Mts., which are covered with an undergrowth of oaks, 
havethorn , and almond trees. We sometimes come to the chapels 
(khalweh) of the Druses. El-Kanawat is about IY2 ^^- distant. A 
sliglit digression, leading direct to the N. from Suweda, enables us 
to visit ^AtU (1 hr. 10 min.), a small Druse village. On the S.E. 
side of the village stands a small, elegantly built temple (now a 
Dmse dwelling), rising from a lofty suhstructure. According to 
the inscription the temple dates from the 14th year of the reign of 
Antoninus Pius (A.D. 151). Passing an old church with a tower, we 
come to another temple, called El-Kasr^ to the N. of the village. 
— Fiom 'Attl we reach (26 min.) — 

Bl-SanawAt. — Histost. El-KawmM has been erroneously identified 
with tbe Kenaih of the Bible (Num. xxxii. 42), a place which must 
have lain farther south. Josephus calls the place Kanatha. Herod was 
defeated here by rebellious Arabs. The character of the buildings and 
inscriptions indicate that the town flourished during the Roman period 
earlier than Bo^ra, and the name MaximianopoUs appears to have been 
applied to it fur a short period. It was an episcopal see during the 
Christian period. Coins have been found with the inscription 'Eanatenun' 
Oof the Oanatenians''), and a veiled head of Isis on the other side. 

A beautiful little ruined Temple stands on an eminence in the 
middle of a small valley which opens towards the S.E. , and is sur- 

206 Boide 18. EL-KANAWAT. ffounbl. 

Tonnded vlth legeUtian. This peripteral lemple risee on a temee, 
10 ft. tn height. There was a dooble row of colnmns. Aocoriling to 
the iascriptian, the temple was dedicated to Helioe. Its cammanding 
sltnation )s romatkahly fine. 

Turning henne to the right Into the vaWey, we re»<* the lanes 
of the lower town of Kanawat. It lies on the left bank of the brook, 
whl'th was formerly crosaad bf several bridges. The streets are still 
well paved at places with large slabs of stone. Most of the houses 
are anoocapied, bat are in good preeerration, and have stone doors 
and windows. — On the right slope of the valley is a handsome 

Theatre. It Is almost entirely hewn in the rock, and is about 
21 yds. in diameter. It contains nine tiers of seats, to which 
stairs ascend, and the lowest of which is 4'/ij ft. above the arena. 
In the centre of the arena is a cistern. The entrances were at the 
sides and in the middle of the proscenium. The view of the val- 
ley, the public buildings, and Eeimon in the background doubtless 
led to the choice of this site {ibe case being similar to that of the 
theatre of Bo^ra). — Farther up, on the same side of the brook, 
are the rains of a small Temple, perhaps a Nympliaewn, eitnated 
over B spring. Steps hewn in the rook lead hence to a massive 
ToviCT, which was perhaps nonneflted with the mllitaiy defenoes 
of the detlle below. The substructions are probably older than tbe 
Soman period. A little to the E. of this building rises a large round 
tower, 27 tt, in diameter, perhaps erected over a tomb. 

The principal part of the ruins of Kanawit, presenting an 
extensive scene of desolation , Is In tbe upper qnart«r of the town 
on the left bank of the river. Near the remains of a mill the tovfn 

^«. Route. 207 

»««SXo t*« :;f^^^ *l»« E. was tl»«rx erected .1^s,thL?i"« 

!rioni>»*,. . ^^ j*^ on the N. side. Three gates Iedfnt«»\. 

:isol.»8»*'leby ^^^al«*y. covered ^1**» ♦''ee «rches above. A 
,e«tiMl*'.!r8'»»^'- ^iWt>OTately exeo«<^a central portal, with « 
JhU h»n « t Bxost '^^*oli, ^Moh Is SiT yd«- »n length. On the S. 
he»ttti*»^ /Tn« *® *'3i^X*/2 ft- In dep**» - I" *'•« 'lolnlty .re deep 

ttw. ""C^, » '^^»x this' te«il.l« "« '^;°*l »' ""T""» 
!metOft^*Vi<r\\ :pi4^»'*- .„a ♦H«T« soeo^s to have been a ^ippo- 

* -i*w ex®^^ ^«ii -fcX^^ ^^ ^ , *> ^^ -we soon reach several Tom6 

^^TllstieA ^^*^ !^o«^ *'*^*- , ^«1A© oi- the street is the ruin of a 
't. ^^tr^-^^^^t ^^^ ^^ *^^. ^^^tlf ^^olonnade , and on the right 
^'""InTneS-^-''?^^^ *^ornedwxi>^ * «^ ^^^^ We then reach 

^^^^'^vfrema^^* ^^ \ i" ^«.^i«8 ^^^''^ ^a^^Wat, stands one of the most 
atetbe te^^ ^^oaa X«^ Q,B. from ^^^^i^uig m style the Herodian 

*».« blO»A ^*tnnt »/4 *^«V^^ Hauratt-) ^^\^^ \rx its inscriptions the names 
*^ Jt J9<«fr' *^ Mes i'^ ^**f *^<fied recoirax»g; ^"^.^^.^ j^^ J saddled horse, 
-^*tSa6\trPi?|in, «-^i^^^r TUe e«''^^i,^A tl^e rather stiff capitals, are 

. f^restiJiS ,^® ^Silein, ^^^ A^ TU© e^*r4A tUe rather stiff capitals, are 

Jefe^ t^'»^ ^^^^^ *"""'". to..«a t»^e — *»i- - *^ ^• 
r^'origi-'^ P"'^ K,.«a.^«»-* ^®**^ A»l^ , !"«« cultivated, and in 
„/ heavew- t- llOtft >^»" ~ „,Aa8 » 'P'^** A„ .,riiu.« nf that name. 

^ ^*f longer '^*%vn oC -^^-^^ ff;ftery. irc substructions of large hewn 

,^ «rat ^o rL^A onc« a- ^■^^^^*^t.*»a,a.o -. * /lO min.) the bed of the brook, 

^^*^1 J&t T:hi8 was ^^ ^ <^olOt^»'*^roS8 Cl^J^^»^\J ^^11 of Kanaw&t. 

^?S?r is e^^'^'Sde towairA^ *»:..e ^^^^ai-^f ^^Tis supposed to be the an- 
v^^^^^. L- "V^« '"i^ r^ieiKlx-fc c^KZ^xaioo-^^rr-kiis .?!* «atne must have lain near 

^^^^« L- "V^« ''l^ a heiglx-fc c:j<z^xaiao-»'^;f-kiis ^g'f iame must have lain near 
"^^"^t^]^ ^^-^ ''\o 4^^ > ««^«T'^ee of *^*VTuseT. The mins are for 
»S* S/Jti cotae to/ije epi»<=iOi>a.l .^^ t»-y » J^e remains of a small temple, 
^*^ i^5^«l'^»<'' -m is BoSr <2»o.^*iP*;tip. ^^^^ Tag afterwards conver ed 
?iSU^*- ^tXpe'«««- ^««--- iecSi?itf^ are large subterranean vaults, 

«'*'' T^e route «'°?^t,at ^^^^^ »^V^?l\^ 

5 Xiset* ♦« from ouicx^** -----. "-^ - r,n,te 
true route W^^t^at ua.-m«t ^^^ti*?'^ 
^«tZ^ a village of «^\ „^ ^^^ ^igT**' 

208 Route 18. 

SHOHBA.. Hourdn. 

Beyond Muidxili our route ascends to the N.E. across a barren 
tract Btill commanding, however, a. \>ea\itiful view of the plain, tte 
tints' of which vary from violet to daxl^ blue. To the S. N^e m Jie 
Jehel 'Ajl^n, and to the W . tlie depxessioii of the Jordan valley, lo- 

watda the N . the cnrions hlnnted cones of the Ohardrat come in sight. 
waTasiueii.v -h^^^ _, :- A lAffflnd derives ihc 

nse of Ms woTkmen ana w uavo ii.ea.pea it up here, une aay, "V""""^ 
when he had eent a large camel to carry away the heap ,^ God chaagea 
hoth the corn and the camel into atone. The two Ghararas, tie nor- 
thern and southern, are volcanic pealcs, covered with fragments of porons 
lava The regularity of their sliape is remarkable, and it is interestuig w 
ascend them, as the openings of tlie craters at the top are still visiDle. 

Passing Ohardret el-Kibltyeh (^«the southern'), we next reach 

(40 min.) — 

Sliohha. — Shohha possesses beautifully preserved Btieels, 
broader than any others in the Haursin (some of them 25 ft.), and 
paved with long slabs which axe still generally visible. The two 
Main Streets, running from N. to S. and from E. to W., intersect 
each other in the middle of the town, where extensive remains of 
the four comer columns of a Tetrapylonj finer than those at Jeraah, 
are still to be seen (comp. p. 182). From the numerous remains 
of columns one might almost infer that a c-olonnaded street ran 
throughout the whole length of the town. The Toicn WdU are 
preserved in many places. Each of the main streets terminated in 
a gate at each end; on the S. side of the towa, however, the wall 
contained two gates. Each of the Gates consists of two arches, 
separated by a pillar. About 120 paces to the S. of the intersection 
of the streets are situated large Baths, containing lofty chambers. 
Beautiful fragments of sculpture are still to be seen. Gutters for 
the water, and earthen pipes for conducting it to the different 
rooms, are also still in existence. The hooks or cramps on the walls 
were used to secure tb© marble incrustation. The water was con- 
ducted hither from a distance of about 12 M. by means of an aque- 
duct, five arches of w'hich are still preserved. — About 2S0 paces 
to the E. of the iiiter6^<^**°'^ of the streets stend five colnmos, being 
remains of the oolonni*^® ^^ * Temple, of which a few fragments 
of walls are the only oth^^ trace. Near these are the remains of 
the Amphitheatre, ^jji^h looked tov^ards the plain. It was con- 
structed on a slope «*,d i*s external walls are still well preserved. 
Between the theatre Vid *^® principal street stands a small Temple 
\ t S^^ ^^ ^^Pt ^ ^ flll«<i ^i*^ rubbish. — Proceeding towards 
the shekh s dweUj ' ^^^^ now come to a curious building, lying 
deep m the grouij^ %^^ descend 14 ft. into the court of an ancient 
house. In the cenJa.,.^ t the building is a round apse about 13 ft. 
broad, with mcj^eg *f ^ -oh side for statues. In front of the build- 
ing is a large open su "Xhe purpose of the building is unknown. 
To the E. of JSh J^^^' ^^ns the great WMy mrnreh, called Wddy 

^'«"^'»- SHAKKA. 

^S. Route. 209 

lev The JV^^S *^® ^"8 towards th** N wa ri hI ♦" "^^^J^igr Shoh- 

same direotio^' ^^^ ""^ "^'"^^ *^^ T^« ^A^^^** f 3757 ?*\^? ^'^*' 
volcanic, ^,^^^' crowned with the TTeZy ^Wfean. This hi n'^-'''*^^ 
that it soiae^v ^^^^^'^^ ^»^® **^©ii place oA the W sini ^ *^^^ 
sive crater val^ , ^^^"^^^^ » chair without arms. F^m t""^' *^ 
we reach th^ ^'./ava-streams once pouxed over the Le1& t^kS^*®"- 
of having he^ *^® °^ ^'^"^ ez-ZeitHrk. The country V/ '^^''• 

antiquities ^^'^ formerly better cultivated than now TK*" *^*^®^ 
The rout^^®^* *^® unimportaut ruins of a small temi^^'^ *^® "^ 
duins. Litti^ skirting the Leja is exposed to danirer ff^l' .. 
ive. A fe>y fl ,^*ter is to be found, and the heat U oft! ^® ^^' 
The villages *'^^ ™a^y traces of former cultivation ^PVi&bb- 

the right arft ?^ ®*°^ side of the route present few atfri!>**^® Pasfled. 
and (20 t^i^ ^mra and ^TZ-^W, on the left (25 mhiTj^'T'. ^ 
HdreUn ;^^^Jjl-Murasras: We next pass (20 min W^'^^'"''-« 
mmel^r^^\fmid, farther W., CV4 hrO ^^->^^S ^2^'^. ''" 

i^^-^ ^S^fe(V2l^r.b-I>ariV7.eA, (40 n,inO* ^'^^{^ t:;d^ 

extending .^7 N.E. lies the extensive tract of ^rd el-FedaX, 
')' ^^4 t r^" ^«»dow X-akes Cp- 334> After i/, hr. we cCs 
*"y a few ^I"^**^^ (see above), at the bottom of which are gener- 

°^iii. mn; *^^ a little vegretation. To the N. lies J&tdeh, lu 

Brik, ^^t^e reach - 
attacks of th p ^'^ thinly peopled? as it is much exposed to the 
the Hauj^j^ ® ^duins. Many old houses in the style peculiar to 
There ai^ k*'® ^*in well preserved, and there is a fin© roservoii. 
Ni2}^^ SfioB^^^er, no buildings which require special «^®^*ion. 

"'^'e We1?'*y«^. On *v*«^ardS the ^•?- On ^^^.J^^pafkna. m 40mi^ 
?*«s) A^*«h the 1? *^« hUl to the right (S-) ^^l^J^x «-«•>•-— fTP*.o\e 

210 Route 18. JEBELMANF. Haurdn. 

voir, and it ifl also pasaed by a large subterranean conduit from the Jkd(fy 
el-Luvd^ running from 8. to N. — To the N.W. of El-Hit we next reach 
O/shr.) the Tillage of El-HSpdt, occupied by Roman Catholics, before en- 
tering which we observe to the £. of the road a large building with stone 
doors and a terrace affording a fine view. In 2 hrs. more from this point 
we reach aX Ldhiteh (p. 309) the road skirting the Widy el-Luw4, descri- 
bed above. A shoiter route to Brftk (7 hrs.) is by an old Soman road. 

The direct roate from Brdk to Damascus loads at first across a 
poorly cultivated plain, and then approaches a dreary range of hills 
which it gradually ascends. This region also is often rendered 
unsafe by Bedulns. These hills belong to the Jebel el-MStnf, which 
looks so blue and attractive from Damascus. After 2^4 hrs. we 
pass, to the left, the Tell Abu Shajara^ or *hill of the tree\ a name 
derived from the solitary terebinth which grows here out of the 
stony soil and affords a significant indication of the general charac- 
ter of the country where scarcely a single blade of grass or shrub 
is to be seen. Beyond the pass , up to the summit of which the 
Jebel Haur&n has continued in sight behind us, a beautiful view 
is revealed of the dark-blue plain of Damascus, overshadowed by 
Anti-Libanus. Hermon and several other snowy peaks are also 
visible. Descending hence we reach (1^/4 hr.) the green valley of 
the Nahr el-A'waj (p. 199), and near it the Muslim village of Nejha, 
which, situated in the so-called W&dy el-Ajem (p. 199), presents 
fewer of the characteristics of the Haur&n. This copiously watered 
green valley , in the upper part of which lie the villages of El- 
^Adiliyeh and Hurjilleh, forms a pleasing contrast to the desolate 
mountains. We now enter the plain of the Merj District (p. 334). 
To the right (E.) we see the hills of the 8afd (p. 334). Jebel el- 
Aswad (p. 267) rises on the left. After spending two days among 
these inhospitable deserts the traveller will be better able to appre- 
ciate the eager delight with which Orientals welcome the view of 
the fruitful and well-watered plain of Damascus. After 1 hr. 20 min. 
we reach the village of Kabr es-Sitt, or 'tomb of the lady*, so called 
from the fact that Zeinaby a grand-daughter of Mohammed, is buried 
in the mosque here. Trees begin to occur here. After 35 min. 
we pass the village of Babbila and enter olive groves. After */2 hr. 
we emerge from an avenue of walnuts, and reach the Bdb esh-Sherki 
(p. 326). 


19. From Jerusalem to Nabulus 212 

From Bdtin to the Tell 'Afdr 213 

From Bl-Bireh to 'iin el-Haritmiy«h by Jifna .... 214 

Seildn .* 2U 

From ITibulua to Es-Salt 221 

From K&lmlus to Bels&n* (Z«r^ii) and Tiberias .... 222 

20. From K&biilu8 to Jentn and Haifa 223 

Tell Ddan '. 296 

21. Haifa (Mount Gaimel and Acre) 228 

The Carmelite Monastery 230 

Along the Ridge of Honnt Carmel to Mabraka .... 232 

From Haifa to Acre (<Akka) ....*.*..... 238 

22. From Haifa to 'Athlit and Caesarea (Yafa) 235 

From Cassarea to Y&fa 239 

23. From Haifa (Acre) to Nazareth 229 

a. Direct • 239 

b. By Shefa 'Amr and Sefilriyeb 240 

From Acre to Nazaretli 241 

24. From Jenin to Nazareth 242 

From Zer^in to Fflleh 242 

From Solem to Kaiu and £ndilr 343 

25. Nazareth 244 

26. From Nazareth to Tiberias 248 

A. By Mount Tabor 248 

b. By Kefr Kenna 260 

From Tiberias to KaKat el-Hosn 254 

27. From Tiberias to Tell Hiim and Safed 256 

From Khan Jnbb Ydsef to Banias direct 259 

From Safed to Meirdn and Kefr Bir'im 259 

From ^afed to Tibnin, Sidon, and Tyre 260 

28. From Safed to Damascus 262 

a. ByBiLni^ 262 

Tell el-Ka^i (Dan) 264 

From Banias to Birket Ram 266 

From Banias to H&sbeya , . 266 

From B^tima to l)aiaaasCu8 by Dareya 268 

b. By Kondtera 268 

29. From Acre*(Haifa) to Beiriit by Tyre and Sidon ... 269 

i From Acre *to Tyre by Kal'at Karn 276 

J 30. Beirut .* . . " 283 

Walks to the Pines, Dimitrl Hill, R&s Beirut, and Pi- 
geons' Grottoes 288 


1. To the Dog River 290 

2. To Bukfeya ... 291 

3. To B^t Meri and Brumm&na 292 

From Brumm&na to the Sannin 292 

Der cl-Kal'a * 293 

4. To 'Aleih 293 

6. To Ba'abda 294 



19. From JeDTOsalem to ITAbalas. 

ll-lli/s hrs. — Travellers wltbout tenta had better spend the night 
at the Latin monastery or at the Quakers* mission station (see helow) of 
nOmaUdh (31/4 hrs.); with tent in B«tin (4 hrs.). 

Leaving Jerusalem by the Damascus Gate, and passing (7 min.) 
tlie Tomhs of the Kings, we descend into the upper Kidron valley. 
From the hill of Scopus (20 min.) we oh tain a ftne survey of Jeru- 
salem (p., 93). The great caravan-route traverses the lofty plain in 
H due northerly direction. After 20 min. we see to the left 8h(ffdtj 
perhaps Nob^ 1 Sam. xxi. 23. Sha'fat contains fragments of a church 
and a small reservoir hewn in the rock. To the right, after 10 min., 
rises the hill of Tell cl-FUl,  There are the ruins of a large huild- 
ing, perhaps a fort erected. hy the Crusaders; the view is extensive. 
The spot is identical with Qibeah of BenjarAin (Judges, xix, xx). 
If, as already ohserved (p. 118), Giheah of Saul was identical 
with Giheah of Benjamin, this was the place where David permitted 
the murder of the seven sons of Saul (2 Sam. xxi.). To the W. 
(left) are seen the villages of Bit Iksa (p. 15), Bet Banina, and 
Bir Nehdla (p. 16). Farther on (30 min.), a road diverges on the 
left, leading past BH 'Ur to Yd fa; after 15 min, we pass a Roman 
milestone and in another 1/4 hr. reach the dilapidated kh&n of El- 
Kharciib, at the W. base of the hill on which the village of ^-Rdm 
lies (ascent in 12-15 min.). 

^oo*?'*i*^"*' *^® ancient Rdmdh of Benjamin, formed a kind of f^ntier- 

oasue between the N. and S. kingdoms (1 Kings xv. 17). After the capti- 

th« w ^?^ 'epeopled. It is noW occupied by about 15 families only. To 

of « - • *^., *?® village lies the Makdm Shikh JIusein, containing the ruins 

Setfir^^^ basilica. The view from it is very extensive: to the S.W. 

and ^^"''Ji ^ *^® ®- ^^^^ "'-^^^^ a^d 'Anata, to the N.E. Burka, Der Diwdn 

hill in^^?^' . ^'°™ Er-Ram the traveller may follow the crest of the 

Pnnf- . ® ■^•' *°*^ *" ^^ °^^°- ''®»<^^ *^e village of Jebcf (p. 118). 
*nd th rin^ ^"^ journey, we perceive to the left (W.) Kalandia, 
Old DonT ^ '^^^'^ Khirhet eWAtdra, a ruined village with two 
Fa rn^^^ ^^^^ C^taroth-Addar, Joshua xvi. 5). 

^^e ^Dgijsjj wted by numerous Christians. There are a station of 
t^^^^'siiijj. ^^^^ioti,- of the Quakers- and* of the Latin mission i 
«eflce to ^/.^ X ^?*^"* school , and Greek and Latin schools. — 

^^ the ^^^ tbG ^^ht passes round the somewhAt high andhroad 

^hici bT^^^^^e^X ^^^ient Ataroth lay. In 20 min, we gain the top 

d ^^'^iS?^^^^^ ^^^ skirting the Wddy es-Suwdnit (p.. ^^^h 

famlypiy ^of' ~ ^1- ^^. 20 min- ™<>^® ^^^^ — 

n*^*^'^/^ ^%^ *^:^®'^05T EhBtreh (*cistern') owes its name to its abun- 

^Ghwf/^^^4e "^^-^ W*'*^ is perhaps the ancient Beeroih, ^^^^^;^% 3? 
>/ 1,! '*' to ff" ^O^t^ JJ^^ a to\vn of Benjamin (Joabna. ix. ITj 2 Sam ly. 2, d • 

tjjP^^yer ^J^e jSr^ -^^^ning about 800 inhab. , Ues in a poor district. 

^^'^^^Se J ^^^Q^,^>^' > is an excellent spring:, with a Muslim place 

^a ^r.^::^^:^^ of ancient reservoirs near it. In the N. ol 

^^. partly constructed of ancient matearials. 

BfeTlN. W. RouU. 213 

On the highest ground in the Tillage lie the ruins of a Christian 
Church, The tradition that this was the spot where Maiy and Joseph 
first discovered the ahsence of the child Jesus from their company, 
is mentioned for the first time in the records of pilgrimages in the 
14th century. The church and hospice were finished in 1146 by the 
Templars, and closely resemhle the church of St. Anne at Jerusalem 
(p. 75); the three apses and the N. wall only are now standing. By 
these ruins now stands a Muslim wely. 

From El-Bireh there are two roads to 'Ain el^JSardrntyeh, Tlie 
roads diverge about 10 min. from El'-Bireh. 

a. The road to the right leads past BHin, After 5 min. a road 
diverges on the left; after 16 min. we pass a spring and two caverns 
(ancient reservoirs for water, called ^Aytln el-Hardmtyeh in the 
Middle Ages) on our left. The ceiling of one of these Is supported 
by two columns. Soon afterwards we pass another spriug, and in 
9 mm. more the spring ^Ain el-Akabeh on our right. In 5 min. we 
reach — • 

B^tin. — HiSTOfiT. Betin is perliaps identical with Bethel^ although 
there are reasons for thinking that the ancient Bethel may have }ain 
further K. Bethel signifies ^house of Grod' (Gen. xxvi. 9) i^ according to 
Judges i. 23, 26, the place was originally called Luz. The town was 
captured and occupied by the tribe of Ephraim (Judges i. 22) ^ in the 
list in Joshua xriii, 13, 22 it is allotted to the tribe of Benjamin as their 
frontier-town towards Ephraim. The town afterwards came into the pos- 
session of the northern kingdom. Under Jeroboam it became the centre of 
the worship of Jehovah in the northern kingdom (as Jerusalem was for the 
southern kingdom), comp. Amos iv, 4; vii. 13; 1 Ki. xii. 32. After the cap- 
liirity Bethel was again occupied by Benjamites, and in the time of the Mac- 
cabees it was forti&ed by the Syrian Bacchides. It was afterwards taken 
by Vespasian. 

Betin, which consists of miserable hovels with about 400 inhab., 
stands on a hill. To the N.W., in the highest part of the village, 
are the ruins of a Crusaders' church, and in the valley to the W. is 
a fine reservoir, in the centre of which the spring is enclosed in a 
circular basin; the pond is 105 yds. long (N.W. to S.E.) and 72 yds. 
wide. The village commands a pleasing view of the green valley 
to the E. A little to the N. of the village is a remarkable circle of 

stones which may possibly have had a. religious significance. 

Riding along the mountain ridge for an hour in a W.E. direction from 
Betin (a guide is necessary) we reach the foot of the Tell ^AsHr. The moun- 
tain (496U feet above the sea-lerel) is perhaps identical with JBaal Sator 
Ci Sam. xiii. 23). At the top (s/4 hr.) are the ruins of an old fort built by 
the Crusaders, called Burj el-Lisdneh, Hhe tower of tongues'. We may 
return to SeiMn (p. 214) by Merj eWId (Hhe meadow of the feast'), or to ^Ain 
elHardmiyeh (p. 214). 

From Betin the road traverses the crest of the hills towards the 
N.; on the left lies Mr ez-Zet^ on the right et-Tayibeh. In 40 min. 
we leave the village of 'Ain YehrM on the hlU to the left. Vines, 
flgs, and olives remind us that we are now in the favoured territory 
of Ephraim. Farther on, we perceive Jifna and 'Ain 8inia on the 
left. After 36 min. the village of YehrM lies on the left. The road 
down the valley through the rock-gardens is very bad. Passing a 

214 Route 19. SEILtlfN. From Jerusalem 

height erowned with a luin called Kdsr BerdcewU (oastle oC Baldwin}, 
the road leads to a oross- valley in 32 mln. ^ where we ohoose the road 
to the N., leading past extensive ruins with magnifloent olive trees 
into the Wddy el-Hardmtyeh and to the spring (V4 ^r.). 

&) The road to the left, an ancient Roman road, leads to the K. to 
Ji/na. We pass (26 min.) the small pond of Bl-BalUFa^ which is often 
dry. On the right, after V\ hr., we observe the min otKefr M«rr^ and in 
front of iu the valley of Jifna. After another V« ^- the ruin of Amnttyeh 
lies on the right, beyond which the road crosses a side-valley and descends 
into the Wady Jifna. This valley first runs to thel^^.E., at 0/2 hr.) Jifna 
expands to a small plain and then turns to the X.W. 

Jifna. — HisTOBT. Jifna is the ancient Qophnafi^ which was a place of 
considerable importance and became the capital of one of the ten top- 
archies into which Judeea was divided by the Bomans. It was taken 
by Vespasian, and during the war a number of Jews deserted to the Ro- 
manB at Gophnah. 

The village lies in a pleasant oasis and is now inhabited by about 
400 Christians. On the slope of the hill are the Latin monastery and 
church, to the E. of which the ruins of an old church are visible. Built 
into the ruins to the 6. of the village is a Q^reek church, containing some 
antiquities found in the neighbourhood. — A road to the K.W. leads 
from Jifna to Tibneh^ the ancient Timnath Serah^ where Joshua^s grave 
has been shown since the 6th century among other rock-graves (Joshua 
xix. 80; xxiv. 30). Other authorities identify the place with Thimnathah 
of Dan (Joshua xix. 43). 

'Ain el-Har&miyeh. — The narrowness of the floor of the valley 
and the loneliness of the environs seem to justify its name of 'rob- 
bers' spring'. The water trickles down from the base of a cliff. Ad- 
jacent are rock-tombs, caverns, and the ruins of a RhS.n. 

Ascending the well -cultivated valley to the N. we perceive to 
the left after 1/4 Jir- the ruin of Et-Tell. On the right after 1/2 hr. 
opens a broad, well cultivated plain with the village of Turmus 
'Aya (the road on the right leads to Seilijinj see below). On the hill 
to the left stands the village of Sinjilj called Casale Saint OUes by 
the Crusaders, from Count Raymond of Saint Giles. The road now 
skirtsj the E. slope of the valley (passing on the right the Wely Ahu 
'Auf, and on the left, on the other side of the valley, the ruin of 
El'Burj') and reaches the top of the pass in */2 hr. , where we ob- 
tain a glimpse of Mount Hermon and the green basin of El-Lubban 
before us. The footpath on the right then descends rapidly, the rather 
better road on the left leads in 20 min. to the extensive, but now 
dilapidated Kh&n of El-Lubhan^ near which rises a good spring. 

The slight digression to SeiMn is worth making, if only for the view. 
Starting from the above-mentioned watershed, the road crosses the plain 
towards the N.E., and after 1/4 hr. leaves the village of Tnrmtts ^Apa {Thor- 
moiia of the Talmud)^ surrounded by fruit-trees, to the right. The plain 
is admirably cultivated. We next ascend a small valley to the K.N.E., 
avoid, one after the other, two roads on our right, pass the low watershed, 
and reach (Va hr.) the ruins of — 

Seilftn. — HiSToar. Seiliin is identical with the SMloh of Scripture. 
It was here that a temple of Jehovah stood (Jer. vii. 12) with the ark of 
the covenant; and in honour of the Lord a festival was annually cele- 
brated, on which occasion dances were performed by the daughters of 
Shiloh (Judges xxi. 19, 21). This was the residence of Eli , and of the 
youthful Samuel (1 Sam. iii, iv). After the Philistines had captured the 
ark (1 Sam. iv.), it was never brought back to Shiloh. At what time 




"no'1"' {f^ultea a.zid Supported by t^^ *f* «!<» o«k. t.?*^ tte iHl".""" 

^"l' A^n we ^««««»a ,„t„ the T^J^ " ' " '' A?{K^ ^ 

^"l^cX^eto -fcl^e W. After OoiS^U®^/?" 1» » W W . *« «" 

,ilUge of El-I^6&«*» , *lie ancient X^cbonah fJud!!! *° '^e Jeft .. 

to the right into' -k>air«>a.d level valley which «;en!fr^!"'e to™ 
terminates in »l.»rr»'» "dge. la 2& min. wo leaved' «"'!"»"y .ad 
left, and in 00 mitt- no-ore leach tUe dilapidated^Ji^n,, ^.r* *« »« 

N.Em tali'wax ";JE> y^^iuii, xs a «I^^^i^« with good wl^lr^'*- ^^ 

♦It left miif. Oix t;Xi€» N. side of i;lxe valley 'the I«2i •^''^ *« 

rcoudt AtUo^ o± t.he hill C30 x.l.oU^\raJn^^;?eVa^ 
r_^^ ^lain of Ei-Ar;cxA:^y»€i, framea. l^y the mA««*-,- yew ot the 

asceuds. At ^%,f^^ ^^ ^^« /"^ '-^^v."^"-".*^ ^« °^t«n a view o7^^ 
large plain of Ei- AfVxA:^^^, framea l^y the mountains of sT^ • 

Ih'Slin of E^^-^V^^ To tl.e lo£^ is the v/iu/e oi C Tthe' 

right Beita. FiomtUx^s x>oint tliere «\*^o routes; either aW the 

W. maigin of the plaxxi , or more to the E. and across it; the Utter 

rouU afford, the better ^^ew .^^r^"^^*"- ^^'th^i ^"* '' '""^^ Practicable 

in the dry season. We. x>«tS8 C^O «^Y>0 the large vilUgo ot Sawdm 

on the left, situated ^^ ^X^e foot of tHe chain of Gerizim. TheTnl^ 

age of ^Au(iaZia\ne:sLt; l^es oix tlie Ikill to the right. This is the 

^jroadest part of the ^ 1 a.i j^^ ^f Mat^xia- We nde past the ruins of the 

former viUage of Jtfafc^k^^ ^^ *Ke ^S^*' *^*«^,y4 hr, lies 'Au,«^,,^ 

^here the tombs of ElX^^zar ai^a Pbinehas (joshua xxiv. 33) are 

sho^n. On Mt. Gerx^i:^^ stai^as ^®„f fV ^^"^ ^'"^^"^ (Ishmaell 

After 1/2 t^M tbe villa^^ ^^ jSCe^-r ^««tn lies to the left, and that of 

Bdjib to the right boy c>x:M^<i tHe plam. Above us, on the summit of 

Mt. Gerizim, is a MixsX^j:^:^ wely- , i^. ^ 

The road skirts tlx^ :^^^^ -g oorner or Mt. (ierizim. After 35 min 
to the right of the roa.cX , ^g gitviatod Jacob's Well, adjoining which 

216 Route 19, NABULtJS. From Jerusalem 

are the ruins of an old churcli burled under heaps of ruhhish. JacoVs 

Well belongs to the Greeks and has been enclosed with a wall. 

Jews, Christians, and Muslims agree that this is the Well of Jacob, 
and the tradition to that effect is traceable as far back as the 4th century. 
Whether the tradition is right is not easily ascertainable. The cistern is 
situated on the high - rood from Jerusalem to Galilee , thus according 
with the narrative of St. John (iv. 5-30). The Samaritan woman did not 
come from Shechem but from /SiycAor, which is probably identical with 
the modern ^Mker (p. 222). In that case, the tradition had already at the 
time of Christ attached to it (St. John iv. 5, 6) that this was Jacob's Well, 
and the field which he purchased and where Joseph was afterwards buried 
(Josh. xxiv. 32). To get to the mouth of the well, one must be let down 
into the vault that has been built over it. The cistern is very deep (75 ft.). 
In summer it is often dry. It was formerly deeper than now. It is 71/3 ft. 
in diameter and lined with masonry. The ruins of a church built over 
it in the 4th cent., and* still existing in the 8th cent., and the numerous 
stones that have fallen or been thrown into the well, have probably raised 
its bottom. 

Joseph's Tokb is shown in a building about 1100 yds to the K. of 
the cistern. It is entirely niodern and, according to an English inscrip- 
tion, was restored in 186^ by the English consul Mr. Rogers. The Jews 
burn small votive offerings in the hollows of the two little columns of 
the tomb. 

From Jacob's Well we turn to the W. into the valley of N&bulus. 
To the left rises Mt. Gerizim, to the right Mt. Ebal with its terraces 
lined with cactus and extending from the foot to the summit. The 
floor of the valley is well cultivated. On the right, after 7 min., is 
tbe village of Bal&ta. Here, according to early Christian tradition 
and the Samaritan chronicle, stood the oak (bullut) of Shechem 
(Joshua xxlv. 26-, Judges ix. 6). About 4 min. farther, rock-tombs 
are visible on Mt. Ebal. We now reach the spring ^Ain Defna, 
near which Turkish barracks with a small arsenal and hospital have 
been erected. There is a good carriage road from here to Nabulus. 
Olive-groves now soon begin. To the left lies the chapel of the 
Rijdl eWAmiid (men of the columns), where forty Jewish prophets 
are said to be buried , and where the pillar of Abimelech (Judges 
ix. 6) perhaps stood. (An old road ascends Mt. Gerizlm hence.) 
In 12 min. more we reach the gate of the town of NdbuluSj which 
formerly extended farther to the E. than now , perhaps as far as 
'Ain Befna. 

H'&bnlas. — Accohuodation in the LcUin Monaitery (lettet of intro- 
duction from Jerusalem necessary). 

The Camping Ground is on the W. side ot the town. It is reached by 
turning to the right before reaching the gate of the town and riding round 
the town to the above spot. The commandant should be requested to 
furnish one or two soldiers as a guard for the tents (about i/s mc|j. per 
man). — A Samaritan named Jacob Tchelebi sometimes solicits donations 
from travellers, stating that they are for tbe benefit of his co-religionists, 
but he should not be listened to. 

Post and Txlboraph Office (Turkish). 

HiBTOBT. a. Samaria and the Samaritans. Tbe district of Samaria 
derives its name from Samaria, the ancient Shomeron (1 Kings xvi. 24; 
p. 224). From the Maccabcean period onwards, the name of Samaria was 
used to denote Central Palestine. After part of the population of the north- 
ern kingdom had been carried to the East by the Assyrians, foreign co- 
lonists gradually spread over the country (2 Kings xvii. 24), and the popu- 

io NMnUu. NABULU9. 14. Rot> 

I&tlDD of Bimiiria tlioB leqrtiTed a mixed clunctei. After the re 

U» leva to decline tbe Lid of the SuDoritaos In baildlng the 
temple of Jeruialem, ud ■« Ibe Jewa exclnded them from M pai 
In Ibcir worshfp, the hrench conlidonlly widened. The Sanmriun 
s holy elt7 M>d n sanctnary of their own {Nehem. ii. W, IB) 

n of Sheel 

vbtle SuBula declined. CondicU frequently took_place bslwesn : 
and the Samaiitsns. According lo Josephus. the remiilo on Hi. < 
whicli had stood for SCO jenrB. was destroyed hj John Hjccanin 

218 BouU 19. NABULirS. l^J^<^ 

Ufi/¥i nf the rebels* 
«.. v.w«*-., ». ir . '^n«ili (St. John 

The Jews regarded the name of Samaritan as a terxu of '^P^rf^j-each the 
viii. 48), and the apostles did not at first go to Samaria w>p ^^ ^^ 
gospel (St. Matth. x. Sj comp., however, Acta viii. 0-^7 ""^me fre- 
Samaritans adhered to their old religion , and tliey, t^«'®*®'\?«L!«pi r>ar- 
quently in collision with Christianity and with tlxe Boman ^^T^^^lll^^ 
ticularly in 529. About this period they martyred Clirifltians and defliroy 
many churches. At Neapolis they killed the bisUop, and made J'^"'^"' ?"t 
of their leaders, king. Justinian, however, despatched an a'™^ *V„-* 
them, and many of the insurgents were slain. TUey were bow Jjf?*»*;/; 
of their own synagogues, and many of them fled, to Persia, while Oinere 
embraced Christianity. At a later period, they ceased to play a part in 
history, and they are not even mentioned by writers of t^^""*!";. 
period. In the 12th cent., Benjamin of Tudela found about 1000 adherent* 
of the sect of the Samaritans at Nabulus, and a few also at Ascaion, CK- 
sarea, and Damascus. For some years past they have been confined to 
NsLbulus, although they formerly had small comixiiixiities at Cairo and Da- 
mascus. Their numbers are steadily diminishing, now consisting of 4A>oU 
families only, who live in a distinct quarter of the town (S.W.). — The 
Samaritans have preserved a venerable type of Jew^ish physiognomy. 

With regard to their Creed, the Samaritans are strict monotheists, 
and abhor all images and all expressions whereby haman attribxites aTe 
ascribed to God. They believe in good and evil spirits , in the resur- 
rection and last judgment. They expect the Messiah to appear 6000 years 
after the creation of the world, but they do not consider that he will be 
greater than Moses. Of the Old Testament they possess the pentateuch 
only, in the old Hebrew or 'Samaritan' writing. Their literature chiefly 
consists of prayers and hymns. Their oldest chronicles date from the 12th 
cent. Three times a year, viz. at the festival of unleavened bread, the 
feast of weeks , and the feast of tabernacles, they make a pUgrimaee to 
the sacred Mt. Gerizim. They celebrate all the Mosaic festivals, but they 
offer sacrifices at the Passover only. Bigamy is permitted if the first wife 
be childless, and when a married man dies, his nearest relation, but not 
his brother, is bound to marry the widow. 

b. H&bulus is a corruption of Neapolis, or more fully F'lavia Ifeapolu 
as it was called to commemorate its restoration by Titus Flavius Ves- 
pasianus. This is one of the rare instances in which a place has ex- 
changed its ancient Semitic name for a later one of Roman oxigin "SabnlnB 
was also sometimes called Mamortha, or Mahort^a^ which signifies ^nass^ or 
'place of passage', but the ancient name was Siohem, or JSheehetn C'the back'l 
Sichem was one of the towns of the tribe of Ephraim. it was the ac^W«^ 
of the episode of Abimelech (Judges ix). Under Eehoboana, ^h© Tia.Mft««A «; 
sembly was held here (1 Kings xii) which resulted in the final aet«^Itiif« 

of the northern tribes from the southern. Jeroboam chose Sichen?fo» lli^ 
residence. — During the Christian period, Neapolis became the aesLt «f • 
bishop. The Crusaders under Tancred took Nabulus aoon after «w* 
quest of Jerusalem, and in 1120, Baldwin II. held a gx-eat diet he^ ^a" 
bulus was frequently conquered, and suffered severely dnrine tli« n.., 
fladers' nerind. In later historv the district of Samaria. a«H ^^_rr_" . !*~ 

saders' period. In later history the district of Samaria, and nai.t?i.«i- I^~ 
the neighbourhood of Nabulus, has been chiefly noted for \ta tnlJ^tl^ 
and the inhabitants still have the reputation of being restless turbSle t' 
and quarrelsome. ' uient, 

Nabulus (1870 ft. above the sea-level) lies in a long line on the 
floor of the valley between Ebal (Arab. Jehel Esldmtyeh or esh^She 
mm, the N. mountain) and Gerizim (arab. Jebel €t~T6r or el-KihM 
the S. mountain). The environs are beautifully green and extremal ' 
fertile, and water flows in abundance from 22 springs, about h If 
of which are perennial. The town contains about ^0,000 Inh h 
including 220 Samaritans (see above), a few Jews , and 7^)0 
Christians, chiefly belonging to the Greek orthodox church - af 

^^ I^'^tlns, and 1^ Protectants. >>^ ^^' ''' '^''' ^^ ^ 

POBsesses a ganison (1 regiment ol^*"^"« ",**^«eatof ajtfutesarrif 
st^a^ '^**^^^^*^*^ elementai-y /^^'^^•ntryj, 8 J«rge mosques, and 
rm;1 ^^ tJieEngUsh Church Afi^^*o<>^ *"<* « coIJe^e). It is also a 
Th r ^^ "W^rttem^erg) wbici ^^®^*<>" fmiMionary, JKev. Mr. ¥^1- 
*ne l4atins Ixave a monaBtery aa^^^'***'"* * clmrcli and a school. 
«abulite «tiU pogfiesses a marlcAf »<^<>o^ ^» **« ^- ^'^ **>« to^n. — 
"« a considerable tradft wi#li thl^ ^^ ^^^^ imporlanoe, and carries 
*» wool and oot<«n t* ^^^^ .^ Country JE. of Jordan, particularly 
«^ade from oll^e^oU. "^ ^^ inanu factories of soap, wMoh is 

'>*2««r. I,, ?vf S^ ^^ *<"'« «Oiit,in« few attractions beyond the 
(PI- 11 or Ih! ®' P*"^ o'the town i« situated the J6mf el-KeMv 
■B. PomKVhf.r** '""'I""- AdSZon if not easily obtained The 
of tke^4,!^?i'"' " ^«» Preserv^? fnd wsembles that of the Churoh 
»emi-co^^ *'"^' """'l^to of S^**' *"if awbes, lH)rne by 6 small 
st^e '?J.°™'"' •"* »doraai i.!r^*"*,ttaws ^ the Romanesque 
Thi ™ J^® **"'* """t^ins « ^» '*^ ^""^T^aIh. *y »««<!«« columns. 

oy the canons of tte Holv 2***"'°* "" -T 167. — The Jdrnf «n- 
foir, 01 'mosque of viel '^ ^epulohte m l"",''. Crusaders' church 
«oo as no doubt is the J^^.CPl.-l), is P/»^*S?i'' 'he 'green mosque'. 
It Js said to stand on thr" «*-^ft««''-»/^i;Vs'<^at 4«s brought by 
r«'^l',*^^» to Jacob. Bl*»»*^»'«^\^*'rls atlnd of clock-tower 
reaembling that of Kan.l^i'^ *he ohurcli n^es » ^^^^ a Sa- 

">«ritan inseriptton ni ^ * ^l*!* ^^ ^^'^^ J^ that the, once possessed 
« V«««o,fne here. These®*'*"'^**"' »*''*rin a cornet, surrounded 
'rtttjMdens. — Im2^ ^^ildinK* «**'d rises » large mound of 
«lM«, irWoh oomma"dT^**^tely to the W. n»«^ ^o^^, the plain, 

«>n»er of tie *o^fa^„**«>>cnd Jordan to *^„*.ni08qne ofthele- 
^' (who Jlvrtoerel ? •'^^rf-Af «<**«' ^/a toy the Crusaders, 

P«'4 «, aTo.^iAi*^':: pro^a^f ^t UtU ^'^ - t- 
«• Msioirn what Mu8litt»**i^ TemplM*- ^ ue the low) o, 

<^*8^,. ^ **aditio» declares *» ^^^ ,„^„. 

Ida quarter of the Sa»^ . ^^e S-^- ^* ,m»U, ^^Wte- 

rto«j«w««.i^« rAren?s*^^*itans i« »» *Alst» <>* '■Tuh mattiug, 

»«d ,n«,t no* be t,odd^*^^*»,ent of ^^xch »« ^^ ^^'^^^e^ althox^gh 
'««• The pMyers are teJ***^ with sl»«^a^iiftrlt»», ^ Ve men ^e*t 

»lBt9 .niplioes and red r*«»-l langnage of the V^ g,eat iW y^^^^b, 
i«»BliBe,s. Tie office ^^^^^^insf Ttoy .**t^redit»*y:,?6vi. Bo \» 

From Jtmalem 

costly case, witu a cu>ci «- o a -narty, !"• ''^ r i^>^i.«inis 

kfihen is for a single pe«o'\ ^*'- l'"' * ^autifal view o(^'^f2> 
The slopes of Mt. Gexlzim affojd * ^j„riant veidute. By the 
with its Xte houses in the midst oflwun ^^^fo^io^aterraee 

highest row of gardens we tnm to *1^« *^" ^t'J' here were prohaWy 

skirting the r,^ky slope. The Urge caverns ^ 

once quarries. From the terrace we »* ^^"f^^uout 10 ft- ^ *?»' 

from which projects a triangular piece of ""^ ^^^ the narrative 

meter. This spot accords hetter *«" »'l',^^"^ii. 80-35 ap|U« 

of Judges ir. 7-21, while the P"!»|^^f",td Oeririm to the E. of 

best to the amphitheatrical hays of E1>»1 a""* 

''^^''ulus. ,, ^ ^„ jhB ton^ is best m»de «w» 

The ascent of Ht. Oeri«im (^ ^'- *» ^« ^^^a^ through the v»l ey 

tie W. corner of the town C«ee *lie ^^»"^J,' vfiQ min.) rises the 

«s«endinff thence towards the S., ^",.^'t^'' .V min. brings us *o 

copious spring lUis el-'Ain. A «<f P «i,^^^//oon rTach CVi ''%) f. 

« lofty plain, where we turn to the »«'* •■"*^^°"^t the feast of the 

spot where the Samaritans pitch *!»«", ^^'f.omin. more. 

p." ^°~' Tiience to the summit is a walk of 1" »V°- „d encamp 

S l«« aJys Seto^the feast, the Samaritan. repa_^rhrth««>^^ ^^^ 

in .^.'"^l^-tn The scene of the saerifloe is ?.>•'?« f^Tsolemn slwei*": 

"n this b»»x»- ^ ceremonT of the feast consists i° *"* '" nid Testsment 

U,T^^- »^e« wWte tlX In strict accordance vnth the Old ^^^^ 

&, "v^s?*o« «« .eldom «lmltt«d to this """f ;»*"!;*"* „„«muUte 

w* «-exizlm (2848ft.) is composed almost entirely ot nu» 
lin,«*«;,S. ri^rtl-^y formation). The summit consists of » l«f ^„, 

of * r-Astlo, probably eieoted in Justiman s time (OOdj, 
the Vrils? S'lOft- thick, consisting of drafted blocks , may po* 
stly^iro-xxg to a still older structure, ^he -s*l\fom^^^^^^^ 
sqnare, a-xxA is flanked with towers. On the E. side are ^^^^^l 
several cliaxnhers, one of which has a Greek cross over ^^® r. . 
To the ISr.IE. rises the Muslim wely of Smkh QhCinim Ci»*g^^7^,_ 
view froxm the window , see p. 221) , and on the N. side oi w^ 
castle Is 3- large reservoir. Of the Chwch which once ^tooo. *^f^ ' 
the lo-vv^es-t foundations only are extant. It was an octagonal d^" 
ing -v«ri*lnL an apse towards the E. , having its main entrance on tn 
N., AT* a. oliapels on five sides. It is said to have been erectea 
in AT^ O &33). To the S. of the castle are walls and cisterns, and 
theres is a- i?aved way running from N. to S. Some massive substruc- 
tions a- Xx-ttle below the castle, to the S., are shown as the stones of 
the a.X-ta.T -vvrhich Joshua is said to have erected here (viii. 30-32). 
oexitre of the plateau tlie Samaritans point out a projecting 
"Ka^ng once been the site of the altar of their temple. — - 
»o T?7hole mountain-top are scattered numerous cisterns and 
X^a-^ed platforms re8eml[>ling the places of prayer on the are* 

In tlx^ 


Ove-r "trixo 


to mi^uius. MT ^^^^ 

erri Jf Jf/i * ^^^"^ co-vered with houses. TowarS«V'*" ^^^^^^ of 
eial paved terraces. At the S. E. corner the spo* i*^ ^' «^e ^ev- 

It!. 1 ^^^ ^^^^ ^^**^ ^ pointed out. Near it V^f^^ Abraham 
some ourions round steps. — The summit command ^^"^ ^-^^^are 
spbct: to theE. lies the plain ot El-Afakhna, bn.f ^ ^^^^^ *^»o. 
Mis, with the village of '^«&er lying on the h ^-T^^^ ^^ ^^^^le 
Kefr Kuinn on the S. ; farther to the E. are, in \t^^l\ *"^ *hat of 
N. to S., 'Azmut, Sdlim, (with JBg« J[></a^ behind) »^.!l"^*'*i^'' ^^^n^ 
tefc. The valley to the S. Is the Wddy ^A^warteh To'' ^^["^^^^r^ 
distance, rise the mountains of Gilead, amon« wM?»f "^^ '^ ^^f *^® 
(p. 177) towers conspicuously. Towards the N the fi  x? ^^' 
is visible, but the greater part of the view in this f?,v2^1* ^ermou 
out by Mt. Ebal. Towards the IS^.W. Carmel is VuihT^"^- " ^i^^* 
weather. Towards the AV^. the valleys and hillg gi^^^^ ® ^'^/^ear 
blue band of the distant Mediterranean ; CaBsarea mayaometi *^® 
be recognised (S.'W.'). — A steep path descends N.W from i^^ 
castle into the valley in 26 min«, leading to the chaoel mflnn 
at p. 216. ^ ™«ntioued 

The ascent of CI ^^-^ »Ct. :m>al C^077 ft. above the sea-lev i 
i207 ft. above Nabulus) is more fatiguing and less frequently n ' 
dertaken than that of Mt. Oerizlm ; but the summit is higher ^^I 
the view still flJier. The path winds up over terraces hedged 't^-^^ 
oaotus. Near the top on the W. side stands a Muslim wely wbi ^ 
attracts pilgrims and is said to contain the skull of John the Ba^ 
txBt. The highest part of the mountam is towards the W. side- Tj 
the summit are the ruins of ^^-Jp^a C^the fortress'), thewaUa''". 
which are very thick; a little ^^Zf ^J®- "« o*W ruins called J^.^ 
bet Kuneiseh C'little church^. The •View extends over the m o u P 
tain-ohain of Galilee , from Carmel across the pUin of Jezreel 1" 
Gilboa- Mt Tabor, Safed in the extreme distance nearHermon ♦>: 
coast puTn to the W., and the ^^f^--\.fo^^^^^ ,, ,^, ^^;^th 
to the B. are all visible. — On *.^^" *^V«*, *^ *he /. of Mt*. J^l^ 
U TnllUza identified on rather msuffloient grounds with Tirznh 
whSif- ^r k time was the capital of the northern kingdom CI kT^s 

xvi. 8% etc.). ^.^ , J. ■•« umh- 

' . From ITAbnln* to B«-Salt. 

4Q X, An escort is necessary and i» to be obtained either f« 

13 hrs. — .^f ®r 2 kliaiy&l. Prich, see p. xxxiii) or from the 'L'^Ja 
B^d^^TcShslS. "^"mT^V^: ieg'oSatioLa ahonld be conducted at tht^,^^^ 

flulate in J®*^**^®™^* ases the plain oi Uakhna to the S.E. (leaving j„„ ^ 

Tlie route first ^'Of ««« jT^'g^'J^Y "*^e reach Bit FUrik. After crJ^'^^h^a 
Wen to tUe rigHt). In \^t%eBc^d 'the narrow Wddy Z«*a,*« , ^^^Jsing 

222 Route 19. BEISAN. 

tben cross a second terrace to the bridge Jitr ed-Ddtnipeh. A« the Jordan 
has formed a second bed for itself by the side of the bridge, it is necessary 
to use the ferry. The traffic is considerable. 

The direct route to Es-Salt (5 hrs.) takes us in a S.E. direction along 
the bed of the valley, which is about li/t hr. broad, and past the JtM Otha^. 
It is worth while, however, to ascend the mountain (4 hra. from the foot). 
From the summit to Bs-Salt, 1 hr. (see p. 177).^ 

From IT&bulns to Beis&n and Tiberias. 

Fboh NIbulus to BkisIn (9 hrs.) the route is by the great Damaacus 
caravan road. We ride round the E. side of £bal to (25 min.) 'Atker^ the 
Byehar of John iii. 23 (p. 216). There are rock-tombs and a spring here. 
After 25 min. we pass opposite the villages of AzmOi , Dir eU^Atc^ , and 
Sdlim^ and traverse the gorge of the Wddy Biddn to (2 hrs.) Surf el'JFdt^a^ 
named after the large valley descending hence towards tiie S.E. to the 
Jordan. We cross a hill to (1 hr. 10 min.) the village of TUbds (2%«5er, 
Judges ix. 50; 2 Sam. xi. 21). On the right (1 hr. 15 min.) lies a sarco- 
phagus and a small square building of ancient construction, probably a 
tomb, with a seuh>tured marble portal. The village of (5 min.) Yaatr pos- 
sesses no well. The Wddy eUMdlih descends hence to the Jordan; and bo 
also does the Wddy Khazneh towards the IST.E. Descending the latter, our 
road leads to (2 hrs. 50 min.) the ruin of Ka^Hn in the Jordan vallev. From 
Ea'dn we ride to the X. in 1 hr. to Tell Ma^Jent^ and thence, crossing sev- 
eral small water-courses, to (1 hr.) — 

Beis&n (320 ft. below the level of the Hediterranean). — Beisan ans- 
wers to the ancient Beth-Snean, which lay in the territory of Manasseh 
(Joshua xvii. 11). During the reign of Saul it was at any rate not in- 
habited by the Israelites (1 Sam. zxxi. 10). David seems to have eon- 
quered Beth-Shean, and one of Solomon''s officers resided here (1 Elings iv. 
12), but it never became a Jewish town (2 Mace. xii. 30). In the'^Greek 
period, the town was called ScpthopoKt^ and belonged to the DeeapoUa 
(p. Ivi). Gabinins rebuilt and fortified the town. In the Christian i>eriod, 
Scythopolis was an episcopal see. In the time of the Crusades, it was 
known by both its names. Saladin reduced the place with difficulty and 
committed it to the flames. INumerous palms are said to have Otace flour- 
ished in the environs, but in the 13th cent. YlLkilt saw two only. 

The village and ruins of Beisan lie in a basin on the margin of the 
great plain of Jezreel^ which slopes down hence towards the Ghdr, upwards 
of 300 ft. below. The N. hill« of the broad valley are skirted by the 
brook Jdmdy to the N. of Tell Beis&n. The formation is volcanic, the 
prevailing rock being basalt. The present village lies to the S. of the hill, 
surrounded by several brooks. It is the seat of a Mudlr. The precincts 
of the ancient town , to judge from its ruins , must have extended fiftr 
beyond those of the modem village. The most important ruins ftre the 
following : 1. W. of the village a hippodrome , now almost concealed by 
vegetation. — 2. In the N.E. of the place the foundation walls of the 
mosque Jdmf el-Arbc^n Ohatdtoi , finished in 1403-4. It was formerly a 
church, the apse is still distinctly traceable at the E. end. — 3. Proceed- 
ing !N.W, from the mosque and passing some tombs we come to the great 
amphitheatre (Sl-'AkUd) in the bed of the valley, the best preserved theatre 
in the country W. of the Jordan. It is 60 yds. in diameter and had 12 
tiers of seats. The passages and outlets of the interior are still preserv- 
ed. The remarkable recesses probably served to improve the acoustic 
of the theatre. — 4. A colonnade once led along the brook in a N.B. di- 
rection to an ancient bridge Jisr eUMakW^ a little below the point where 
the brook flows into the river Jalfid. — 5. On the other side (IT.) of the 
bridge are remains of an old street; to the left is Tell el-Jfastabah with 
the ruins of a fort, to the right, near some columns, is the* reservoir 
El-Hammdm; close by arc numerous rock- tombs and still farther 8. a 
large rock- tomb called Maghdret Abu Ydghi. — 6. On the hill Tell el-JOdtn^ 
to the N. of the theatre, are traces of the thick wall which once enclosed 
the summit, and a partially preserved portal. The view extends up to Zer^ 

^^ the v^,« ,, 1 n. .^ ^ ^AMrA. j^ ^ 223 

tort iL *^^®y of Jeiteel. To tlie E. ^ 

i» the^'l?* H V> t^c E., are JTarat ?J*d 8. we look down intn *h« n^- 

greater ^^^?*^™**'. ^® '•®**'^ O/^l* /^ ^^ /^^^^^ «i»e oJd road from 
^ P*rt of wMcli is built of ai/« hr.) the large ^d« tf/-^;Jmar, the 

yV^'^on, on the i 

^f2**> ** «ie K E ;«?*^'f '^^ ^'^'^^e toTfine reservoir formed by the 'Ain 
^o^* '^J' * Hdetf%'ml!?^*^oaBtoin«. From this point to Tell 

on thi8**^^jj» »o TababItbh Cabo,,T^7hrs ) The heat ia often very great 
through nntLi? " i*«« »bont 600 ft V* ^/*il -I* level. We at first descend 
^i*l> a stoS^ Jrr^ *^ tl^e nTe **^^^ *^V^r^ min.) » copious brook, 
deacendl ftJL S?' *°<1 a conduit * , We cross ^^^\^i le^rz^Wddy^Esheh 
«^ tlie ihill?? /^« ,^- After 1 V ^^ 40 ni»«- f'^niage of Vtf*e6 el-^a"'^ 
w^M ere^Ii^ *? *^« ^eft. This L- *' ^e see t?'^ Jl"^tle of ^rfrotr, which 
takeu by^li ^/ ^^^g ^uie It^'i'i?* answers to the cajti ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 
exten«*^ Saladin in 1188 n»« *^e same time ^I^^+od where there are 

The rolS **" *^« *>'idge ofj^,^^ 'each the ^f^ove the bridge is a rapid. 

10 !jfr®*^» * river which \!^ ^^^.^ the month ot »" ^^ Jordan (p. 195) 
w"'*'^-^^-^«'>>«»S«ft. »/ h^'^'^iiis as mtxch water as t^^^^^^.), a con- 

^^i^^^l^i^-'*- fP^.^« «^^" ^ , l^lce. The remains 

^l^iberias, ^^ *** 

|»^s tie hill to the N. ''^l^i. t»ken I'r treads Pf^*,*^oute t>y Se- 

'«%«» is preferable. ^^^^ The 8omewl»» , -dan, tt^o^e oft 

Tie brooks to the E. „-^ a to **^® V<i to Sebasti- 

«ie ff. aide of the town ^ ^STiUnlns desceud The ro» jj^y to the 
J^tetfoUoTirsthe new- ^ **^e Mediterr»ne»' ^ ^g the ^j^^ i^ft, 

ffff. After 23 min. ^^:^ road and de«««*^^ V^h'-^^e village* 
""I wj .fterwards ^av,^«» «ee ^fi'^^ffg the rf«* 

224 HouU 20. SEBASTIYEH. From Ndhulua 

of (20 min.) Bet JJzin and BH Iha (10 miii.) also lie to the left. 
When we come in sight of a watei-conduit crossing the valley to a 
mill, we ascend out of the valley to the right (N.W.). As the road 
ascends, it affords (20 min.) a view of the village of Dtr esh-Sheraf in 
the valley below ; on the height opposite us is Keiain^ and to the W. 
of it BU Lid; by the roadside is a spring with good water. The view 
becomes more extensive when we reach the top (^4 hr.) ; to the 
N.E. we see Rdmtn and *Andbeta, and En-Ndk<lra on the hill to the 
right. We then descend in 5 min. more into the valley. The road 
passes under (10 min.) a conduit. On the hill to the right is a wely. 
A final ascent of 17 min. at length brings us to the round, terraced 
hill of Sehaattyehj over 330 feet in height and standing isolated in 
the valley. 

Sebasflyell. — Histobt. The palace of Omri, king of tbe nortliern 
empire, at Tirzah having been burned down, he purchased a hill from 
one Shemer, and erected upon it a new residence for himself called Sho- 
meron, or Samaria (1 Kings xvi. 24). The town continued to be the ca- 
pital of the kingdom of Israel until it was taken by Sargon in B.C. 722, 
after a siege of three years. The town was doubtless devastated on that 
occasion, but in the time of the Maccahees it was again an important and 
fortified place. After a siege of a year, it was taken and totally destroyed 
by Hyrcanus. ITot long afterwards, Samaria is again mentioned as belong- 
ing to the Jews. Pompey included Samaria in the province of Syria, and 
it was rebuilt by the general Gabinius. Augustus presented the town to 
Herod the Great, who caused it to be handsomely restored and fortified, 
and gave it the name of Sebaste (Greek for Augusta). A latge colony of 
soldiers and peasants was then established in the place. Sebaste, how- 
ever, was gradually surpassed in prosperity by NeapoHs (Sichem). St. Phi- 
lip preached the Gospel in Samaria (Acts viii. 5), and the place after- 
wards became an episcopal see, which was revived by the Crusaders. To 
this day a Greek bishop derives his title from Sebaste. 

The most important ancient edifice at Sebasfiyeh is the half ruin- 
ed *Church of 8t. John, which is now converted into a mosque. 

St. Jerome is the first author who mentions the tradition that John 
the Baptist was buried here. The statement that he was beheaded here 
is of much later origin (p. 190). In the 6th cent., a basilica stood here. 
The present church dates from the second half of the 12th cent., and is 
a work of the Crusaders. 

It stands below the village; the ruins have been much damaged 
in the last few years. Externally the excellent joititing of the 
smooth walls with their slightly projecting flying buttresses is 
worthy of inspection. The interior vividly recalls the churches of 
Abu G6sh (p. 15), St. Anne at Jerusalem, and others erected by 
the Crusaders. It evidently consisted of a nave with two aisles of 
inferior height; the apse of the nave projects considerably beyond 
those of the aisles. The nave is separated from the aisles by square 
pillars with columns, on which the pointed vaulting rests. The cap- 
itals of these columns have the palm enrichment, and, like the 
rounded windows, are of the Romanesque style. In the apse the 
arches are pointed. The windows consist of small round arches, and 
are enriched. The church, including the porch, is 55 yds. long and 
25 yds. wide. The simple facade is at the W. end. Adjoining the 

.,s,*^^»idow« 3. , "225 

polnteiSMiiW^WO ,™-*»Oe - ,' "^'""fing lo the aisles. o» 
lOrtiWu ,H,liib\y ~L^« g*,^*"='''«->rtnrfow(,rpanel. ThtJ^* the 
■HhiA rt BBieiiV p'^^-'^^-r-e n i "^^ /"If-obUterated orosaes *"'■ 
kniglita ot 8t, Io^it*. «« ° « fortonste/^ prenerrod up to , o' «ie' 

heiBhKHi\,,BiM5t *^^l;^, ? tl'eS.slde. Tier now enclose ."^rfciio 
ooait, InlhBofiiiBO o:k -«^^icfa rlaea * modem dome oveitig. " open 
Tomfto/'J<AnAtBttf»«»-«' l^-iVeAy r-^iij™/ Tie tomb, fonni^ ^'osJie^ 
oforypt, U»am»l\ oli^^^'oer, Ao»d deepiy in the root, jf ' *'nd 
the Mnslim oostodiam oO«dact8 us down 2i steps. From thi "'"'"' 
we look thtongli holes i*»to tiree (fempty) tomb -oh am bars, ^.'* Po'Dt 
Bald to te the tomha of tie Baptist, of Obadiab C* Kinga »„,, J'« 
and of Eliahtt. — To tlie N. of tie ohurob are the zains „/ ,' °h 
building, at the comer's of wbiob were square towera. j. ''We 
either the realdenoo of the bistiop or of the knigbta of St. j^j^° "«« 
In and among the honses of the modern village are Bcatt^p-j 
many fragments of anoi en t build fnfa, enoh afl hewn Woctg^ ^^ -^ 
of oolumm, oapitals, and portions of entablatorea. Tie natJveg who 
are, it shonld be remembered, very faoatioal, offer ooins and otiier 

relies for sale. Above tlte Tillage, to the W- , is a ]u:ge arti- 

flcially levelled teiiaoe, now nsed am a thieahing-floor- To tbe W. 
of it stand npwBxda of a dozen oolnmns without oaplUIa, forming 
an oblong quadiaugl©. Here probably stood the temple whioh 
Hetod the Great is said to have ereoted in honour of Anguatoa 'on 
a large open epace In the middle of the city.' From t^'^ tenaoa 
we soon reach the top of the hill (^i5i2tt. above *'"' f^ ^^ ^nob- 
is oonip»^^ '" Isaiah xxviii. 1 to a crown and comro*^ setiaavS- 
struoted ^ie". including the Mediterranean to 'h^^^rteioDS ""- 
,eh is snrronnded by ranges of gently sloping hills. ^"Uoo '"' '^^ 
laees are vWWe, but none of Ihera haTe any att*»f ^te ^'"^ '^^ 
iiTtiqnariiU- On the S.W., a little below tha ciest ''l.-ftl^ »■ "Tl^w 
thick fo«na»"on-wa!l8 of a rsther large building, pO*"^ i^'^'olX ^t- 
-re BtHl "^"T; '"'oe interior are four oolumm, "^e*- x-b.6it»«^ 
Tul now itself ooltivated, are terraces at aeveiaV ■p'^*<»<'* wA-o^'^V 
rM>e to tha 8-, It about the same level as the viU6.fce' V*" oO^^^^Wl 
% ^oh'"*'** '*^ ''^"^ Herod emhelliahed the t^-^V*- -t^ <*'<^"'bo\\- 
«as abont ■iOy^s. wide and over 1800yds. in l«-n^O>><o<'''V^^-L 
rt,= Mil b«t " "^*^" intermpted, or is buiie.^T^ -^^9, Xs*-*' 
a „.»nf' the col"""'« "e monoliths. — To the ISr ^■'<t(>- n,^ \'^^''^' 
f** hav we fn^Ker numerous fragments c*:^ '^'^ *1>V* 

terms a "•7' yppodtome, about 480 yds, in 1^t» 2ll> ^ «*^ 
^^.?"^T. isV="^'=' ^""e^", that they beloxx^^o * ,>,. 

^^'*'- JJh diverged at an angle from the flrat , ^ * ..t ?^ 

2_ Fao« SbbastIvbh to JsurN C**-/-^ 1'*%*/A'1^ 

froio the ohuroh of St. John, we :k*.-»^,<5^ ■** iS 
StartiiS 'ntioned above and descend iiit<3. "^h^ * 
hippodtoi»» ^^j 9jri,. and ed. ^ 

.„i tio ml,.) 0.. 'i»«*.„^ i» <"• .ft. w»;„ .t»«*'^^ »»* 

.-■i -.« ,™i>«i tM «»-i Si. t«-i. °^,,« «' »'S.w, "sJnr.o--* 

•l »i,n.l .d-DAd.. 1»'"..J.'«'»°'!,l»«-*°Tt»"->i?5. »-« 

Fendefcfimiyrt (an »noient '^fVv\cliw'^^e fc^^" \ V"^^' ^is **^ 

(40 „„.),„ .Mil"'".*. ''f^u •»""«»• f GM"* 

h.d d«l„.d |„„>.„i, 1»4«"',„'- '"SVl.X* I, l»S«"o« «» 

':' ''"••"om, » ...OP-. ,. olMSoo^'i ..J" 

"•e hamlet of jtg^^^ 

The trit.ii 1- «■ 

I »• '•«'..»£ i?^5.r. 

S. foot of the to-ill *o * 
u" the incient I?ot^M.tx*n (, 

=^"l>iO"(aK4«i^«_Ie. -- or-- Uie -  
'fifOfld with . -w*"*"^S5 mlD- > i»B to "^ — 

-•!!'• -isi.—i ty S-""*-' «."■»'.' S 
, *i a, ,„i J3-* »,««»■ sto • •"■•» •; ! 

left" .-^' 
J lOok-touiDB. 

'" -^"'/a. JENilSr 

Jeal-  SQ.SouU. 227 

on B,^^^' — ' AcooioioDATioN in PHv^ 

TnrklarT^ ^l" "^^ °* *»»«. vlU»«e. **« ^<;"«»■ Tent, „.y be pitched 

21; xxl 29^'''3tl>.?*4"'*ti«"»* -?"?«»,«/ <*""' ofJcepbu,, which .g.In 

Jerusale^J' ^tkin *^* te^itory of laa."''". or garden-spring fJosh. xix. 

™ probably »\w»ys passed tij^ *ch»r. The ro«d firom Ifsureih to 

moontains of LT^ '. !! ^ on the bowdary between the 
» ,^*iama*&L, p^^r J^**^ P^«io o/E«drelon. It is the seat of 
Mly have been fchnlT ***"^' *nd « mosque, which may form- 
inducted through ftJ^^ ^"r **oe«en* oP^^H' '*«!."« J?" ** ^•' *" 
tL* *'^^ P»ta8 «lw oXr ^ environs are prodnotiTe gardens, 

Mcient jS^Jf i.°?-*!".<>nt!'Wrti of _.. . _. „«« stand, answer, to the 

™S rn*"?<^> froi xisn.'^'^aiM":; while the "-yiv; ?- rb„. 

name^^?^. ''"'^ *iie mounta?.* ^^rthwards to^^^f* The modern Arajic 
^^n uJ^iLj^l^^^ i« Me^jZ?^^^ several pl**^t|tlie son of 'Amir. The 

»"8"ofp„,„e over It c!.t^^ed^»»,^^,k? ab5>^*'*""*- 

fm ten aUottrd rj^^^^ersSo the »nox««*^ed in 

«% between the villages ^^ road next le»a ^'iv *\ioad load. 

Abridge here crosses an i^ J^> ^hete it f^^^o^^ *^!*Sant. 5*«- 
Wie ruins on tie Mil to thf *^*t:«ntarroofthePi insign^'^'' 

228 Route 22. HAIFA. Accommodation, 


spot, was afterwards fortified by Solomon and entmsted to the care of one 
of his officers (1 Kings iv. 12 ^ ix. 15). Ahasiah, king of Jndah, when 
mortally wounded by order of Jehu, died here (2 Kings ix. 27). Several 
centuries later, Josiah attacked the Egyptian army of Pharaoh Necho in 
this plain when on its march against tiie Babylonians, but was defeated 
at Megiddo (2 Kings xxxiii. 29). 

The spring at Lejj^in contains bad water. To the S. we see the 
volcanic hill of SMkh Jskander (1700 ft. above the sea -level). 
The road next passes (40 min.) near the remains of a condnlt and a 
spring in a small valley. In the distance rises the ronnd summit 
of Mt. Tabor; to the E. are the mountains E. of Jordan (Jebel 
'Ajltln), and to the N.W. Mt. Oarmel. On the hills to the left are 
several unimportant villages and rains. The road next passes (1 hr. 
10 min.) Abu Shilsheh^ (25 min.) another small valley with an 
aqueduct on the left, (20min.) several rock-tombs, and(i/4hr.)the 
entrance to the Wddy el-Milh ('valley of salt') to the left. The Tell 
KaimHn on the left was probably once the site of the royal Ganaan- 
itish town of Jokneam (Joshua xii.22, etc.). In 25 min. we pass 
another side- valley to the left. The road next reaches (30 min.) the 
Tell el-Kasis, a barren hill on the right bank of the Klshon, bound- 
ing the plain towards the W. The upper part of the Kishon contains 
no water in summer, hut the springs of Sa'adtyeh constitute it a 
perennial stream lower do^n. (Near the village of Shikh Abr&Cj a 
little to the N. of Tell el-Kasis, are large ancient burying-places.) 

The road continues to follow the valley. The hrook Kishon is 
fringed with bushes , chiefly oleanders. In 1/2 hr. we strike the 
new road from Haifa to Nazareth near the bridge over the Kishon. 
The valley now expands into a plain. On the hill to our right is 
El'Hdrithiyeh (p. 239), and on our left El-Jeldmeh. Hence to Haifa 
is a little more than 8 M. (see p. 239). 

21. Haifa (Mount Carmel and Acre), 

Ac commodation. ^Hotel Cabhel (landlord Hr. Krctff)^ in the German 
colony in the N.W. of the town (p. 230) ; meets all reasonable requirements ; 
10 fr. per day^ wine extras a reduction made for parties or a prolonged 
stay; good wines and Bavarian beer. — Gebman Catholic Hospice (Dir. 
Mr. Kilnzer). on the road to the German colony. — New Hotel on Mt. Car- 
mel (see p. 230). 

Wine and Beer: Pr6$s^ Wagner^ in the German colony; Bitzer^ in 
the town. 

Post Of&ce, Austrian, ^n Lloyd''s office; international Telein^aph. 

Steamers. The only steamers touching at Haifa are the Austrian 
Lloyd steamers, once a fortnight in each direction (p. xviii). Travellers 
who miss the steamer must either ride to Beiriit (2v3 days, p. 235) or go 
to Yafa (1 to 2 days, p. 269; carriages available). 

Yice-Oonsuls. British: I)r. Schtnid; American: Sehumachef; German: 
Fr. Keller; Austrian: M. Scopinichf Russian: Seltm ChUri. 

Physician and Ohemist : Dr. Schmidt in the German colony ; Sisters of 
Mercy at the German Catholic Hospice (see above). 

Bankers: A. DUeh A Co., in the town. Bank 0/ Syria, Limited. Ex- 
ehanges: (1890) Imejidi = 23 Pi.; otherwise the same as in Beirut (p. 283). 

European Shops for necessaries of travel: A. DUck A Co. (seeabov«); 

)., in Ibe town; 0. FiuhtT! Kraiu, a>ddl«r, the li 
■Dd Horni Bbnald lie obulned tbronEh tbe hot 

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, bu 


Sed by : 



Acre 'in 



230 Route 'Jl. HAIFA. 

Since the Lloyd steameis have been in the habit of touching 
regularly at Haifa the town has enjoyed Increasing commercial 
prosperity and has attracted to itself a great share of the trade of Acre. 
Wheat, maize, sesame and oil are exported in considerable quantities, 
and soap is manufactured on a large scale. The harbour, however, is 
not good. The steamers have to cast anchor at a considerable distance 
from the shore. The town itself has considerably increased and has 
quite outgrown the old walls. It contains about 7250 inhabitants, in- 
cluding 700 Europeans, among whom are 400 Germans. Half the 
natives are Muslims, about 2200 Latins, 600 Greeks, the remainder 
Maronites and Jews. There are2 mosques, several Christian churches, 
an institution belonging to the Dames de Nazareth, and a German 
Catholic Mission with a hospital (p. 228). — Haifa is the seat of a 

The town is picturesquely situated in the S. angle of the bay 
of Acre, close to the base of Mt. Carmel. Between the shore and 
the mountain is only a narrow strip of lan^, which is covered with 
houses, gardens, and, particularly towards the W., with olive-trees, 
and an occasional stately palm. Beyond the beautiful bay lies Acre, 
glistening on the coast. The mountains, overtopped by Hermon, 
slope gently upwards towards the E. The bazaar is the chief at- 
traction, as the town contains no antiquities. There are some in- 
teresting old rock tombs by the Jewish cemetery. 

In 1869, a German colony of the 'Templars' (p. 7) was estab- 
lished here. Their clean and neat dwellings to the N.W. of the town, 
built in the European style, present a pleasing contrast to the dirty 
houses of the Orientals. The Templars number about 240 souls 
and possess a meeting-house and a school; the numerous Ger- 
mans in the colony who are not Templars have also established a 
school. Vineyards have been planted by the colonists on Mt. Carmel; 
the wine is excellent. On the German territory on Mt. Carmel a 
handsome Sanatorium has been erected, and beside it a comfortable 
Hotel (landlord Pross). Air and situation (900 ft. above the sea- 
level) are very healthy. A convenient carriage road leads up from 
the colony. 

WftlkB and Ezonrsions. 
1. To THE Carmelite Monasteey (40 min.). 

The carriage road (3/^ hr. to drive) winds in great curves north- 
wards round the promontory and up the W. side of it. To reach the 
new path for walkers and riders we take the first turning to the 
right from the main street of the colony and then leave the old 
stony path on our right. We pass limestone quarries and reach the 
monastery in 40 min., having all the time had beautiful Tiews to 
the right. 

Kt. Carmel. — Histobt. Mt. Carmel, which is isolated on the S. 
by the Wddp Mdlih^ branches off from the mountains of Samaria and 

MT. OABMEL. 2i. Route. 231 

stretches in a long line to the N.W. towards the sea. It was situated 
on the S. frontier of the tribe of Asher , and is frequently mentioned in 
the Bible. The mountain consists of limestone with an admixture of 
homstone, and possesses a beautiful flora. The rich vegetation of the 
mountain is due to the proximity of the sea and the heavy dew. The 
highest point (1810 ft.) is S. of Esftyeh. In the direction of the sea the 
mount slopes down to a shelving promontory , where the Carmelite 
monastery is situated 480 ft. above the sea. This promontory forms a 
very conspicuous object from a distance. As it remains green, even in 
summer, it forms a refreshing exception to the general aridity of 
Palestine in the hot season. The aboriginal inhabitants regarded the 
mount as sacred, and at a very early period it was called the 'mount of God** 
(1 Kings xviii. 19, 30). The beauty of Garmel is also extolled in the 
Bible (Isaiah xxxv. 2i Song of Sol. vii. 5). It does not seem to have 
been thickly peopled in ancient times, but was frequently sought as an 
asylum by the persecuted (2 Kings ii. !& ; Amos ix. 3). On the W. side 
of the mountain are numerous natural grottoes. Even Pythagoras, who 
had come from Egypt, is said to have spent some time here. In the time 
of Tacitus, an altar to the 'God of CarmeF is said still to have stood on 
the top, but without temple or monument, and Vespasian caused the 
oracle of this god to be consulted. 

Some of the hermits' grottoes still contain Greek inscriptions. In the 
12tb cent., the hermits began to be regarded as a distinct order, which 
in 1207 was organised by Pope Honorius III. In 1238, some of these 
Carmelites removed to Europe. In 1252, the monastery was visited 
by St. Louis. Since then the monks have frequently been ill-treated. 
In 1291, many of them were killed, and the same was the case in 1635, 
when the church was converted into a mosque. Afterwards, however, 
the monks regained their footing on the mountain. In 1775, the church 
and monastery were plundered. When Napoleon besieged Acre in 1799 
the monastery was used by the Franks as a hospital. After Napoleon''s 
retreat the wounded were murdered by the Turks, and are buried under 
a small pyramid outside the gate of the monastery. The Greeks have 
erected a chapel not far from the monastery. In 1821, on the occasion ot 
the Greek revolt, 'Abdallah, pasha of Acre, caused the church and 
monastery to be entirely destroyed under the pretext that the monks 
might be expected to favour the enemies of the Turks. The new buildings 
chiefly owe their origin to the indefatigable exertions of Brother Giovanni 
Battista of Frascatl, who collected money for their erection. The large, 
clean, and airy building is now occupied by 18-20 monks. Pilgrims are 
accommodated on an extensive scale. 

The churcli with its conspicuous dome is built in the modern 
Italian style. The wall at the back is covered with fine slabs of 
porcelain. On a side-altar is an old wood-carving, representing 
Elijah. Below the high altar is a grotto to which five steps descend, 
and where Elijah is said once to have dwelt. The spot is revered 
hy the Muslims also. The terrace of the monastery commands a 
delightful ♦View. On three sides the sea forms the horizon. To the 
N., beyond Acre, projects the promontory of R6a en^NdkHraj anid to 
the S., on the coast, lie 'AthlU and Caesarea. — To the N. of the 
monastery stands the monument to the French soldiers (see above), 
and close hy is a building now used for the accommodation of native 
pilgrims, and surmounted by a lighthouse which is visible at a con- 
siderable distance. — The monks distil an aromatic Carmelite spirit 
and a good liqueur. — Fee to the monastery servant, 6 pi. 

Leaving the monastery court, and turning first to the left, the 
footpath leads us along the wall and round the monastery; we descend 


_oo tinut^ -^:^^<^ StocK ^^* and come in 5 min. to a chapel in mem- 

^*^ '^ >^^^^1 ^'^ Oai ^'^ Englishman, who in the 13th cent, be- 

, loovp^^;;^::^ :^ ^^^iu& ^^^"^*^ order at Rome after he had spent some 

Ime %e^vete^ ^^^^\e^, >w?h -^ ^lixoli we enter an enclosure. Passing 

Vta«^^^^^- 09^ ^^ n^\ Of ♦? *® xisually open, we come to the door of 

^usVVtxi *^^ V^^^^/*^fic J. V*^ ^-ropheta, a large cavern, partly artificial. 

tooxig^ *^® ^Zi^ ^«Tfta 1;^,^*^® reposed here in returning from Egypt. 

"^^ ""V^^t^^^^J^^ name/ of pilgrims. Fee to the Muslim 

Iv^^aUB arT ^^^^Zf"^/^ There are numerous petrifactions and 

I^Llx a^i.. ^T^^^^^"" ^^ crystals to be found on Mt. Carmel. 
xae\on-8 ap _^ jj^^^^^^ ^^ Moujj^ Oabmbl to El-Muh»aka. 

j^aewhat fatig-uing', but very interesting excursion; 

^y. — The road leads from the colony past the sana- 

a guide Is nec©^-^^^ along the rid^e of Mt. Carmel to the S.E. The 

torium and tl» ^ -^ ie quite bare on tlie W., becomes more and more 

mountain, ^l^^^^^^o^ed to the E. After 1 1/2 hr. we pass some ruins on 

wooded as we -^ ^^^^\txi\^o\i.^of trees in the valley on the leftC^ojarat 

OUT left; '^'^^^ ^xr^&B of the 40' £. 45. martyrs) was formerly a sacred 

el-arbo'tn *th& xTttn. the road divides: that to the right leads to 

^nSr^h r«!I ^y^^o^> ^® ***^« ^^^ road to the left and reach 
fal hO the D^30 -rilUge of ^sft^^,, (;tte highest point of Mt Car- 
Lei 1810ft ^ B-^^^ Z^ f'/''^ a fine view of the sea-coast to the N. 
with th« sA^iorta of ?aifa and Aore. Tlie game on the mountain 

One day; ^^^.^y 
a guide Is ^^?_Z^:m^^^ 

"y^^^reth, nr^^rT^ri ' ^^^^^^ Vi?, -"-^P-^ > beliind it the mounwub ux 
^^^^*orj?^^~^''^'^^eata ^ Jt^ttle Hernaon, on the sea-side the chalk 

.^1- ^^^^^-^ a:;ff>& ^'^ *^^ S:-\^. we see the urge viU- 

^C^' i^^ ^e/el« *^ «er rT ^ .*!% ^^ielxl>ourliood of C^sarea. - In 

^^4o?^ ^i'^^^o'^'^^'^iu^*^'^ ^K ' ^^^ trees, wild almond and pear 

nf "^ ^'^or.f'''^ ier« :^^ ^^^'^^axxce, -1 There is a direct but 

<ZTt"'' ^^ VT^^^^ ^heTiiV^ tlxeDxusevilUgeofWyet 
'"^•^^ o?tU ^^^«'« O^ )^ -Sew'of^t^- "^e^ongs to Mrs. Laurence 

^7J, "^3 ^ide^-t^^ight "u^ *?, C4.4V* Hrfl.) the Jewish colony 
*^y^ tK^^ *o-erc» a.,^d return the next day by 

m^ a. two ^^^i^:%^^zx T^^i^Z^^^^^ 

^.*^/.i^., except ;.oseo^^ 

^o«i6 ^/^^An *Ae :^apt«* ^^^^^^ i^ !? ^ ^rom this point 

of crypt, 15 a small oUambet, ^^ 8*®^t' «at>ers, which are 

*he MusUm custodian conducts Jis down ^^^^-o^a»?^ ^ ^ ^^i. 33 
^eM^Aronifh holes into three C«npty 3^ ^.^^ Kxn| ^ ^7^ 

s«d to he tl,o tombB of the ^f ^f ^^^^^^^ axe tl^^^^e^. This wL 

afld of Msha. To the N. <>« *^? ^^^^e 8<1^»^® *^ of St. John. 

tmlding, at the oomeis of ^^l^J^^ tlie *^^i«?ii!^e ate scattered 
eithei the xesidenoe of the hishop 01 o ^^^^ ^^^*^« l)locks, shafts 
In and amongr the houses or tne ^^^^ aS li®^^^^ natives, who 
many fragments of ancient btn^dings, ^^^^^^xes. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 
of60lumn8,, and portions ote^^^^^^^ offe^^ ^ large arti- 
aie, it should l>e remembeied, vexy i»* ^^ ^^^e ^ • ' tq the W. 

lelios fox sale. Above the village, ^^^eshing-^^ '^^^ forming 

flcially levelled tenraoe, now nsed »» * ^^^^^^ly!^ temp^e which 
oiitstaiiaL upwards of a dozen «o*;^'r,^ stood *^ ^ Augustus *on 
an ol)\oTvg cvMadxangle. Here P^^bao J^ ^^ ^^*^?%roni this terrace 
Herod the Great is said to have ®^®7®^© city- ^^ the sea), ^hich 
a large open space Ini the middle ot^^^^ *" ^itnands an unob- 
we soon reach the top of the hill y.^^ j^ and ^or**^ ^ Sebastt- 
18 compared in Isaial^ xxviii. 1 to »;,pT^-^aTie*^.*Mi« T^umerous vil- 
structed view, inclxiding the ^edite^ g ^r .^t^action for the 

yehissunounded l>y ranges of gently si«F ^ ^^y ax ^^ ^^^ ^.^^^ ^^^ 

lages are visible, T>vit none of ^^f\^o^ *^? f possibly a tower, 
antiquarian. On tlie S.W., a little t>e^^^Udir^g' ^1. Around this 
thick foundation-walls of a rather large ^olii^^^- Uoes. On a ter- 
Ire still visible. In tlxe Interior are fo^x several J^ ^ns the street 
Mil, now itself culti^rated, are terraces ^^^ ^ij)^*f,,: The columns, 
race to the S., at a\>oixt the same l^vel *^ed ^^e to^^^ ^^^e colonnade 






men wm nol 

E, Btchud »DMd SSOOof Ibe 



Third Grniids 


Wl"e o™ 

B to lie d 


aloni uoont th 

1. By 

tned In poi 

it becui 



e h^idqui. 


of the or™. 

of knigb 



kulghy a 
rusilem by 

ohn, vbo bad a 

flin, DMEBd tb 

eltled b< 






lion. On 20tb Hucb, 1T99, Acre 
Id by MspulBon. jM»ir Pubn diad 
■e fticetuUy governed b; bis aan 
litb sn Egyptian army Bncceedsd 
.Bdered and deatroyod, bat Boon, 


; is 

^ x^^^ ^s^semek 

^«e is the seat of a MutesarHf. jhe town is ^^V^fZ,lT * «""«« 
promontoiy, at the S.E. eud of which remains of a mole are still 
seen under water. The only gate is on the E- ?^\f f ' e i„^t?^'''«» 
date in p.^j ^ ^^eg of the Crusaders, l'^* *^^" ^"^ P"- 

semtion. Tie wall next the sea is provided witb ««^*t5""!r„?f*»: 

— ' "• part from the times or the (jrusaaoi^j r„T,*«.rranfl«n^^ 
servation. Tie wall next the sea is provided with ««^**^Xr "«?»- 
.^«f' ^axiy of which, however, have fallen in. ,T?f ^^^f "f^^"'? 

theHM,,??'^ -^^^<"^ t^"** ^^ <^""'l^™^if'duaiyal»«*'»'«'l by Haifa; 
th!& ' "*'^' oil, cotton, etc., but 18 graduauy t^wn eoAtain^ 

V 7n^!i' is now much choked witU sand. -^j ^ of the nublio 
about lOOOO inhah „f „hnm 8000 are Mixslims. Mos^ oi we puDiio 

»r'^ in^?^e'K';rofTSwn. J^^^ ^^d^ r ^^ 

m spue of Its marble incrustation, wnpleasing. .^^^if j, Juried 
m gallenes covered with small domes. Je^^* ^^ once to have 
Z .^"'^'^f- ^^® present military hospital w s ^^ ^^^^^^ 
been the residence of the knights of St. J"^"- f the citadel. - On 
1nT"/P*°^ *^ front of the mosque ««^^j^gt,ttcted by Jezzar 
Pl!f.;^ ^°^ *^- town is a fine aqueduct con 

Pasha (p. 271). 

Yd/a, 10 bra. The * belt ^1 '* "^ J*.tioA for tne "•^— Althougli the car- 
Sumi&rin. inferior ^Uh^^.'^r'T^^^^^^ <^*r«fe whole journey may 
riage road only extends a t^w?''""?? JSe dista»*^f' *^e p. 229. The trip is 
be done by carriage iS ab<?nt *^ hr/ For P"<^1^V^1 ^^P^^y * ^^«"- -T^^ 
fatiguing, but the rr.inj' o7^*^20^h'8^J^ ^^f^-rSaTty i« ^ ^^^^^ o'^^ ' ^* ^' 
route is not particnla.rly safe and \uxle>BB tl^e V^^^^ 
advisable to take a KhaiyaT^J^^tcort. ^c W thmnffhthe 

236 Iloutef^2, 'ATHlil. From Haifa 

-which leads through the rooks here. Traversing this pass, we reach 

Ok h'O - 

'Athlit. — HiSTOST. It was not until the period of the Crusaders 
that the spot became celebrated under the name of Castellum Peregrinorum, 
or Chdteau des Pilerins. At the beginning of the 13th cent, it bore the 
name of Petra Ineisa (see p. 235). In 1218, the Templars restored the 
castle and constituted it the chief seat of their order, on which occasion 
a number of 'strange unknown coins'* was found. The castle was then 
regarded as an outwork of Acre. In 1220, the fortress was unsuccessfully 
besieged by Muazsam, sultan of Egypt, and in 1291 it was the last pos- 
session of the Franks in Palestine to succumb. It was then destroyed by 
Sultan Melik el-Ashraf. 

The position of 'Athlit was very strong. The town lay on a rocky 
mountain-spur between two bays. An outer wall with two towers 
and three gates to the £. , and one gate to the S., cut off access to 
the promontory J the moat could be filled from the sea. The inner wall 
had only one gate (on the E.), which was protected by bastions. In 
front of the gate was a moat , and then a wall with an outer moat. 
The principal ruins are in the N.E. corner of the town : here are the 
remains of the tower El-Kamifehy which was built of beautiful 
drafted blocks. Here also large vaults are to be seen. Many of the 
stones used for the buildings , especially those of the decagonal 
Crusaders' church, have been transported to Acre. 

Proceeding S.E. from 'Athltt and passing by the ruins of the S. 
tower of the outer wall we reach (25 min.J the carriage road again ; 
on our left is the village of Jeha^; after 30 min. we pass Sarafend 
on our left; after 12 min. we see Kefr Ldm on our left, with the 
ruins of a Crusaders' fort, and farther up, on the hill, 'Ain Ghazdl; 
we then pass the ruins of Haidara and (40 min.) reach — 

TanMxa. — Histobt. Tantiira is the ancient Dor, a royal Ganaanite 
city (Joshua xvii. 11 ^ Judges i. 27). In Solomon's time it became the seat 
of one of his officers. Classical authors mention it as a Phoenician colony. 
On the rocky coast here the murex , or purple shell-fish, was captured in 
large quantities , which was apparently a source of much profit to the 
town. In the inscription of Esbmunazar (p. 281) .the Israelites seem to 
have occupied only- Ifa/at Dor, the upper part of the town, but the seaport 
seems never to have been in their possession. During the wars of the 
Diadochi, Dor was besieged and partly destroyed. The Roman general, 
Gabinius, restored the town and harbour. In the time of St. Jerome the 
ruins were dtill an object of admiration. 

Tantiira now contains 1200 to 1600 inhabitants. Opposite the 
little town are several small islands, and between it and the hills to 
the E. lies a swamp. To the N. , on a small bay confined by ledges of 
rock, rises a rocky eminence bearing the ruins of a tower about 40 feet 
high, El'Burj or Khirbet TantCra; it formed part of a strong fort built 
by the Crusaders. On the S. side of the rock are several caverns, and 
the whole of the low hills extending towards the N. is covered with 
the shapeless ruins of the ancient town. To the N. of the tower is the 
port of the ancient town ; remains of the harbour buildings (a large 
structure with columns) are still visible on the shore below. Old 
tombs are also to be found. A road led from the ruins to El^Mantineh. 
(ancient cistern) ; to the S., 9 ancient columns are still standing. 

to Caesarea. EL-KAISARIYEH. 22. Route. 237 

• • 

The road now leaves the shore and bends towards the mountains ; 
after I8/4 hr. we reach Summdr^j a Jewish agricnltnral colony main- 
tained by Baron Rothschild. 

We descend hence in a S.E. direction towards (50 min.) Mdmds 
(Mktmds), There are numerous remains of colnmns along the road. 
On the right is a EhUn which was formerly a fort and adjoins an 
ancient Roman theatre which is still in good preservation. Remains 
of the aqueduct are also visible : it ran along here from the springs 
of Sindiydneh (E.) to Casarea. — Near Mllmlls we cross a bridge over 
the Nahr es-Zerka (*the blue river) , the Crocodile Biver of Pliny. 
Strabo also mentions a town named Crocodilon. As the climate of 
this region resembles that of the Delta of the Nile, there is nothing 
extraordinary in the appearance of crocodiles here; some German 
colonists from Haifa shot a female crocodile here in 18T7. 


After crossing the bridge the road divides. The carriage road 
leads S. by KdkCny Kalansaweh (where there are two Crusaders* 
castles), and Et~Tireh to the road between N&bulus and Y&fa (p. 8). 
— Riders will prefer the route along the coast by CaBsarea and 
therefore turn S.E. from the bridge. Caution is necessary on ac- 
count of the marshes, and a guide is advisable. The ruins of El- 

Kaisdriyeh (Caesarea) are reached in about 1^/2 hr. 

[Travellers who do not wish to visit Samm&rin and H&mla, ride 
straight on from Tantilra to the S. along the sea-shore, reaching N<»hr ed- 
JHJleh in 28 min., anrf Ifdhr ez-Zerka (see above) in 50 min. To the right, 
on the coast, are the ruins of El-Ueldt^ a Crnsaders'* fort. The river is 
erosaed near the mills and a min^d Roman bridge. Passing by the mins 
of an old conduit, which is here carried over a small bay, we reach El- 
KaiiAriyeh in 50 min.] 

El-KaiB&riyell. — Histobt. Ccesarea was erected by Herod with 
great magnificence on the site of a village called ^Straton's Tower\ and was 
named Ceesarea, or Kaisaria Sebatte^ in honour of Augustus. The building 
of the city is minfitely described by Josephus, and its completion was- cel- 
ebrated in B.C. 13 by splendid games. Csesarea soon became the most im- 
portant city in Palestine, and before the destruction of Jerusalem had been 
appointed the residence of the Roman procurators. Vespasian and Titus 
bestowed upon it the privileges of a Roman colony. Even before the 
Jewish war, bloody contests concerning the privileges of citizenship took 
place here. SS. Paul, Philip, and Peter frequently visited the place on 
their travels, and St. Paul was a prisoner here for two years. A Christian 
community appears to have existed here at a very early period. About 
the year A.D. 200, Ceesarea became the residence of a bishop, who down 
to 451 was the metropolitan of all the bishops of Palsestina Prima, in- 
elading even the bishop of Jerusalem. As early as the 3rd cent., the 
city possessed a learned school at which Origen once taught, and where 
Eusebius, afterwards bishop of Csesarea, was educated (d. 340). Several 
councils were also held here. At a later period, the town is said to have 
been besieged by the Muslims for seven years, and to have capitulated 
at last. It was still a wealthy place at that time, and in 1101, when 
it was taken by Baldwin I. after a siege of fifteen days, it yielded a rich 
booty. Among other prizes was found a hexagonal vase of green crystal, 
supposed to have been used at the administration of the sacrament, and 
now preserved in Paris. This vase plays an important part in medieeval 
poetry as the ^holy grail*. On that occasion, the Muslim inhabitants were 
massacred, and Csesarea constituted an archbishopric. During the Crusaders'* 
period the town was twice rebuilt by the Christians, and in 1251 was 
fortified by Louis IX. Is was afterwards destroyed by Beibars in 1265' 

238 Route 22. EL-KAISARIYEH. 

• • 

Gsesarea is not visible from the plain, being concealed by sand- 
hills. Little is now left of its luins, part of which were used by Ibra- 
him Pasha in constructing the new fortifications of Acre. Since 
1884 a colony of Bosnians has settled in OsBsarea, who have built - 

themselves some 50 houses in the ruins. The work of destruction 
progresses rapidly; the Bosnians still do a brisk trade in the stones. 
— The mediaeval town was built in the form of a rectangle, measur- 
ing 600 yds. from N. to S. and 250 yds. from E. to W. The walls, j 
which are strengthened with buttresses, are 6 ft. thick and still i 
20-30 ft. high, and are enclosed by a moat, lined with masonry, I 
about 13 yds. wide. Bastions, 11-17 yds. wide and projecting 
from 8-10 yds., occurred at intervals of 16 to 29 yds. along the 
wall ; nine of them may still be counted along the E. wall. The E. 
and N. walls had each a strong tower in the middle, and the E. and I 
S. walls had each an entrance-gate. That in the S. wall is still in i 
existence. The ruins are all of sandstone, with the exception of , 
the fragments of columns of grey and reddish granite, some of which i 
are of vast size. — Within the wall on the S. side of the town are 
the remains of a large church of the Crusaders' period. It had a nave 
and aisles and three apses towards the E. The spot is now covered 
with modern houses. A little to the N. of the church axe the ruins 
of what has been supposed to be the temple erected by Herod in 
honour of Caesar. Not far from the mole, which is almost entirely 
built of columns and encircles the harbour on the N., are the ruins 
of a smaller church. — On the S.W. side a ridge of rock, bounding 
the small harbour, runs out into the sea for about 250 yds. This 
natural pier was enlarged by Herod, and on it stood his Tower of 
Drusus. Large blocks of granite are still seen under water. The 
foundations only of the Temple of Caesar are now extant, and their 
white stones confirm the statement of Josephus that the materials 
for it were brought from a great distance. The extremity of the 
ridge of rock, where the 'Tower of Straton' probably once stood, is 
now occupied by the remains of a mediaeval castle, about 19 yds. 
square, with fragments of columns built into the walls. The top of 
this ruin commands a very extensive view. In the interior are sev- 
eral vaulted chambers. 

The Roman city probably extended far beyond the precincts of 
the mediaeval, particularly towards the E. It covered a space of some 
370 acres. To the S. of the town, 5 min. beyond the gate of the 
mediaeval wall, is traceable the vast amphitheatre of Herod, turned 
towards the sea, and exactly corresponding with the description of 
Josephus. It accommodated 20,000 spectators, was formed of earth 
and surrounded by a moat. The N. and S. walls are each furnished 
with a tower at the sea- end. The whole was afterwards converted into 
a fortress. In the middle of it are remains of a semi-circular build- 
ing, probably a theatre. By means of canals it could be filled with 
sea-water and turned into a nauiiiachia. — In the S.E. comer of the 


» 9* 

A Se^M, Lopsj^. 

EL-HARITHIYEH. 23. Route. 239 

tovo (a little to the N.E. of the amphitheatre) are the remains of 
a hippodrome. — The town was supplied with water by two aque- 
ducts. One of these is a tunnel coming from the Zer^a on the N., 
and a wall was built for the purpose of directing the waters of the 
marshy land into this channel. Another aqueduct with arches, still 
partly preserved, comes from Mamas (see p. 23T). 

FsoM Gaesabba to TIfa (about 10 hrs.). We pass the theatre and 
take the road to the 8. to (36 min.) the Nahr el-Me/Jtr (or Wddy el-JKAudera) j 
in 1 hr. 20 min. we reach I^ahr likanderHneh (Abu ZahHra) ; after 11 min. 
the road bends to the left inland (from this point we may also take the 
road along the sea-shore, reaching Arstf in about 4 hrs.); in 1^4 hr. 
we come to Mukh&lid^ a small village on the E. side of the range of hills 
between the plain and the sea; we next pass the (li/ahr.) Ndhr el-Fdlik 
(witii ruiBS of the same name), in the spring an extensive swamp with 
papyrus plants. In V/t hr. we reach the ruins of Art^f. In the middle ages 
this place was believed to be the ancient AntipcUris, but is really iden- 
tical with the Apollonia mentioned by Josephus. The ruins date from 
the period of the Crusaders and are gradually disappearing. In the plain 
of Arsiif was a great battle on Sept 7th, 1191, between the Crusaders 
(Richard Goeur de Lion) and the Saracens (Saladin). Many of the latter 
were slain. In 13 min. we reach the Baram *Ali ibn ^Alem. The spot 
is said to be the burial-place of a dervish who defended the neighbouring 
Arsiif for a long time against the sultan Beibars, who is said to have 
himself ordered the erection of the monument. Hence along the sea-coast 
to (1 hr. 20 min.) the ford of the JTahr eUAujeh (p. 8) and to (2 hrs.) Ydfa. 
In spring, however, when the river is very full of water and not fordable, 
it is better to ride into the country to Ej-Jtlil (30 min.) and thence in 
1 hr. 10 min. to the bridge over the N^ahr el-'Aujeh, From the bridge past 
the German colony Sarona to Ydfa in 2 hrs.; see p. 8. 

23. From Haifa (Acre) to Nazareth. 

a. Direct. 

New carriage road, 2372 M. (for carriages, see p. 229). Immed- 
iately after passing the Muslim cemetery at the Acre gate we turn 
to the right (S.) into the new carriage road and ride through the E. 
suburb (Hdret tih-Sharkiyth). After */2 M. we reach a little bridge 
over the WAdy Buahmiyeh ; about ^2 M. farther, we leave the gardens 
and enter the plain of the Kishon ; after another 1/2 M. we observe 
some ruins on the small hill Tell ez^Zir to our left; we then pass 
a number of springs and cross by a stone-dam through the waters of 
the broad and brackish springs of 'AyHn ea-Sa^adi. We next reach 
(3 M. from Haifa) the village of Beled esh^Shekh, beyond which we 
pass through a beautiful olive-grove with springs of good water ; we 
then descend again into the fertile cultivated plain of the Kishon, 
13/4 M., the poor village of El-YdjUr; IV2 M., bridge over the Wddy 
esh-Shomar^yeh; I8/4 M. (8 M. from Haifa), Tell 'Omar (on the hill 
to the right is JSl-Jeldmeh, a Druse village). The road then crosses 
the Kishon (a road diverges here to the right to Jentn , p. 228), quits 
its valley, and ascends in windings to the village of El-Hdrithfyeh^ 
which is probably the ancient Harosheth (Judges iv. 2). At this 
point we have a pretty retrospect. The road then ascends through 
a pleasant valley with groves of oaks (rarely found in this country") 

SHEFX. 'A-MB. From Bc^a 

he Un tabont 660 feof) and Am aestends (oto the 
!da. The nnwholeaotoe w»te» of the sprlngB should 
nstenees bo drank. We then rwtli (4VsM) *^" 

of Jtda; {1 M.) the ■sillage of Semanisrt, "hich is 
rely deserted. Not Ik from the loid la t, pieltr but 
iring. From here we skirt the (oolof the hills tUl *o 
he TilUgB of Ma-lAl, where a shortei but lass spee- 
li asoeodB the narrow gorge. The csrrisge losd a^" 
.) the Urge Tillage of Mvjtdil, which posssBses a 

a school of the Russian PaleBtino Societf, mo * 

muDity with b little ohnrch and a school. Tbe lo*'* 

ro3» the thresh in g-Qoor md leads up to the ridge of 

At the point where the road bends to the E. "o 

point of view on the Nsiareth toad, A little firther 

a Romsn road on the right. We cross the nndulat- 
1 we reach (Sa/^ M,] the pretty Tillage of M/b, the 
if. III. 12, OQ the bordsr of Zebulon. A tiidltloK 
liddle ages that the home of Zebedee and his eont 
n was situated here. Josepbus forlifled the pl»co, 
atea wten he says that 15,000 inhabitants of J»pti& 

2130 taken prisoners by the Bomans. YSfa has a 
>l, two Latin churches, andaGreek church and sclmol. 
scent, JVasarelA suddealy comes into Tiew, and vn 

good road Into the town. The first house on the left, 
; is the small German fi8(«i ifaMlMftirerA; about 

on, the road ends at the Kh&n tl-BOsha {l*/i »., 



over^dhilH- V 


Doloaea by w. 

Threat' hm"'{a 


fl nf Kefr Tai. 

eft [5 n>'°>^"«/^ 

M the right 




fli'&,SB„"i^, .« 

nd a Pro tea tun 

 chool and chap 

aeient Ca>tU. 

The BBtranco la 


3 erroneous" 

per Zftmr el-'Amr. d. 334). Ac 

have been alt 

uted here wbUat 

■*fV ('(ower-),''ano\ir'er'^^i«vrt'"^"d cMtfe^'ilh 
^^S 1 S.'';??^, '*■« P>ij- Mt."c«mel « 

„. Sbeti 'Amr are beanWtul h 

1 Ognrea of lions in BJiantine ' 

to Nazareth. ^^^trPrrwrr 

. ^ ^1 el^n ^^^^^' 23. Route, 241 

feriiJe plain called >^«^f, Gf^^*<*u^ 

Josephufl and the Sipp^r^ h^l? *-*JSf.^ corresponds witli the Sepvhon^ ^^ 
The town was conquered />J^Zre^*febi a. Its Ronaaxi aame was ^a«^,5 
by Herod Antipas , bec*J»« *ie . n^J^f Great aad liaving bWn Reborn 
It was afterwards burnea b7 tie ?5goft »«*<! atroiigest pla?e in Gain Ji 
wards became the seat of the ^^^^-abian »,ixilia,ries of Varus, and i#ll®* 
A. D. 180, the Great Sanhednzn Tv^f yp^^na of Oabinins. Aboit ?h«^*®'" 
xiii after which the town aj^^^s tx-anaferrecl liitlier by the iIkk® 7®*' 

Jews who resided here had Mroft^^"® ^^^ destroyed, aa the nrf^^ ^^ 
Srith cent , a basilica SDrang uif ^ i^t!?« ** *^^ B.^minJ. At th^nr? 
Mid to have been visited by th^ ^^ *^® ^JP^* wliore the Virein V. ?' 
inle^fsJJry of the Crashers. "^^^^^ f^ea^e^'S"^ " -ga^^mefeed 
did that of the Crusaders be/ore tj^-^i^\^^ of ^^S"^ assembled here m 

the rains «/ *^® ^'X'^rgin t.\» oxx tHe traditional site of thl* h ^*n?'« 
of tJi^P»'«°*^^J^5 *^^d^tSt Of ^^ clixxi-cli coixsisted of nave ^^'^^"/''K 
the principal apae»nd tna^^^^^^ ^^ ^.^^^ are nreserved *t>. *" ?» 

pillars which bore th« »r^^^^^^^ divided into £ve sect4/^(?„Vde 

N. and 8. sides a waaii oDuque ^j^^ i3 still preserved: 1* r?" ?^® 

the church we turn »J™« *o ti^^. rigl^t, in ordejr to reach tt-^KMl'^^S 
which the Caaie once sto^od. The. poirtal, ^cin^ tine S., is wei/iL!.^'^^^^ 
From the round arches and the ^^g^ttel we iSfer that it datLPf^^'^ed. 
Crusaders' time. The walls are • of ^e^t tHickness. In the i/£L'? *^« 
damaged stair "«®^**„^^*d»^^^e^ witli pointed vaulting l^^"''' * 
windows. The top ^1^^"^^ ^ cliarxnin^ view of the gree^_ *"<^ «°»*11 
Large ancient reservoirs and a conduit e^ist in the neighbonT"?"''- 
Sefdriyeh. ' ^ " tb leaii Shbonrhood of 

• The road to ^w^^^^JfL J^« to the S. a.nd CV* J*') ente« . 
valley. To the ;left we observe m« 1, ^^^^ ^lla«e of ir-^J^'^ » ^S" 

the wely J^s&y 8(^in we reach the Heiglit. In f20 min. more w'^?** ^^ 
Nazareth. . — — — ^___1__ ** 

FBOM Acbb to N^ZASBTiT. 

a} JBv She/a 'Amr C^V2 hrs.). ^lie road traverses the nUi„ 
towards the S.B., ^^^^^"^ ^^^ §*/«d road to *^«/^^. ^and the £-^^ 
road to the right. It otossefi (1 hr 40 ^^ the ^^A^^^J^^nfp.s'aaf 
leaving the Tell el-^Kurdant to the right, and TGachee (i hr. 65 mi/] 
a«/a 'ilmr (p. ^<^)v . _ ., _. .. , . 

TeU --v': .T7Y4 i»r '5 min--' coiamanas a t>eaavixuj i-e*xw»i^«»cc. ijeirn^,;*'?- 4 

?*S« ^;«\ Vili ^ioad traverses a fertile table-land , and leads to 0^""^^ it } 

(20 mm.) the ^^V^ The route then descends into a beautiful j?,***) 
the village of^^*^J^»?- -^^ ^nd E. sides of the village. In 46 min. ^vr© ^^^^e- 
clad basin, lyittg on w* ^^^ ^^ rp^H j^y^^ ^^^e siood the foptr5f *ch 

TeU J«^***/^^f "ius long defended against Vespasian , though k^** of 
Joiapata, ^H * -tSender. The hill on the N. aidG, whence alonl ^" 
at last obliged ^ f^fH jie caused to be enclosed witiiin the waU^ ^^ 
caatle could be f^^f^V^' i^^e from want of water, tliere being no ai? J*"?* 
he was obliged to oapitu^*" » '*^Xfcply 

except from cisterns. ^y^j an artificial mound, is round and j^-. 

^^T%\X '^«/<*<» Vi^fth Sie hills to theN. of it by a ^o^ saddle. ^^*y» 
is only connected w«a . ..- 

PaJesMne and Syria. ^^^ ^<*- 

The T«W «'«/»^» Yr*rUh the hills to the N. of it by a Jovr saddle. ^"7. 
and is only connected w»^_^^ ^^^ ^ ^ On 

242 BouUSd, ZEBIN. FromJentn 

the K. 8ide are remains of a Tillage. The top of the hill itself consists 
of flat, naked rock. Several cisterns are ranged round the Tell, and it 
contains numerous caverns. 

Beyond Tell Jef&t there is no path ; our route descends the valley to the 
E. and leads to (40 min.) the ruins of Kdnat el-JelU. According to an 
old but uncertain tradition, this is Cana,' where the water was changed 
into wine (St. John ii. 11), and the home of Kathaniel. We proceed hence 
towards the S.W. to (40 min.) K^r Menda^ and across the plain to (IVs hr.) 
a^€iH9€h (p. 341). 

24. Prom Jenln to Hazareth. 

a. DiBBCT, BY TUB Gasayan Boad (6 hrs.)> 

The caravan road intersects the plain of Esdrelon towards the 
N., and leads to (1 hr. 20 min.) Muktbtlth^ where there are a few 
traces of ancient buildings. The plain, which is marshy at places, is 
an interesting field for the botanist in spring. The road next passes 
(2^4 hrs.) ^AfUleh and (1 hr.) El'Mezra% reaches (^2 ^^r.) the en- 
trance to the valley, and after an ascent, leads through a small ravine 
beyond which Nazareth (i hr.) is seen on the slope of the hill to 
the left. 

b. By Zbr'in, Sulbm, and Nain (6^2-7 hrs.). 

An interesting tour. On quitting Jenin we leave the mosque to 

the left and ride towards the spurs of the J^el FdkH'a. On the 

chain of hills to the right are the villages of Jelbdn and FakiX^a, in 

front of which lies BH Kad, To the W., at the foot of the hills, 

on the road to Megiddo, we see the villages of Ydrndfij SiUh, etc. 

(p. 227). About 50 min. from Jenin, ^Arhneh is seen, Vi^'^* to the 

right of the road, and ^Arabdneh farther up. To the left (10 min.) is 

El-Jelemeh, beyond which rises the Tell of Muktbelehj situated on 

the caravan route (see above)'. 

The Jebel Faku'a (1717 ft.) answers to the ancient Oilboa Mountains, 
a name which still survives in the above-named village of Jelbdn. This 
was the territory of Issachar. While at the present day this mountain, 
running from E.S.E. to W.17.W., presents a bare appearance, and is used 
as arable and pasture land on the 'S. side only, it was once probably 
wooded. The ». side , towards the valley of Jezreel, is precipitous and 
stony. On the £. side lies the Ghor, or valley of Jordan. 

On a hill to the right, after 3/4 hr., is seen the Neby Mezdr, a 
Muslim place of pilgrimage. We next reach (25 min.) — 

Zer'llL. — ~ HistoBT. Zer'tn is the imcient Jetreel, a town of Issachar. 
Close by was the scene of the great battle fought by Saul against the 
Philistines. The Israelites were posted around Jezreel (1 Sam. xxiz. 1>, 
while the Philistines were encamped at Sdnem, on the opposite Jdfel 
Dahi. Saul himself fell here (2 Sam. i. 21). After Saul's death Jezreel 
remained for a time in possession of his son Ishbosheth (2 Sam. ii. 8, 9). 
Jezreel was afterwards the residence of King Ahab and Jezebel. On the 
vine-clad hill lay the vineyard of Kaboth, where Joram, Ahab''s second 
son, was afterwards slain by Jehu. In the book of Judith, Jezreel is called 
Esdrelon. In the time of the Crusaders it is mentioned as Partntm Oerinum. 

Zer'tn is situated on a N.W. spur of the Gilboa mountains. 
Here we stand on the watershed j the hill, partly artificial, grad- 
ually slopes down on almost every side. There are ancient wine- 

^*- Rtmte. 243 
• ok <3o 

'f^ »^^w^- 

"'.V^e.. -N tI-"W.,fltirtlngtheW.sIope 

" ;,H -*.t> *"„f the great pUin. We obtain 
l»i»-" 1»?5, . »T,acr™thegn,.to.i.v.„ 

«"'Sr »-«*»,»«:, »T.4™' the gr..t ..»,., 
>t'* to -fc***^ ^' -1 -water-ooutsesarectosBedii 
(»**^ .^a *^*^^ = /tea«5I CCAesuiiotft, Josho»=<ix 

„!.>"';;« <'!'>»a»i".-":' ";i* I"""* /'"•"•""■■■ 

9f/ wO • 681^* oe^^^ 7e^«"^°'^ t^ si-le the rocks descend ptecipi- 
('•„<■'■•' Oo*°S °' 0« tfco^/ " sioeetl.el3ihoent.loc.lls.> 
" V""„. «°""» »"% ».^a-"^°; ^^ Oiri't the bill. To tb. 

244 Route 25. NAZARETH. ' Hi$tory.- 

The digression may be prolonged ^from Nain to (1 hr.) End&r, to wMch 
a road, skirting the foot of the hill,* leads in a little less than an liour. 
The small and dirty village contains no antiquities except a few caverns. 
This was the ancient Endor^ a town of Manasseh, where the shade of 
Samuel was raised by the witch and consulted by Saul on the eve of the 
disastrous battle of Gilboa (1 Sam. xxviii. 7-20). In the time of 
Eusebius, Endor was still a large village. 

In returning from Enddr we cross the valley again, this time 
towards the X.W. -, after IV2 hr. IktAl is left to the right, and we then 
follow the above-described route to Nazareth. There is also a road from 
Endiir direct to Mt. Tabor. 

2b, Nazareth. 

▲eeommodatloB : Hotkl Hbselsghwsbdt, at the entrance to the town 
(see Plan), plain but good; pension (without wine) 8-10 fr. — Hospicb 
(Cata Nuova Foresteria) of the Franciscan monastery; payment same as 
in the hotel. — The best camping-ground is among the orchards to the N. 
or on the threshing-floor. 

Horses are furnished by the hotel-keeper : K?utUl Zemdn and ShahMt 
are recommended as Hukaris. 

Fhyaician: Dr. Vartan^ an English medical man. — Scotch Protestajit 
Hospital (Dr. Vartan) ; Austro - German Hospital of the Order of Fate bene 
fraUlU (Brothers of Mercy of St. John of God). 

Turkish Poat Office; international Telegraph. 

History. The town is not mentioned in the Old Testament. In the 
time of Our Lord, it was an unimportant village in Galilee (St. John 
i. 46). The name of Nazarene was applied as an epithet of derision, first 
to Christ himself, and then to his disciples (St. Matthew ii. 23; Acts 
xxiv. 6) ; the Oriental Christians call themselves tMsAra (sing, nusrdni). 
The name of the place is also preserved in the modern name of En-NAHra. 
The first historians who mention the town are Eusebius and St. Jerome. 
Down to the time of Constantine Samaritan Jews only occupied the village. 
About the year 6(X) a large basilica stood here, but the bishopric was 
not yet founded. In consequence of the Muslim conquest, Nazareth again 
dwindled down to a mere village. In 970, it was taken by the Greek em- 
peror Zimisces, but before it came into the possession of the Franks it 
was destroyed by the Arabs. In 1109, Galilee was bestowed on Tancred 
as a fief. The Crusaders afterwards erected churches here, and transferred 
hither the bishopric of Scythopolis. After the battle of Hattin, Saladin 
took possession of Nazareth (July, 1187). In the middle ages Nazareth was 
much visited by pilgrims, but chiefly from Acre. In 1!^, the Emperor 
Frederick II. rebuilt the place, and in 1250, it was visited by Louis IX. 
of France. When the Franks were finally driven out of Palestine, Nazareth 
lost much of its importance. After the conquest of Palestine by the Turks 
in 1517 the Christians were compelled to leave the place. At length, in 
1620, the Franciscans, aided by the powerful Druse chief Fakhreddin 
(p. ^5), established themselves at Nazareth, and the place began to 
regain its former importance, though still a poor village, and frequently 
harassed by the quarrels of the Arab chiefs and the predatory attacks of 
the Beduins. In the middle of the 18th cent, the place-recovered a share 
of its former prosperity under the Arab shSkh Zahir el-'Amr (p. 234). 
In 1799, the French encamped near Nazareth. 

The modeTn En-Ndsira Is situated in a basin on the S. slope of 
the Jehel es-Sikh (lime formation), perhaps a little lower than the 
earlier town. The appearance of the little town, especially in spring, 
when its dazzling white walls are embosomed in a green frame- 
work of cactus-hedges, fig and olive trees, is very pleasing. The 
population amounts to 7500 souls, viz. 1850 Muslims, 2900 Ortho- 

, ^«i»i«nciaife)r»- NAZARETH. 

Jtoule. 245 

eW''' '^h^^>i«"-''*' "' engaged in fencing ind gardening, ,„d "« * 

of '*"*„ axe» «»«'*^ '■"^ ''*'®" tmbulent dUposiHon. Msny preMv 
li»l' a-re lo be seen. The distriotiB comparatively rich and 
WO^^t-lstia-T*- f »-i"«ri have retained msny peouliarttieE of eostcme 
Ih^'^ tB"be>»* obsened at weddings. On (eBtivale tto women wbm 
will* \,oia.ore^3»<'l'etB, and have theit toieheidH and breasls Itden 
gftf' „.n9, -wl»*le the riding camel -whioh forms an indispensable 
flit'' in anoli. aprocesaion ia amaitly caparisoned with shawls and 
fe*'"'^ of «ioi-oa - 

strii;*' ,,rfous confessions have tbett own nuarters. On the S. side 
''■ i^ftd-ix rl^rel cl-Lattn, on the N. the Greek RSrtt tr-B&m, 
is '^? rtio csentre the Mohammedan Bdret el-l>t&m. The other 
and ' J coT\tain » miied population. The Christians are under the 
qo^^ljocttt of epeoial heads. 

go' ^~,(, Orthodox Greeks have a bishop, a church dedicated to the 

^b1 Gabriel, and a monastery bere. They also posEess a Rnaslan 

*■"?' and gills' school, a RnsBlan teachers' college, and a Rossisn 

*^'„ice. The United Greeks have a new 

*'h^ch. The Latins haye a Pranolsean 

jjnastery with a church and school, a 

bV hospice, an orphanage and school 

f the Dames de Nazareth, a nunnery 

f the ClaiiBses and of the Sisters of 

Joseph. The Maronit«s have erected 

_ church. The Protestants hav© the 

*iOBpK>' already mentioned, a church 

and mission school, and s bible dep6t 

gf the Church Mission. The English 

yetnale Education Society has also 

erected a handBoine institutioo for or- 

■phaii giiis on the hill. A good view of 

&iO townmaybeohtained from the roof. 

The Latin Mbnajleri) (see the Plan) 

ia thB best starting point for a walk 

through Naiareth. The Church of the 

j^ w«i mriati(m. 8ituat«d within the 

lofty ""Hs of the monastery , was in 

■its Btesent form completed in the year 

1730. It is 23 yds. long, 16 yds. wide, u-u-^J,,* '~f j-c 

and hM » 

) aisles. The 

-vaal''"S "f 'he nave rests on four large arches, borne by four 
ni»BBl''e pillars. On each side are two altars. The high altar, to 
.^hioh marble steps ascend on each side, is dedicated to the Augel 

246 Route 25. NAZARETH. Joseph's House. 

Gabriel. Behind the altar is the large, hut somhre ohoir. The ohuieh 
contains an organ and several tolerable paintings, including an 
Annunciation and a Mater Dolorosa, attributed to Terallio, a 
Spanish painter. The Crypt is below the high altar. A handsome 
flight of 15 marble steps (PI. a) descends to a vestibule called the 
Angel's Chapel i on the right (E.) is the altar of St. Joachim (PI. b), 
on the left that of the Angel Gabriel (PI. c). Between the two al- 
tars is the entrance to the Chapel of the Annunciation^ to which two 
steps descend. This chapel was originally larger than the AngeVs 
Chapel, but is now divided by a wall into two parts. The first 
Chapel contains the Altar of the Ajmunciation (PL f), with the in- 
scription at the back : *Hic verbum caro factum est' (here the Word 
v^as made flesh). Immediately to the left of the ejitrance are two 
columns. One of these, the round upright Column of Gabriel (PI. d), 
marks the place where the angel stood, while IV2 ^t- distant is the 
Column of Mary (PL e), a fragment of a column depending from the 
ceiling, and said to be miraculously supported, above the spot where 
the Virgin received the angel's message. This fragment, which was 
even formerly revered by the Muslims, has been very variously de- 
scribed by pilgrims. It probably belonged originally to an older 
building. — On the rock here, which is now richly overlaid with 
marble, the House of the Virgin is said to have stood. 

On lOth May 1291, according to the tradition, the sacred dwelling 
was carried off by angels, in order to prevent its desecration by the Mus- 
lims The heavenly messengers first carried it to Tersato nearFiume in 
Daliatia, and thence to Loreto in Italy, where it still attracts nnmerous 
Pilerims; but it was not till nearly two centuries later (1471), during the 
pontificate of Paul II., that this miracle was confirmed by the church. 
The truth is, that the whole story is not older than the loth cent., a 
period so prolific of marvellous traditions. 

Adjoining this chapel is a second dark chamber, called the 
Chapelof St. Joseph, which contains an altar bearing the inscription : 
*Hic erat subditus illis' (here he became subject to them; PI. g). 
Prom this chamber a staircase (PI. h) leads into the monastery. 
On our way out by this egress we may examine an old cistern called 
the Kitchen of the Virgin, the mouth of which is said to be the chim- 
uey. The gardens of the monastery are pleasant and well kept. 

A little to the N. of the monastery rises the Mosque, with its 
dome and elegant minaret, surrounded by lofty cypresses. 

To the N.E. of the monastery (key) is the House or Workshop of 
Joseph (Bottega di Giuseppe). The chapel was builtin 1858-59. Over 
the altar is a tolerable picture. The Franciscans obtained possession 
of this spot in the middle of the last cent. The tradition dates 
from the beginning of the 17th cent. -— The history of the Syna- 
gogue in which Christ is said to have taught, is traceable as far 
back as the year 570. The building experienced many vicissitudes. 
In the 13th cent., it was converted into a church, and has had diffe- 
rent situations at dififerent periods. At the present day, the * Syna- 
gogue' is in possession of the United Greeks. — Before we reach 

Mary's WeU, NAZARETH. 25. Route, 247 

the synagogue a path on the left leads to the Protestant Church and 
parsonage ; from the open space in fiont of it we gain a good view 
of the town. — We now cross the market and proceed to the Table 
of Christy on the W. side of the town ; the present chapel was erected 
in 1861, and belongs to the Latins (key in the Latin monastery). 
The tahle is a hlock of hard chalk, 11^2 ft- ^ong and 9V2 ft* hroad, 
on which Christ is said to have dined with his disciples hoth be- 
fore and after the resurrection. The tradition is not traceable far- 
ther back than the 17th cent., and the Latin inscription which 
speaks of unbroken tradition is therefore unfounded. 

The view from the Jehel es-Stkh, a hill to the N.W. of Nazareth 
(1600 ft. above the sea), amply repays the ascent. In 20 min. we 
reach the Neby 8a'tn (or Wely Sim'dn)^ which stands on this height. 
It commands a fine survey of the valley of Nazareth. Over the lower 
mountains to the E. peeps the green and cultivated Mt. Tabor, 
to the S. of which are the Nebi Dahi (Little Hermon), Endiir, Nain, 
Zef in, and a great part of the plain of Esdrelon (as far as Jenin). 
To the S.W, Mt. Carmel projects into the sea, to the N. of which 
is the bay of Acre, the town itself being concealed. To the N. 
stretches the beautiful plain of El-Buttauf, at the S. end of which 
rises the ruin of Sefuriyeh ; to the N. also, farther distant, is seen 
Safed on an eminence, in the midst of confused ranges of hills, 
beyond which rises Mt. Hermon. To theE., beyond the basin of 
Tiberias, are the distant blue hills of J6lan. 

Descending to the E. we may visit St. Mary's Well, situated near 
the Church of Oabriely or the Church of the Annunciation of the Or- 
thodox Greeks. This church was built about the end of last cen- 
tury, and has frequently been restored. Though half under ground 
it is not unpleasing. The spring is situated to the N. of the church, 
and is conducted past the altar on the left side. There is an open- 
ing here for drawing water, and the Greek pilgrims use the sacred 
stream for bathing their eyes and heads. Through this conduit the 
water runs to ^Mary's Well', where women are constantly to be 
seen drawing water in pitchers of graceful form. The spring is also 
known as Jesus' Spring and OabrieVs Spring, and a number of 
different traditions are connected with it. As this is the only spring 
which the town possesses, it is all but certain that the Child Jesus 
and his mother were once among its regular frequenters. The 
motley throng collected around the spring, especially towards even- 
ing, presents a very picturesque appearance ; and the interest of 
the scene is greatly enhanced by the thought that it is probably 
very similar to that which might have been witnessed upwards of 
eighteen centuries ago. An ancient sarcophagus, now lying beside 
the spring, was formerly used as a water-trough for it. 


26. From Nasaxeth to Tiberias. 

a. By Kount Tabor. 

Tabor^ 3 hrs. 20 min. ; 7V6ertas, 4Vs ^rs. Lnggage may be sent on to 
Tiberias by the direct route. — Accommodatioh: on Tdbor^ in the Greek 
. or Latin monastery. The latter has the finer view. Travellers intending 
to stay the night should bring letters of recommendation from the guar- 
dian of the Franciscan monastery in Nazareth. For Tiberias^ see p. 251. 

Leaving Mary's Well we turn to the right; on the hill to the left 
is the new Scotch hospital, the Austrian hospital is immediately in 
front of us; in ascending we obtain a fine view of Nazareth. We 
then (40 min,) descend to the N.E. into a valley, the. slopes of 
which are overgrown with oak bushes, and (20 min.) enter a valley 
In front of Mt. Tabor; in 17 min. more we reach the base of the 
hill. The ascent begins by a narrow path. To the right (15 min.) 
in the valley below we see DabHriyeh (the ancient Daberath, on the 
frontier of Zebulon and Issachar, Joshua xix. 12). It contains the 
ruins of a Christian church. The path winds gradually upwards In 
zigzags, passing numerous ruins and heaps of stones. On the top of the 
plateau (8/4 hr.) the road divides; turning to the left we pass an 
Arabic Inscription and the so-called Orotto of Melchizedek and reach 
the Oreek Monastery on the N. Turning to the right we pass under 
a pointed archway of the mediaeval Arabian period, and now called 
Bdb el-Hawa, to the precincts of the Lcttin Monastery, 

Xount Tabor. — Histobt. Mt. Tabor was situated on the frontier of 
Issachar and Zebalon. It was here that Deborah directed Barak to 
assemble an army, and from hence the Israelites marched into the plain 
and defeated Sisera (Jadges iv). In the Psalms, Tabor and Hermon are 
extolled together (Ixxxix. 13). The hill was afterwards called Itabffrion, 
or Atabprion. In the year B. C. 218, Antiochns the Great fonnd a town 
of the same name on the top of the hill. In A.D. 53, a battle took place 
here between the Romans under Oabinius and the Jews. Josephns after- 
wards caused the place to be fortified, and the plateau on the top to 
be enclosed by a wall. Origen and St. Jerome speak of Mt. Tabor as 
the scene of the Transfiguration (St. Mark ix. 2-10), but this can hardily 
have been the case, as the top was covered with houses in the time of 
Christ. The legend, however, attached itself to this, the most conspicuous 
mountain in Galilee, and so early as the end of the 6th cent, three 
churches had been erected here in memory of the three tabernacles which 
St. Peter proposed to make. — The Crusaders also erected a church 
and a monastery on Mt. Tabor, but these suffered much during the wars 
with the Muslims. In 1212, Mt. Tabor was fortified by Melik el-'Adil, 
the brother and successor of Saladin. Five years later this fortress was 
unsuccessfully besieged by the Christians. It was afterwards dismantled 
by the Muslims themselves, and the church was destroyed. The two 
monasteries which now occupy the top of the hill are comparatively modem. 

Mt. Tabor (2018 ft. above the sea) Is called by the Arabs Jebel 
et'Tdr (comp. p. 88). When seen from the S.W., It has the form 
of a dome, but from the W.N.W. that of a truncated cone. The 
slopes of the hill are wooded. The soil is fertile, yielding luxu- 
riant pasture*. Oaks (Quereus ilex and aegilops) and bu^m (^Pistacia 
terebinthus^ formerly covered the summit, but most of them have 
been felled by the Greek and Latin monks. Partridges, hares, 
')xet;, and various other kinds of game abound. The luins on Mt. 

^ ^ MOUNT TABOR. .,. ^,,^^ ^^^ 

a-^^^^'thTsn'iJ.L^f ^^^^^^ The substructions of .K 

^t^e^^^^^^^^snmmit, and forming a plateau of about 4«^S^ 
-^^^^^^^^;^ dxl^^^^^^ some of which, parUcnZy 2' t^' 

ma«., f^ ^%^W ^ *^^ "^ ** l«*st as old as the Roman ZJ^^ 

m^^^a^^-jr^^oat on the E.side, dates from the JiddlelZ^ *f 

^.otec^^^^ and shapeless heap of out stones. Withh" thTiaH ^ 

i. .0^ ^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ *^ ^e seen the ruins of a Crusaders' church of thf 

ToTrnJ^-. . ^^^tf ^^^ of a nave and aisles and three ohapelf *?' 

^Imoi i^^ V^''' tabernacles which St. Peter wished tXild 

•Cei. *lso .^1^'ge subterranean crypt. It belonged to the Ton: 

I^exyof St. S^l^ator of the monks of Cluny. The Greek church 

also staiids on tne site of a. very ancient church of the 4th or 5th 

centuiy, wW©^. ^f^ *^o apses. The pavement consisted of black 

and white mosaic in stone. The apses and a portion of the mosaic 

were carefully preserved when the new Greek church was built 

The Greeks and I/atins differ as to the actual spot where the Trans- 
flguxation took place, each claiming it to be within their own church. 
The *TiBW from Mt. Tabor is very extensive. To the E. the 
N. end of the Lafce of Tiberias is visible, and in the extreme 
! distance the blue chain of the mountains of the Hauran in ancient 
Basban. To the S. of the Lake of Tiberias is the deep gap of the 
Yarmiik valley (Hieromyces), then the Jebel 'Ajllin. Towards the 
S. and N. the view resembles that from the high ground above Na- 
zareth (p. 247); on tlie Jebel Dahi lie End<ir, Nain, and other vil- 
lages. Towards the S-W. we survey the battlefield of Barak and 
Slsera as far as Megiddo and Taanach ; to the "W. rises Mt. Car- 
mel; between these are ranges of hills which almost entirely shut 
out the view of the sea. To the N. rise the hills of Ez-Zebiid and 
Jermak, near which is the town of Safed. Above all presides the 
majestic Hermon. Below us, to the N., lie the Kh&n et-Tujar and 

We descend on foot by the path by which we came up, and 
after 40 min. take a path to the right. On the right (4 min.) we 
observe a cistern with vaulting, beyond which we enter a beautiful 
green valley. Here we cross two other paths, and after 25 min. leave 
the valley, coniinmng to follow the broad road. In 20 min. we reach 
Khdn ei^Tujjdr, * than of the merchants'. The handsome Khan was 
erected in 1487, but the buildings are dilapidated. On a height to 
the N W. of the Kh&n are the ruins of an Arab castle. Near them 
is a spring, »»^ "^ *^® neighbourhood are Beduin settlenaents. 
The zone of trees is now quitted. In 45 min. we come to the village 
of Kefr 8dbt. ^e then descend into a steep valley and soon reach 
(40minO a ^IO^^,f?? ^®^*ile basin. About 1 hr. to the N. rises 

250 Route 26. KEFR KENNA. From Nazareth 

the knights were sold as slares, and the Templars and Hospitallers exe- 
cuted. The Grand Master of the former order was slain by Saladin him- 
self on account of bis haying repeatedly broken faith with him. During 
the latter part of the Crusaders'* period the Latins gave currency to a 
tradition that Karn Hattin was the Mountctin of the Beatitude*^ or scene 
of the Sermon on the' Mount, and also the place where the five thousand 
were fed. Here the Jews show the grave of Jethro, Exod. iii. 1 (Nely 

After 25 min. we cross a water-course, by which stands a sidr 
tree. In 1/2 hr. , on the plateau of Ard el-Hammaj a magnificent 
view is disclosed of the N. part of the Lake of Tiberias ; to the N. 
is Mt. Lebanon, and to the W. Mt. Tabor rears itself conspicuously. 
After 10 min. we begin to descend, und (25 min.) reach the town 
of Tiberias. 

b. By Kefr Kenna. 

5 hrs. 50 min. A road has been planned from Tiberias to Acre (37 H.), 
with a branch road to Kefr Kenna and Nazareth, but only the portion 
between Nazareth and Kefr Kenna and the last piece before Tiberiaa are 
finished. No water between Kefr Kenna and Tiberias. 

The scenery is uninteresting. By making a slight digression, 
the Karn Hattin may be ascended (see above), but the view from 
it is inferior to that from Mt. Tabor. From St. Mary's Well (p. 247), 
we ascend the hill to the N. in 15 min., obtaining a pleasant retro- 
spective view of Nazareth. The Scotch hospital is built on this hill. 
The road next passes (22 min.) Er-Reineh on the left, and reaches 
(9 min.) a small spring, perhaps the 'cress spring' near which the 
Franks gained a victory over the Muslims on 1st May, 1187. A little 
to the N.W. of the road we perceive (12 min.) the village of El- 
Meshhed , the ancient Gatk-Hephery a town in the territory of Ze- 
bulon, and the birthplace of the prophet Jonah (2 Kings xiv. 26), 
whose tomb is shown here. Descending we reach (20 min.) the 
spring of Kefr Kenna (with a sarcophagus used as a trough), and 
(5 min.) the village Itself. 

Kefr Kenna. According to ecclesiastical tradition, this place 
answers to the Cana of the Bible (St. John ii. 1-11). The earlier 
pilgrims, however, seem to have identified the Cana of the Bible 
with KdrMt el-JeM (p. 242), but the distances they give are rather 
indefinite. In the present village the children run after the tra- 
veller with shouts of 'hajji, hajji' (pilgrim), and offer him water. 
The village contains 600 inhab. , half Muslims, and the remainder 
mostly Greek Christians with a few Latins and Protestants. In the 
Greek church an earthenware jar is shown which is said to have 
been one of the waterpots used on the occasion of the miracle. Jars 
of the same kind were also shown in the middle ages. — Tradition 
also points out the house of Nathaniel (comp. p. 242). 

From Kefr Kenna the route leads to the E. through a side valley 
of the plain of Buttauf (p. 241); after 50 min. Turban is seen to 
the left. We then pass (8/4 hr.) the ruins of El-Meskara. On the 
right lies Esh-Shajara (many rock-tombs). The land is very fertile^ 

fongUW^^^ "*^^® * snst tV ^Prfl» ir99, the Frencl under Janot 
LflMyeYi. 'Wi?-^~*--y ag»"'" J^e superior forces of the Turks near 
CI088 the ca.> ^*^«xt i^'^'l-ia min.y the '"Ins of Khdn IMiyeh, 
p. 249), anS^^«,n Toute (to the N". rises the Kam Hattin, see 
hUl above TvL^^ averse a hilly tract to tl»e E. to (1 hr. 26 min.) the 
**«»^nas. which we reach in V* ^^- """«• 

Na$sar\ ^«!1 ^•^t^.^ „- ™, « near tl^e Latin Monastery (landlord 

A8TBBT, 1^^* at^*J>n : Hotel Tibebias, »^^,^ Mohastkrt; the QkeekMon- 
l»lie, to t^ ;90:to^ not very clean; ttoe^ ^^ pitched on the bank of the 
Tiberias i« ^ S- o^?i?*®°*- Tents had ^®*;, ^ t»y the Jews is cheap, but bad. 
of the fleas !?^*^*i^^® ^'^^' The wi»e s^ ^^^ fleas ^ the Arabs say the king 

Hi«tot2'^«ifii^?* throughout Syri» f^ of»c« 5 international Telegraph. 

ix. Ij mTSL- Ctt^ ® ^©'e. — Turkish yo»* Xdiatrict of the heathens'; Isaiah 

extend f*^*^. x^' The name of ^^•^'^^f ^„Sie<i to the highlands only which 

of AsU^^*^^ thi \^^ Was originally ?^/§e»»e»aret to the W. The tribes 

ti^ity liL^^^UW^- of the I^»5te ^r ^^clt here were carried into cap - 

eaptivltv t tW* ' and laaActi&T ^^^^^^a ^«^»« colonised anew after the 

its mixL ^3^ J^^ ^ins^en hnt *^® O^Se popnlation, however, retained 

provin^t^ch4^^«. froSjie south, .^^i^e was extended to the whole 

S. pan J>ij»e K ^^' and the ii»«»^ ^*^ Te^reel »»d^?»« 'i^^r Lftiny. The 

The cnl^^s c|),*^^t^ee» the Pl*^*" "" fi^S S- ^^ ^^'*^^ ^*«, ^«wer Galilee. 

trees ?^>»trir ^^^ed UnJ? T^^ftlee, to tl^f^j^ pastures and luxuriant forest- 

wa^ tK ^^«^g iJT*^ ^^^i^T ^?1 fertility. ^li^'^itTiated to the W. of the lake 

iotLl^^ most *^ chief ¥ ^P"" '*/ The tr»ct e ^^^^ ^^^^^ .^^ ^^^.^^^ 

Je^^ a 8ei^®*^tifuf^**"r^/tlie country. ^1 peopled (see p. Ivi). The 

fo^J^^ eiem^*'ate t.!?^ Par^ of tlie ^ ^^^ t hut was more affected by 

Iv^ inaS?' «tijf ^i>vince, *'*i,edomi«*fiiguage also varied from that 

hl?"^^ in T®?c®a th^^°**°"?^^S.a ^fet^^ews of this district seem to 

?, !^ ^een ^""^^a (^3? m ^^^^?3^. '^^^a Zf^^ the law than those of 

a^**» bv!^5« «tii^?**^- ^^^^- *caTi»i»*^^erpi8ed. Their revolt against 

^^^oWZ'^^O"^ thl*" ^-^^ ^^^^ fi'^Jexitly'^ftWr national spirit was still 

*^ strong! '"^ A.D^^^eV ^«'® ^"if^^iver, X^fhle attained the height of its 

J^J^^Perity ?K*^»t o?\jP'<>^«*' .^^T« — ^t^horis had for a time been its 

^ .^ef towV* *^^^t thi *^®»r brethren- gepPj^^t leas splendour-loving than 

^'' fatCr^ ^^t tterci^'^^ o^ ^^''i^Uo ^^ ^Snild a new and magnificent 

£*Pitai. %f erod the^5 Antipas , TLi^^^ *<>^ id Galilee and Peraa, which 

^* <*)• lsr*®P*'*at?i^**?^Vec»P^^*^". ^1 ivriters to occupy the site 
^^ * Plac?^*'iag ia ^"^ by the ^^^ fii,itii^^\^ttiOTitj for this statement. 
^^'^^<^'din»*^*Ued »„?«iid by the =^f J^ n^ ft^ hegan between A. D. 16-19 
.^^4 ^as fl!? Jo8eDh^**« » but tHere »«^j^e ^^fj^r of the new city, named 
.{J^Tiberj fi'^whed?^^/. the building o*j^e ^<>^f a. name which is preserved 
n^ i^^ ^ZV^"^ tbe ^-^^ 22 Herod, t^^^i^l^^ to the lake. The choice 
fi^Ji^ flUe ^'"^ ^abo^'^^^n emperor -i»^^ ^»^ for in the construction of 
^^^ ^^^nda*f ""^^^ed i^*'^ and has »'^?^^tttX»»*^'>^, according to the Jewish 
^"^^ ^t conL ?^8abii^-°,^® respect ^^^?J[rt>^^'^TM. for seven days, but few 
\^s^WB to^^i^ ^ith a^-PJace was djf^^f *f er^^^ »nd Herod was, 'therefore, 
^^^iiged toV*^ PersnlS*^^« defiled the ^j^.^^^ enturers, and beggars, so 
\\i»t the V^ople it ?K?^ *o live in *?*f,era, ^5j,aracter. The town was, 
mareovL l^^Pulation ^^«y with ^orot^ ^^d^^^ Greeco-Roman taste, and 
even it8\l*^^^struct*.,i^.*^ of a very Jz^nd^ ^ %* possessed a race-course, 
and a p. ^^nicip^r^^ *? Entire accord^^^^ ^ obably resembling that 

of ?^A.ral H^« adorno^**°*t'tution w»s ^'^J^xi^»^%:0 of art were an abomina- 
tlntoV^-EmJr?nlQ^ith figures of ,^^^^ar^f rigi^^J conservative; and 
Ih \ it ?** Jews ^^' v^^- These foreign*,* p**^*^© or twice mentioned in 

252 Route 26, TIBERIAS. From Nazareth 

was never visited by Christ. During the Jewish war, when Josephus be- 
came commander-in-chief of Galilee, he fortifled Tiberias. The inhabi- 
tants, however, voluntarily surrendered to Vespasian, arid the Jews were 
therefore afterwards allowed to live here. The headquarters of the Ro- 
mans were in the Wddp Abu'l-^Amts^ IT'.W. of the town ; and from hence 
they undertook the siege of Taricheca and defeated the Jewish fleet in 
a naval battle. After the destruction of Jerusalem , Galilee, which . had 
been comparatively uninjured by the war, and Tiberias in particular, 
became the chief seat of the Jewish nation. ' The Sanhedrim was now 
transferred from Sepphoris to Tiberias, and the school of the Talmud 
developed itself here in opposition to Christianity, which was also gaining 
ground. Here, too, about the year A. D. 200, the famous Jewish scholar 
Kabbi Juda Hak-?&d^<3^ published the ancient traditional law known as 
the Mishna. In* the first half of the 4th cent., the Palestinian Gemara 
(the so-called Jerusalem Talmud) came into existence here, and between 
the 6th and 7th cents., the 'Western' or *Tiberian' and receiyed pointing 
of the Hebrew Bible. It was also from a rabbi of Tiberias that St. 
Jerome (p. 127) learned Hebrew. Christianity seems to have made slow- 
progress here, but bishops of Tiberias are mentioned, as early as the 
6th century. In 637, the Arabs conquered the town without difficulty. 
Under the Crusaders the bishopric was re-established, and subordinated 
to the archbishopric of Nazareth. The town was long in possession of 
the Christians, and it was an attack by Saladin on Tiberias which gave 
rise to the disastrous battle of Hattin, on the day after which the Coun- 
tess of Tripoli was obliged to surrender the castle of Tiberias. About 
the middle of last century it was again fortified by Zilhir el-'Amr, who 
was then in possession of this district. 

The modern Tiberias (Et-Tabariyek) lies on a narrow strip of 
plain between the lake and the hill at the back, while the original 
town extended more southwards. On the land-side the town is de- 
fended by a thick wall, furnished with towers. The terrible earth- 
quake of 1st Jan., 1837, seriously damaged the walls and houses, 
causing the death of about one-half of the population. Tiberias, 
which formerly presented a pitiable appearance, has improved con- 
siderably of late years. It is the seat of a KMmmakam who is sub- 
ordinate to the Mutesarrif of Acre. Of the 3700 inhabitants about 
two-thirds are Jews (with 10 synagogues), about 1200 are Muslims, 
200 orthodox Greeks, and a few Latins and Protestants. There are 
also a few Greek Catholic Christians here, whose church is situated 
on the N. side of the town, near the bank of the lake. This build- 
ing dates from the Crusades, but was entirely remodelled in 1869. 
The tradition that the miraculous draught of fishes (St. John xxi. 
6-11) took place here, probably became current for the first time 
when the church was erected. The Franciscans and also the Greeks 
have a hospice and boys' school. A Greek church and monastery are 
being erected in the S. of the town. The Free Church of Scotland has 
a mission station and hospital in the N. of the town. — Tiberias 
is considered unhealthy, and fever is prevalent, but the environs 
are fertile, and a few palms occur. 

In walking through Tiberias the traveller will be struck by the 
predominance of the Jewish element. Many of the Jews are im- 
migrants from Poland. Most of them live on alms sent from Europe 
(comp. p. 31). They wear large black hats. There are two synagogues 
on the bank of the lake; the Frank synagogue, built on a square 

jiJtrio'- —^ OF.TIBJERIAS. SG. So'ute: 253 

im, i^ ^*^^^^ ^^^<i borne by columns. Its ornamentation 
g^'^^'^f^tiais*^^^- ^ *^^ synagogue of the O-erman Jews is a long 
is^^ r«itt*^^°^^ <^<^Xx]tmns and round arches; there is an an- 
rec**T.Aift8'^^^^^^^ ,,S*^"^ *lie exterior. The study of the Tal- 

n ilieS- Biiei ^a^«^ ^o-wn is unenclosed. In order to visit the 
wei«i^^°^ ^^-s-tle on the N. side, Twe either traverse the 

e**^ 01 ^&^^^^^^^ ^"kio outside of the to^n, along the wall, 
^^t' ^^ '^^ ^^ oX^X towers, is best preserved on this side. 
^ t is » ^^^^^ *^^* ^naosque with a few palms. The spaoious 
^®*L is no^ entirely ^x^ invLuB, hut the serai is still there. The 
^ . comitt*^^ * ^€^a.^«X"fcif 111 view of the little town, the blue lake, 
r«i^* vq Bioutitai^s "to -tike N. - Here, for tlie flrst time, we en- 
attd \^ ^^iidiTigs ot tili€» -black basalt whicli is the material in- 
cottp^-^sed^eV<>^^ The basaltic formation extends to the 
^ of *^^ ^^^"^^ ^^^ ^ XTicluding the regions of Tiberias, Beisan, 

and gafei^ " .^.^ ' 

rrj^elAh'® 01 T-^o^Tex«L8 was anciently called Kinneret^ a name 

veA f^^^ ^^* supposed resemblance of the form of the lake to 

^^r te (K^i^^o^y ^^ tlxe time of the Macoal>ee8 it was called the 

r ke of Genneaar, or G cnntsartiy frona the plain of that name at 

.^,^. en^. "^^^ sxirfaoe of the lake is 6S1 ft. below that of the 

^ ^VtextatveaJi-, its ^epth is from 154 to t230 feet and in the N. as 

uch as ^^ ^^^- "^^^ heigbt of the ^vrater, however, varies with 

^e seasoTvs. T!^ft gxeatest length of the lake is 13 M., the greatest 

width T\eax^7 ^ ^m *i^^ its form an irregular oval. The banks are 

■bcautlfvilVy gteoTi early in spring, and the great heat consequent on , 

the depTf^ssioiv bi the lake helow the sea-level produces a subtropical 

vegetation, althougli for a short period only. , The hills surrounding 

the blue lake are of moderate height, and. the scenery, enlivened 

■by a few villages, is of a smiling and peaceful character without 

pxetenaion to grandeur. Its basiii is sometimes visited by violent 

storms We learn from the Gospels that the lake was once navigated 

by nnmeiouB vessels, but there are now a few miserable fishing- , 

boaia only. A sail on the lake should ^o^^^^^^^^l^ti^^!!^^,!"!? 

ihOKXld Oe se^i*'^:' ly brackish taste, bixt is wholesome, and is 

TVve mtet lias a ^i^^^n^jg on its banks. It is cooled by being placed 

dltink hy a^^ *^^^,^lowed to stand a night. A pleasant bath may be 

inwovisjais ana » ^^^^^ .^ ^^^ ^^^ most part covered with 

" f , i« the laKe* .__ ^. ^„ „„^ Tift>i.r the bank with an o.i An f 

enjoyed in *^' ^of various sizes, and near the bank with ancient 

fiagmentS ^jl, . ^^ of fish- Large shoals of 

hnildng^* till coi»t»*^^,f„'?\i°d8 do not occar elsewhere except in 

^ LV «tlvfl««'*' ^Sfi-L? ai^ the C^r<^<* >Sto»wm> of Lortet, the 

^^i W*" Iticttlar »»*«'®^* J'^x.r^^^unK »I>oiit in its month ' and 

254 RouUSe. KAL'AT £L-HO§N. 

About V2^'* to the S. of Tiberias are situated oelebiated Hot Baths. 
On OUT way we pass numerous ruins of the aneienteity, including the 
remains of a thick wall, fragments of buildings and of a fine aque- 
duct towards the hill on the right, and many broken columns. The 
arrangements of the baths, the site of which is somewhat elevated, 
are very defective, and most of the patients bathe in acommon basin. 
The steam from the water prevents the visitor at first from observ- 
ing the dirtiness of the bath-rooms. The water is much extolled as 
a cure for rheumatiBm and cutaneous diseases, and the baths are chiefly 
taken in June and July. The patients often live during these months 
in tents near the baths. The principal spring has a temperature of 
143° Fahr. ; other similar springs flow into the lake unutilised, leav- 
ing a greenish deposit on the stones. The water has a disagreeable 
sulphureous smell, and a salt, bitter taste. It contains sulphur and 
chloride of magnesium. At the time of the earthquake of 1839, the 
springs were unusually copious and hot. 

Beyond the baths is a synagogue of the Sephardim, and close 
by a school of the Ashkenazim, with the graves of the celebrated 
Talmudist Rabbi Meir and two of his pupils. 5 min. to the N. of 
the town, beneath the new road to Nazareth, is shown the tomb of 
the famous Jewish philosopher Maimonides (Rambam, d. 1204) ; 
near to it are the tombs of Rab Ami and Rab Joohanan Ben Sakai ; 
V4 hr. farther up the hill, the tomb of the celebrated Rabbi Akiba 
who took such a prominent part in the revolt of Bar Cochba (p. xiii). 

Travellers who do not propose to undertake the following tour 
to Safed may be recommended to make an excursion to the colony 
of the German Catholic Palestine Society near 'Ain et^Tdbigha 
(p. 266); 172 hr. to ride, 1-1 Y2 ^i^* ^Y ^oa* 0* ^^ necessary to 
keep close to the shore on account of the sudden squalls). 

Excursions to the JE. bank 0/ the lake are unsafe, owing to the Beduins, 
and must, therefore, either be made by boat, or with an escort. The price 
is 10-16 fr., according to the length of the excursion. Crossing the lake 
obliquely from Tiberias, we may land near the ruin of — 

Kal'at el-Hosn. Kal^at el-Hosn is most probably the ancient Oamala^ 
the region around which was called Gamalitis. The place was conquered by 
Alexander Janneeus, and Herod was afterwards defeated here by his 
father-in-law Aretas. Gamala was taken and destroyed by Vespaaiaa. 
The situation of the town was very secure, and Josephus compares the 
hill on which it stood to the back of a camel (Heb. 'gamaP). 

The plateau on which the town and castle stood falls precipitously 
away on three sides, and is accessible from the £. only. The walls 
ran round the brink of the plateau. Even after its destruction by the Ro- 
mans the place seems to have been inhabited. The ruins are now shape- 
less. — About Va l»5f. S.E. of Kal'at el-Hosn is S^siyeh, the ancient Hippos 
of the Decapolis. 

From this point we proceed northwards to Kersa^ lying on the left 
bank of the Wddp es-8emakh. The extensive ruins are enclosed by a wall. 
An attempt has been made to identify Kersa with Qtrgeia (St. Matth. 
viii. 28), although Hark xi. 1 and other passages read Oadara» — We 
may next proceed to the plain of El-Ba{tha , at the N. end of t|ie lake. 
\.t the X. end of this plain, on the slope o'f the hill, and s/4 ^^' fi^om the 

1. M), (be birtliplice of 5S^^ »°V„h n *■ 

27. Prom Tit»^^^ t<. Tell Hflm ajid Safed. 

Kftto JfiBftA, 3 hr«. :t^^ „^,, jv«lfli, 66miB.i Sofai. 3i/i h«. The 

.t^r, j.h™ld be n..d» ear,^^ "^.''-It.^'.l'i'' -''"'^ "" "-" "' ">' ""^ " 

1. FioM TiBBaxA.^ —^ „ - -J- jrfx»i™" (2 b"- 10 mln.). 
The load at first r^iTi nn trt ft ail>o™ the level of the water, 
eotnmanding a fine vi^^^ dO-4U - ^jberias itself eoon disappears 
behind a rocky cornor ' thouK" ^35 min.;) wa peroelva below 

ns flg-ttees -with luina „ "" *''® „ and several Hpiings ('Aln H- 
BSridth), the-^axsr o* **"."« *?^^^arM' and saltish. Some of the 
springB have an enclosv. ^'''''^* '^ forcing the -water to ascend. A 

small -falley deacenia J* of stone, ^^^^ jj^g j^m („ (jj^ [gjj ,^ 

severnt rock-tombs. ■T''K '^'*"' **"* viH^Be of M^del (26 min.) is 

identical Tith Magdrxr ^ wiserabio ^^ ^i jjary Magdalene, and 
perhaps also with Mir,3 ' *he blrthp' ^^f Naphthali (Joshna lix. 

38). Here, too, T»e i^'^'-Ei ot the « 'j.'arioheEe, which played an 
important part in tUa r?" perhaps pi*" 

Hear MejdBl thB hi ,^ar witb Bows'- from .the lake. The Wddv 

^l-SamOm deicend. Ixei.^* recede westTrf"^ (p. 351), and la tr.-er.ed by 
Ibe Mrtvan roate t^/* from £jW» -M»*'*^A fimn^cnB. About V- !>>■■ '0 
IhB W, of Mejiel, oi^*«ea KaJaretl" ^S>e """f. "« 'l-e ruina of tUe 
iaalle of yoTol »a -«ri?* tie left ai^B <>' Jl^ig JrMd, the ancient Jritla. 
The am tore are at»^^<ln, opposlle 'T^'ht Tba cuile eonjisU of cavernB 
in tha roelt, eonnecle^^t liaJft. In '^"i.^E^thtBetei by walla, and cosse^es 
Mverjl cl.lern» Tlii^ V,y pMsagas — ' "' *,»9 once the liaunl of rabbers. 
Herod tte Great beai^ *»iiccei«ible I txlT eicoceded in reaching and 

rtout 3 M. long aa .;,^ ^te pMnof E''" , . 

mlu.) Hook *»» i,''' „, I,, 1 •»*, 

'■ (10 rolnO the 

.i....^t^^^^jY;«(;/.«;J»jj^tr.'''"«"''''» «'"■''» 


Koutc 2 


From Tiheriaa 

«" » MU to tlM. 


(P- 255) '^ 

' copious '4in . 
aerly suppos_ 
0,Markvi. 30;:>- 
the left, abo 
losure of the 
I Catholic Pal^^ 
)spice (kind r^^^ 
stion "whether" 
Bible. It is » J^^ 
ient spring of ^-^ 
les to skiit ttr^ 
Idings are obs^^ 
Tell Htlm. ~ :*3 

» is supported ^^1a 
tin. Jewish ac»*J^ 

i«m. Whether * ^"^ 
Lrabic 'TelJVhi^^^ 
ened to H<j^ * - 
points to ' 
M-fiouse a^ *^-,i 

1. eft. We next rea-cli C^U ^t.) the month of the Wddy 
^^0 min.) arrive at tlie KhlLn Minyeli, dating from 
--ciin. Attempts ba^e l>een made to identify this 
r^Jisaida of the N.T. , l>iit it is donbtfnl whether 
other village of tliis name except Bethsaida Julias 

3?;^I», or even from JkTei/^lel by Mm Shiisheh, the baggage- 
by a more direct roiite to Safed. The present caravan 
.o the ancient Roman road) leads from Khan Minyeh 
^ to (1 hr. 25 min. 3 .STian J^ubh YUmS (p. 257). 

AN MnrrBa to Xbi,i. h:6m (65 mln.). 
.ttx skirts to tlio right (^E.l the loeky slope of 
eight above the lake. The ruins of a fmodern) 
o.» from A,» et-T^biffha. to XMn Minyefc, serve 
^ttenght we soon observe the 'Ain et-T!n, oi 
^ ^StoA/r- '^!i', ^''^ beyond it (20 luin.) teach 

*^« water la >./^i?- ^**^® miracle of feeding the 

JTo.^. A little to tSt^ *^ **^« l"8e octagonal 
•^»^Society has establ.^V **i *^« «P^« *''*' ^""l 
'J»..e»Wa may n^t ^ ^®'® ^^a^e given rise to the 

*S °5«-^ ^'lesS.on ^h^t^^**'^.^^'^' *°'l ^"''.'^ 
^*Vn»nm. The ^»«^^ *^®'^ *^^ may not he the 

--^t, on which se*er^f^'^*» rf-m<s*» o««- 
a,iid readies C^f\ ^^ springs and remains of 

-V^,.e old itinei-ax-ift- P** **^ ^^'^ ^<2ot with Caper- . 

'S^^SflS'? "''*' * place Y^I pilgrims and is as good as 

'^:^:^^.Yt*! ''^'"^^Pted U® called JTey-ar Tankhum, or 

'^^ ^^ti*"^*®^ for 'Irl'''^ 'TanlchSm\ or whether 

^^♦^Xci"^^**^!®- T^^^***/' Cvillage) and ITakhum 

-5^^*t5wn%f*^,«onsiaei.lK,'*^*®.'^* o^ «^e ruins of Tell 

^ ^re an of basalt, Wbicb ^®®''- ^^« surronnding 
^ o^ <1/^^^ gives the rains a gloomy 

^:f a dozen miseraWi^ i. 

^ .gilding ^bich is«*.f,^^*«- On the bank of 
^y e, Christian chuX.^ *^ s<>me extent pre- 
^^osed of still mor«' *^*^ on closer inspec- 
Xike a quay or harl.!;^''^^'** materials. There 
oan trace the rein«?, ""• ^'^ *^® °^i<i«t of the 
:>^?a ""^ 'esembUn^ if ""l * 1t>eautiful ancient 
^ ^S yds Wide, ^fg ^*^^^®- This structure, 
d^^ the S. side there £ ^ composed of very 
^,e>-Ji the bases of the oTTi^^^ *^^®® entrances. In 
^^Ti capitals and other ^^""^^ ^^^^^ beantiful 

^^^ains He scattered in 

to Safed. KHAN JUBB YtfSEF. 27. Route, 257 

wild confusion. This, as some think, mnst hare been a synagogue 
(perhaps the one mentioned in Luke vii. 5), and the ruins are cer- 
tainly older than some others adjacent, which perhaps belonged to 
the basilica that stood here about the year 600 on the site of St. Pe- 
ter's house. At the N. end of the town are two tombs, one of which, 
lined with limestone, is subterranean , while the other is a square 
building, which must have been capable of containing many bodies. 
From the ruins of the deeply humiliated city (St. Matth. xi. 23 J 
the eye gladly turns to the lake, bounded by gentle hills ana 
stretching far to the S. ; and of this, at least, we are certain , tiiat 
the scene is the same as that which Christ and his disciples once 
so often beheld. 

3. Fbom Tbel Hum to Sapbd (31/2 hrs.). 

We follow the water-course from Tell Htlm along a very bad, 
steep path. On the left bank (1 hr.) lie the ruins of Kerdzeh, the 
ancient Chorazin, once apparently an important place, but whose 
inhabitants rejected the teaching of Our Lord (St. Matth. xi. 21). 
The ruins, which are at least as extensiTe as those of Tell HAm, lie 
partly in the channel of the brook, and partly on an eminence above 
the valley. Many walls of houses are preserved. These are generally 
square buildings, the broadest measuring 9 yds. ; in the centre are 
one or two columns for the support of the roof, which seems to have 
been flat. The walls, 2 ft. thick, are constructed of basalt blocks